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Memoirs 



of the 



Queensland Museum 




3 mm 



Brisbane 

OCTOBER, 1987 



■■I 



VOLUME 25 
PARTI 






Memoirs 

OF THE 

Queensland Museum 



Brisbane 



© Queensland Museum 

PO Box 3300, SouthBrisbane 4101, Australia 

Phone 06 7 3840 7555 

Fax 06 7 3846 1226 

Email qmlib@qm.qld.gov.au 

Website www.qm.qld.gov.au 

National Library of Australia card number 
ISSN 0079-8835 

NOTE 

Papers published in this volume and in all previous volumes of the Memoirs of the 
Queensland Museum maybe reproduced for scientific research, individual study or other 
educational purposes. Properly acknowledged quotations may be made but queries regarding 
the republication of any papers should be addressed to the Editor in Chief. Copies of the 
journal can be purchased from the Queensland Museum Shop. 

A Guide to Authors is displayed at the Queensland Museum web site 

A Queensland Government Project 

Typeset at the Queensland Museum 



Mem. QdMus. 25(1): 1 — 44.[1987] 



THE DIARY OF WILLIAM FREDERIC BARNETT IN SEARCH OF LEICHHARDT 



J.C.H. Gill 
Queensland Museum 



ABSTRACT 

Sixteen years after the disappearance of Leichhardt's fourth expedition, its fate was still a live 
issue. The eminent botanist Dr Ferdinand von Mueller could not accept that all members of the 
expedition had perished. 

In 1864 Duncan Mclntyre of Glengower via Castlemaine, Victoria, accompanied by William 
Frederic Barnett of Sandhurst, was searching for a sheep run in northwest Queensland. He found 
two old horses on the Dugald River (not known to have been left by any more recent explorer) and 
a little later two trees marked 'L' on the western bank of the Flinders River. He supposed he had 
found traces of the lost Leichhardt. 

Dr Mueller was firmly convinced that he had, and persuaded the ladies of Melbourne to raise a 
sum of money to finance an expedition, led by Mclntyre, to the locality. The expedition failed 
through no fault of Mclntyre's and he in fact died in the field of 'gulf fever' on 4 June 1866. 

Barnett, who had been with him for part of the expedition, was eventually appointed to command 
the expedition in December 1866 and between January and May 1867 carried on the search for 
Leichhardt, without success. His diary of proceedings in 1867 (hitherto unpublished) forms the 
principal subject matter of this paper. 

What follows also reveals that the diarist, William Frederic Barnett, is not undeserving of a place 
in the annals of exploration in Australia. A shadowy, virtually unknown figure, the research 
generated by his diary has revealed him as a man who possessed courage, powers of endurance, 
leadership, and loyalty. These qualities do not appear to have had the recognition they deserved, 
either in his lifetime or afterwards. 



INTRODUCTION 

Included in the manuscript collections of the 

Queensland Museum, under accession no. 67/ 

6114, is a manuscript diary. The catalogue card 

reads — 

BARNETT, FRED. (Manuscript) 

Leichhardt Search Expedition sent out by the 

ladies of Victoria. After Duncan Mclntyre's 

death 1866, Barnett formed a party and 

continued the search. 

Then follows a physical description of the diary, 
which includes the information that it commences 
on 20 January 1867 and concludes on 27 May 
1867. 

No provenance of the diary can be located in 
Museum records. It appears, however, that it was 
received sometime prior to November 1933 whilst 
the late Heber A. Longman was director and at a 
time when the Museum was desperately short of 
staff and funds. 

It has been found that on 21 November 1933 
Longman sent a type-script copy of the diary to 
the Mitchell Library in Sydney. He mentioned in 
his covering letter that Mr Arthur Jose (1), a 
mutual friend of the Mitchell Librarian (Miss Ida 
Leeson) and himself, had suggested that a copy of 



the diary should be made for the Mitchell Library. 
The relevant correspondence has been turned up, 
but unfortunately throws no light either on the 
provenance of the diary. 

In isolation the diary has little significance, but 
once the events which brought it into existence are 
led forward, it assumes importance as the terminal 
record of what appears to have been the last 
nineteenth century official effort to find traces of 
the lost Leichhardt expedition, which had been 
missing since 1848. 

There are a number of other factors also which 
have to be taken into account in assessing the 
significance of the diary. There are the foundation 
of a new colony and the search for new pastoral 
runs involved. Furthermore one sees the value of 
exploration, quite apart from any hopes of finding 
Leichhardt, as a medium to gain knowledge of the 
colony's remote areas. This would assist materially 
in the colony's development. 

Thus it was that after 1859 the new Colony of 
Queensland became the focus of attention of those 
seeking new pastoral runs. The Plains of Promise 
of Stokes, the first Leichhardt expedition, the 
tragic fate of Burke and Wills and the explorations 
of George Elphinstone Dalrymple all combined to 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



ai tract attention to North Queensland and to ihc 
northwest of the Colony in particular. 

Ifowrver, there was the matter of the western 
boundary of the Colony which was considered by 
Governor Bowen and the first Colonial Parliament 
to require adjustment. The letters patent of 6 June 
1859 defined the boundary as *thc J4Ist meridian 
of ea*i longitude, which U the eastern boundary 
of South Australia*. A.C. Gregory the Surveyor- 
General had advised the ministry that 'a boundary 
at trie 141st meridian would just cut off from 
Queensland the greater portion of the only 
territory available tor settlement, i.e. the Plains of 
Promise, and the only safe harbour, i.e. 
lovesugatot Road, in the Gulf of Carpentaria'. 
The local legislature asked for an extension of the 
boundary to the 138th meridian of east longitude. 

After some importuning by Bowen, and 
evidently by certain genttemen in Victoria who 
were desirous of forming a settlement in northern 
Australia (a phenomenon not unknown today), the 
Imperial Government acceded to the request. On 
12 April 1362 the Duke of Newcastle, Secretary of 
State for Colonies advised Bowen that the Letters 
Patent had been issued annexing to Queensland 
that part of 'New South Wales as lies to the 
northward of the 21st parallel of south latitude, 
and between the 141st and 138th meridians of eas* 
longitude, together with all and every the adjacent 
islands their members and appurtenances in the 
Gulf of Carpentaria'. Queensland gained 120,000 
square miles of territory, which now comprises 
such centres as Birdsville, Buutia, Cam uo weal, 
Burketown, Cloncurry and Mount Tsa. (2) 

THE McINTYRES AND BARNETT 

With the extension of the jurisdiction of 
Queensland a surge of settlement around the rivers 
flowing m to the Gulf of Carpentaria ensued. 
Some interested parties from the southern colonies 
even sought to overland their stock. Among these 
were Donald and Duncan Mclntyre, (or M'lntyre 
or Maclntyre). The name was spelled variously, 
but I have adopted the spelling used in the 
Australian Dictionary of Biography., viz Mclntyre. 

Duncan Mclntyre was born in Scotland in 1831 
sou of James Mclntyre. a farmer, and his wife, 
Mary, nee MacDongall He was probably 
orphaned when young and adopted by a relation, 
Archibald Mclntyre, whose son Donald was often 
supposed to be Duncan's brother. Mclntyre 
arrived in Port Phillip with his foster parents about 
1849 according to rhe Australian Dictionary of 
Biography. However, other evidence indicates that 
an Archibald Mclntyre and faintly arnved in the 



ship 'David Clarke* in 1839. There is no record of 
such a family arriving ten years later, unless they 
were not assisted Immigrants. (3) 

Ultimately Duncan worked as station 
superintendent at Bullock Creek, G'engowei Deaf 
Castlemaine, with another relation. Donald 
Campbell. On 5 March IS62 ai St. James* 
Cathedral, Melbourne, he married Mary Ciyde 
Morris. In mid- 1863 Duncan and Donald 
Mclntyre decided to seek a run in the new country 
around the Gulf of Carpentaria. (4) 

They left Victoria with sheep and work horses. 
On their arrival at the Upper Darling in January 
1864 they found it to be in flood, Being unable to 
drive their sheep across they perforce had to halt. 
Duncan Mclntyre, with a small party, proceeded 
north to find a good route to Coopers Creek. He 
found several new creeks and lakes and ascertained 
that stock could be taken without difficulty to 
Coopers Creek. On his return he learned that the 
Queensland Government had imposed an embargo 
on the entry of stock from other colonies, either 
by land or by sea. An application \o bring their 
stock into Queensland having been made, the 
Mclntyres explored extensively the coumry io [he 
north of the Darling and in to Queensland. Good 
country was found to (he west of the Paroo River, 
but no permanent water. Forced by this lack they 
returned to the Paroo, There they met, coming 
north along the river, William Frederic Barnett, a 
ng man of about 22 years of age. who had then 
been in Australia for four years. Ao he is the 
author of the diary to be examined in this paper, 
i! is oppottune here to study his antecedents and 
how he came to be travelling along the Paroo in 
1864. 

As explained in my acknowledgements, Mr D.K. 
Muir of Balgowlah, New South Wales, has 
compiled a Barnett family fee, winch I reproduce 
as Fig. 1. From this il will he seen that W.F. 
Barnett was the third son and fourth child of Dr 
Adolphus Barnett and his wile, Sarah, nee 
Newman. 

For some reason, not yet ascertained, the family 
split up in 1853 when Dr Barnett and his son. 
Adolphus Robert, left the family home in 
Limehouse, London and came to Australia. After 
one month in Sydney, they went to Sandhurst (now 
Bendigo, Victoria) where Dr Barnett remained 
it his death on 14 February 1867 (5). hi 
February IH60 his wile and three remaining 
children joined him. They had sailed from London 
on 22 November 1859 In the ship (Cent* and 
arrived in Melbourne on 20 February I860, The 
ship's passenger list indicates the family had 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



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MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



travelled as cabin passengers; evidently funds were 
not lacking. Also it states that Frederic was 14 
years of age, whereas his father's death certificate 
and later documentary evidence indicate he was at 
least four years older (6). 

Barnett had an aunt, Eliza, his mother's sister, 
of whom he seems to have been extraordinarily 
fond. In November 1864 he wrote a long letter to 
her from the River Paroo, New South Wales (7). 
This letter is a fruitful source of information about 
Barnett's colonial career and also regarding his 
meeting with the Mclntyres and some of his 
subsequent dealings with them; Duncan Mclntyre 
(Fig. 2) in particular. All the factual information 
which follows is derived from Barnett's letter to 
his aunt. 

He had worked as a clerk at a bank in Sandhurst 
for an uncertain period but resigned because he 
considered 'the bank authorities treated me 
shamefully'. He stated he disliked desk work, had 
other (unstated) reasons for wishing to leave 
Bendigo and felt he would get on better in an 
occupation he liked. The letter refers elsewhere to 
his and family troubles without going into detail. 
Dr Adolphus Barnett became insolvent on 7 June 
1861 (8). The problems created by this probably 
had their effect on Frederic. 

Probably from early 1862 Barnett worked at a 
Mr Lintott's cattle station at Lake Bael Bael as a 
station hand, but was treated as one of the family. 
After eighteen months it was decided to put sheep 
on the run. Barnett was put in charge of a flock 
of 10,000 on the River Edwards in New South 
Wales and drove them safely to Bael Bael. 

Lintott advised Barnett he should go into new 
country, where he would have a better chance to 
get on. If he was unsuccessful he could return to 
Bael Bael. 

Barnett started up the Darling River to seek 
employment at the Bogan River Pastoral 
Company's station at the junction of the Darling 
and Warrego Rivers. He had not gone far up the 
Darling when he was met by the greatest flood in 
that river in living memory — white or black. After 
battling through flooded areas (sometimes 
travelling thirty-five miles to cover five miles of 
forward progress) he arrived at Mount Murchison 
station. Here he was informed that he would not 
be able to go further as the flood waters were 
spreading ninety miles back from the river a little 
further upstream. J.H. Heaton's Australian 
Dictionary of Dates (1879) confirms that there 
were floods in New South Wales during February 
to July 1864. 

Ross Reid, the owner of Mount Murchison, 
gave Barnett a caretaking job. The homestead had 




Fig 2. A portrait of Duncan Mclntyre. 



to be abandoned temporarily so Reid could go to 
look after his stock, which had been moved away 
from the flooded area. Barnett lived in the 
homestead which was on a knoll turned into an 
island by the flood. He had for a companion a 
young missionary, who was flood bound also and 
who turned out to be a first rate cook. Barnett was 
able to obtain plenty of ducks and pigeons for the 
cooking pot, so they lived well. 

Being anxious to move on, Barnett considered 
closely the geography of the country to the north 
and decided it was possible to travel directly across 
to the Paroo River. He could go up this stream 
and then cross to the Warrego and thus come to 
the Bogan River Pastoral Company's station, his 
original destination. His 'mate' (the missionary) 
accompanied him. They procured rations from 
Mount Murchison, packed them on a spare horse 
and set out for the Paroo. 

After 150 miles of travel they arrived at Putha 
Putha on the Paroo. The missionary learning that 
a gentleman, to whom he had introductions, had 
an out-station from the Darling about 60 miles 
away, decided he wanted to go there. Barnett saw 
him there safely and then returned to the Paroo. 
He proceeded up the river and nearing the 
Queensland boundary he met and joined the 
Mclntyres and their party. 

This meeting was of great significance for 
Barnett. Duncan Mclntyre's influence on him was 
considerable and Barnett's ambition thereafter 
was to be an explorer. 



TJIt DIARY Or BARNETT 



For the next several years his lifr was closery 
interwoven with Mclntyre's and even after the 
death of the latter his influence on Barnett 
nUed lo be strong. 

It is necessary lo recount Vtdntyrc's story 
because what he did and what happened to him, 
motivated Barnett to follow in his footsteps and 
to write the diary around which this paper has been 
written 

The introduction which follows may seem lon£, 
hut it enhances the diary by giving the reader a full 
knowledge of what brought into being Baniett'* 
record of the final phase of the Leichhardt Search 
Expedition- 

NORTHWARDS TO THE GULF 

Barnett confirms that the Queensland 
Government would not allow the introduction of 
sheep or cattle loi tear of disease and this had 
stopped the Mclntyres from taking their sheep 
through to the Gulf of Carpentaria as originally 
planned They were compelled to wait for a permit 
to enter the colony with their sheep. However 
Barnett says- 
Duncan Melntyre was wishing very much LO go on 
A explore tbc country to the Gulf; his brother Donald 
being quite sufficient to look after the sheep — but he 
wanted someone to go with him. It was just the style 
of thing to suit me and had he not proposed for me 10 
.•.my him | should h8W volnmeered. 
We at once set to work getting rations' ready A 
packed & breaking horses for the journey. We 
determined oui party should consist of — Duncan 
Melntyre, chief, Wm. Fred Barnett. second in 
command, 4 Albert, Charlie^ Billy (blackfellows)our 
subordinates. 25 horns & I Kangaroo dog A our 
rations to consist of tea, flour, sugar & a little tiee. 1 
ifrll] now refer to mv journal — 
21 June 1864 

We experienced much trouble getting the packs on, 
the horses being very fresh & a n U D 1 1 r Of I hem lately 
broken. At last we were all ready to start when 
I Hjnately a fold (sic — 'Moa!) of one of Ihe pack 
mares got amongst our mob. not wishing to take it 
Melntyre desired me to cut it out. In doing so I 
disturbed the pack horses who when they began to 
move about felt their girths and packs lather 
disagreeable and thereupon they one & all commenced 
bucking shying A kicking & galloping until they had 
rid themselves of them; it was indeed a very deplorable 
yet most ludicrous sight which beggars description — 
We brought up the horses again, repaired the packs, 
got them on & at length started altho' it only wanted 
an hour to sunset - Donald Mvlun.r^ McCloud come 
with us for a few days journey. 

Sunday 3 July. We arc camped to day on a beautiful 
lake never before visited by white men; a^ Donald it 
McCiOUd ktve 9S tomorrow we have christened it 



"Lake h'aieweU" The hordes are now moderately easy 
to manage having become used to the packs — Write 
to my brother & shoot ducks for supper. 

From Monday 4 July, Melntyre and Barnett 
were on their own with the three aboriginals and 
began to make their way towards Coopers Creek. 

On this stage young Mr Barnett was brought 
lace to face, albeit vicarious 1 .:- \ with the perils of 
exploring and pioneering fax from the haunts of 
one's own kind. The Riverine Herald of Echuca 
reported, after an interview with Melntyre on his 
return from the journey to the Gulf, in mournful 
Retail — 

,,. Nothing new was discovered in passing through 
the couniiy which had before been explored by them, 
for two or three hundred miles, as regards the features 
of the country. But it will be heard with satisfaction 
by the relatives and friends of the late Mr. Curlewis, 
that his remains, together with those of his companion, 
WCuHoch, were discovered by Mr. M'lntyre, and that 
his fate has been placed beyond all doubt. The blacks 
pointed out the grave tn which they were laid together, 
and described how they had been murdered. The bones 
were disinterred, and the skulls of both these 
unfortunate young men were found to have been 
fractured by blows from some heavy weapons. They 
were undoubtedly the remains of white men, and part 
of a bridle rein was found tied round them, as if it had 
been used by the blacks to carry the bodies. A piece 
of guernsey shirt, very much blood-stained, was also 
found. They were killed, it appears, about a mile from 
where they were buried, in a dry billagong. The excuse 
given lot the murder was that Mr. Curlewis had 
coerced a black-fellow to accompany him to show him 
the country, and that this man, not liking to go, 
persuaded four others to assist him m killing the two 
white men. One evening, after the party had camped, 
this black fellow asked permission from Mr. Curlewis 
to go out to look for ducks. The permission was 
granted him, and he went away to the other blai fa 
and arranged with them to come at a given signal 
during the night. Having removed the firearms and 
planted them, he gave the signal as soon as the two 
travellers were asleep, when his accomplices came up 
and spenred Them, after which they smashed their 
heads tn with waddies and tomahawks. This Mr 
M'lntyre believes to be a correct account of the 
murder. The remains were carefully re-intcrrcd. and 
the spoi markftd. A special note of the locality was 
taken, as Mr. Curlewis was well known to Mr. 
rVTJfll vie. a nd he was desirous of doing all in his power 
to honor the memory of the unfortunate deceased. (9) 

Barnett did not recount this grisly tale to his 
aunt. His next journal extract is dated Friday 15 

July — 

Camped on Coopers River Yesterday we passed 
over immense plains of roley polo (a very prick Jy 
hushi: hi. big much trouble in driving die horses aver 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



them and continuing to travel long after dark for water 
we did not notice our dog had stayed behind, we shall 
have to go on without him tomorrow. Four 
blackfellows pass at some distance from our camp but 
do not pay any attention to our signs to come up. 
Mclntyre and Charlie go out for game & return with 
a native companion, 3 ducks, 2 hawk & an owl. 

Coopers Creek was crossed at 26° 10' south and 
followed up for twenty miles. They then struck out 
northwesterly over indifferent country for several 
days, which they found to be waterless. (10) 
Barnett takes up the tale again — 

Sunday 24 July. Yesterday we left Charlie and 
Albert behind to find & bring up 4 horses which were 
missing the whole party not being able to remain as 
we had camped without water. They had not arrived 
this morning & as we had camped again without water, 
Mclntyre & Billy proceeded with the horses & I remain 
to bring up Charlie & Albert. I go on a Stony rise that 
1 may the more readily see the horses, should they 
come up, & lie down with the bridle of my horse in my 
hand. Presently I see two black objects approaching 
& bye & bye make them out to be two blackfellows; 
not knowing but that there may be more I mount my 
horse & look to my revolver. When within 200 yds 
they see me & their astonishment is evident — I cooey 
to them but they will not come up but alter their course 
to avoid me & as soon as they get to a bush make a 
fire & one of them stepping out in front with a fire 
stick which he kept waving towards me whilst he cried 
out some incantation in a loud voice; this having been 
completed they pursued their way. About an hour 
before sunset Charlie & Albert came up with the lost 
horses & without delay we started to overtake 
Mclntyre; we had not proceeded more than 5 miles to 
a large dry creek of many channels when we met 
Mclntyre and Billy returning with the horses. 

They had met a large party of blacks who 
surrounded them & by their gesticulations appeared 
to be hostile — tapping their shields with their 
boomerangs & then their heads; Mclntyre fired a shot 
close to the foremost one which rather intimidated 
them & as he imagined they had already killed me he 
had returned to find out or give me warning of their 
presence. Having seen to all the firearms & slackened 
the fastenings of our knives and tomahawks we started 
for where Mclntyre had turned intending to make our 
way through the darkies should they oppose our 
progress for we had now been two nights & nearly 3 
days without water & that period in this latitude is 
fearful. We had crossed nearly all the channels of the 
creek when we observed 15 or 20 blacks stooping over 
something very busily; as soon as they saw us they gave 
a yell & disappeared amongst the timber. We found 
that they had been busy ripping open one of our flour 
packs which had been thrown off by one of the horses 
& not noticed by Mclntyre & Billy in their hasty 
retreat. Of course we halted to repair the pack, as we 
could not afford to lose nearly a cwt of flour; whilst 
doing so 20 to 30 blacks made their appearance & 



pointed to their weapons which they had left by the 
pack; I carelessly threw them to them laughing at the 
same time, as well as my parched mouth would allow 
me, & made signs that we wanted water — they pointed 
the way we had come from. 

Being painfully convinced there was no water the 
way the blacks pointed we determined to follow them 
as they were sure to go to water. They kept amongst 
the timber some distance continually jabbering in a 
loud tone & pointing the way we had come from; at 
length seeing we would not leave them & all of us 
making signs for water, they struck across a plane (sic) 
& at length to our great delight & relief came upon a 
small lagoon & having quenched our thirst we 
unpacked the horses & prepared to have a yarn with 
our unwilling guides who were watching us evidently 
much interested. We beckoned for them to come up 
& being joined by some more from a large camp we 
could see about two miles off, they did : soon they 
were rubbing our hands & faces pointing significantly 
to the flour as if they thought they were painted but 
when I showed them my arms & breast their 
astonishment was immense. We explained to them that 
we should stay here one night & then go away a long 
way; to show our power Mclntyre shot a hawk & after 
giving them a few trifles we bid them good night giving 
them to understand that should they make their 
appearance during the night we should cause them to 
tumble down like the hawk. 

They are a fine lot of men, wear no clothing & 
circumcise, are afraid of horses but only laugh when 
a loaded revolver is pointed at them. They have 
evidently never seen white men before. 

Barnett, despite his youth and comparative 
inexperience, was shaping up well to the exigencies 
of the explorer's life. He had suffered the 
privations of thirst and had learned how an 
element of bluff could avert possible hostile 
confrontations with the natives. In Mclntyre he 
had a cool headed, canny leader; but obviously he 
was good support material. 

For a while they enjoyed better travelling 
conditions, having reached another water system 
in which four new rivers were found. The first of 
these was named in honour of the Rev. Joseph 
Docker of Wangaratta, one of the most generous 
supporters of the original Victorian expedition. 
From the Docker River, on a northwesterly course, 
they reached the Mueller River of McKinlay, 
crossing this watercourse in 23 ° south. Continuing 
their northwestern direction, they met about a 
degree further west, and in about 22° south, the 
very faint tracks of animals, seemingly either goats 
or sheep, and horses, at a spot not known to have 
been traversed by any explorer. (11) From this 
location a system chiefly of granite mountains 
extends in two main lines, southwest and 
northwest. The Mountain range was most difficult 



I'HI DIARY 0? DARNFTT 



to cross, as witness a further extract from Barnett's 
ioimi;il a* told to his aunt — 

Thursday 4 Aug. We have had a dreadful day's work 
loday over almost impassible (sic) mountains. The 
hersee gUmMflg up & when nearly reaching the tops 
having m go single file through hole g3ps -the only 
possible places to get over the KiOuniaJttfl crom-lfkc 
lop;-; when they came to the precipitous descents they 
snorted back with tear &. it was with armt difficult) 
we compelled them; often I though ihcy would be 
dashed to piece*, by losing, their footing or when they 
reached the bottom foj m 'hen way ihCj djsjodged 
large blocks of rock which descending carried all 
before them & reached the bottom with a deafening 
crash. At length we came to a dry sandy creek With 
ost perpendicular mountain'; on both sides about 
500 ft. high: as the creek was coming from the 
direction we wanted to go we followed it up hoping 1 1 1 
get water near its head & cross on to the northern 
drainage tomorrow. We had not proceeded far along 
the creek when the bed was frequently ol grdltlte S 
boulders partially blocked it up; after much difficulty 
wc got up a ravine or glen & in a granite basin found 
plenty of water. Mctnlyie went further up Bod to! 
trie channel entirely blocked up with immense granite 
boulders so that we shall have to turn boctf some 

distance tomorrow & try another pais This 16 r i! 

a wild looking place; for about JO yds width blocks of 
granite are heaped & si rewed about in fantastic ^ 
then on either side there is a rugged incline for 100 vds 
j'rom which the mountains go up QtflJ lj pel pfftdjculft 
for 400 to 500 yds. No feed for the horses who remain 
standing where wc left them. 

They had been making for the headwaters ol the 
Albert River, but the range described by Barnctt 
was that which Burke had reported as giving such 
tCi i ible work to the camels that they groaned and 
bled Mclnlyre and Barnctt found their horses' 
feet got so much worn down by the rocks that it 
became necessary to follow a fall of water to the 
north, and afterwards to the northeast, in order to 
gel down on to the low country. Barnett takes up 
the tale again — 

Saturday 6 Aug. Yesterday after much difficult 
travelling we succeeded in getting on the northern 
drainage; we followed down 3 creek which soou led us 
to a beautiful valley & at ihe first water we came to 
we camped. Today as Wfl continued along the creek 
we surprised some blacks who with frightful yells 9ei 
tire to the grass & ran up the mountains which were 
not far distant. Fifty or 9lXt> Of ttottl kept up with us 
for about three mile, running along the lop Ol th* 
mountains Shouting and yelling hideously. About three 
miles further on we stopped to lake an ObSCQ >ai |0D i ; 
Ihe «un & we found that our axe had got away 
somehow. Thinking that perchance it had been lorn 
from the pack in some Bomb we had passed through, 
i Bad Charlie nan bade m quest of it. Wc had gone 
about 3 miles when we heard a chopping, over a small 



ridge & imagining that very likely that black fallows 
had picked it up a v«tc slngll wc rode over the ridge 
$ saw a hiackfellow & his libra busy getting a possum 
out of a tree. So husilv were they engaged in their 
occupation dial we weie not observed until close up & 
1 cough. They instantly Sprang to their feet and 
dropping everything they had, stood for a moment or 
two in mute bewilderment & then with yells thai made 

■ " El WWalfl ■ - ■ opcttd ott Seeing that 

the black fellow was using hi.% own tomahawk (a 
sharpened stone fastened between sticks) & hearing 
yells in all direction* I deemed li advisable to give up 
the search & returned to the patty. We kept on until 
after sundown without seeing water but observing the 
sand in the creek looked damp in one place we made 
a hole which was soon filled with water; having 
enlarged the hole to gei sufficient wgtei for the horsea, 
we shot two cockatoos & a pigeon for supper <fc 
camped. 

i ...Li will give you an idea ol our journey. 

On the 28th August we arrived at the Gull" Of 
Carpentaria but mangrove saltwater swamps & creek.'. 
prevented our reaching the sea beach & obtaining a 
.sight of the ocean tho* we were within 2 miles of it. It 
was impossible for horses to cross the creeks, the bank 
being almost perpendicular & rhe tide running GUI \en 
strong. The presence of 200 or JOO 

Hosdk ' 

Rushing to the fierce attack 
(2) Bomcranfi (sfcj & wadiy wildly shaking 
(l) Reed spear in wooniera firmly placing 
tendered it foolhardiness to swim across & proceed 
on foot to say nothing of the alligators. 

Barnett's essay into verse does not overstate the 
case as Mcfruyre states that when they were within 
?o( the coast, having got in between two deep 
S3li mangier, c effiekft, they were hemmed in by a 
large number of blacks, whom they were obliged 
ro charge in ordei to get out. As the Riverine 
Herald says — 

Happily, however, by preserving his presence of 
mind, he sue ■ Led n & ai tng them bo mm h than he 
had no occasion to fire on them, but he was deprived 
of the Opportunity Of getting a sight of the ocean, 
which he cuuld MlJ bftVf obtained by showing fight 
,ind shooting a number of rhem. He considered. 

however, ituti this gratification ^ ■ ■ -■ been too 

dearly bought at a sacrifice of human life Bui 

neither on the tourney out nor back pa 

blackfeUott shot, Once <w twice an ejicounur seemed 
inevitable, bill hv showing a firm front, and seeming 

10 disregard their presence, the necessity was avoided 

SOUTHWARD BOUND 

It seems desirable to repeat Bat net' \ concluding 
remarks about the journey in his letter to his aunt 
before moving on to the matters wlm h appear te 
have been regarded as McIot>re\s exclusive 



MEMOIRS Of THt QUEENSLAND MUSt I 



province for publication to the world at large. 
B&ft>ell says — 

n.pww proceeded up the rivet Plinders about 200 
iiitlcson oui h imc\ ird lou ■ ■ upt Q a wwlj 

formed sheep station — the nearest settlement 10 the 
v tult WV concfmied up the JrogOI the several 

m ili;ti have lately been fa/rued: fronl thtACC 
along Walker? creek, Laitdabarougb <. reek & dB La 
the rfver "Tf : ■ ■ 1 1 : i ■ . iii which we followed uji sane 
distance & then struck acrOto Oftfl pe r a Rivcp— rathci 
ircoo, on to the head ot Bulla which we fallowed 

low i *•'•• came to a caxrie station vfiioh has been 

nned sine-; we started; here we gul on our outward 

>*■ in a few d*iy- 1 was reidjOg your letter A 

playing with our dog thai we Jef't at Cooper River going 

out & he had (band his waj home 300 mile rosrni 

a ^ood many to think we ha3 perished. 

I have gi\ en you an idea of our homeward course — 

1 can only give you our outward by saying that it was 

ly N.W. as we were endeavouring to make the 

Albert River (want ot' water prevented us). We crossed 

MclCintoy'strac* aboui I nl ZSBurke&Wtilsl si 20. 

Landsborough's Lat*19 & recrosscd Burke & Wills 

1 K.JO ',0 it you get a lately published map of Australia 

with the routes of the explorers on it 81 take into 

leration thai our journej yvas maketsie) in a dry 

■ < whereas 'lie explorers had good ones & yet we 

never carried water rho' they did — that we travelled 

■ .m.'.ii . .■...<. |me then mm. th w& \ ami 
back in good health, you will have some idea what a 
great Australian pioneer I have become. Who would 
have tltonghi (he delicate boy would have grown to 
' he hardy backwoodsman'.' 

Afi.it turned out, unhappily , he was not as hardy 
as he supposed. Generally Mclntyre and tai 
a^ree on all but the odd small detail. In 
atiouot what Batnett had to say about the 
outward rrip, it is noted that Mclntyre says 
once the northern coast range was crossed the 
Flinders Rivet was struck at a pojfli a little south 
Of Donor's Hill (ftbotM IS'43'S. I40°33'E) T from 
which it was Followed For the first time to the sea 
(had the aboriginals not prevented their covering 
that last mile or so) The journey from the Paroo 
to I copers Creek took 22 days and the stage from 
the latter to the sea took a further 34 days, this 
period being little ovet half the time taken by either 
Burke or McKinlay. 

Mclntyre praised Bameti lot his conduct during 
the trip. As already indicated in spue of his youth 
and previous inexperience in ihe hush he had 
shown a suprising aptitude fbl the wiplf ol 
cxploiing. The Kivetinr H^ruid nt 31 December 
1864 portentiously remarks thai .' will be 
gratifying to his Sandhurst friends to hear of 
Harriett's being spoken of in terms of high praise 
by Mr. Melntvre. (12) 



TRACES OF LEICHHARDT? 

Accounts as to when the incidents of note on 
this trip of Mclntyre 1 s occurred vary greatly. Some 
sav they happened, but do not say when, others 
say on the way to the Gulf and others, again, on 
the return from there. However, a letter written 
jointly by Doctors David Wilkie and Ferdinand 
von Mueller to the Melbourne press on 21 
December 1864 may be taken as authoritative as 
to the details and clKOUOlogfcal order of Hie 
incidents. The learned gentlemen have this to 
say — 

From hence [the animal tracks la about 22* south] . 
.1 ,\-i!-m rhieily of granite mountains sends its 
ramifications in two main lines south-west and north- 
west. On a new principal tributary of the Hinders 

i" \i . ■_ um the nofth-wegi flank ofthia mountain 

tract, Mr. Mclntyre passed to the main stream of the 
flinders, observing in about 20 degress 40 minute 
South and about one degree westward of Burke and 
Will's track, two old horses, an event to which not too 
much importance can be airached, when it is 
remembered that neither the Victorian explorers, nor 
Londsborough, nor A. Gregory, nor I eichhardt, in 
his first glorious expedition, abandoned any horses in 
tdjaceot locality, Mr Walker's horses being left 
about 300 miles to the cast. A still more important 
discovery rewarded Mr Mel nty re's exertions after 
having reached on ttie Plinders tine, the Carpentaria 
Gulf; lor on bis return journey whilst following up the 
main east branch of the Flinders River, he noticed on 
!- in approximate latitude. 20 degrees 
south, two trees each bearing a large I., no number 
attached as a mark, Indicating, as we, with Mr. 
Mclntyre feel convinced, a Leichhardtian camp. 

The tributary of the Flinders was named by 
Mclntyre the Dugald River and that was where 1 he 
horses had been found. 

On the return journey Mclntyre by keeping to 
the Flinders found that the coast range consisted 
only of high undulating downs without any stones. 
The difficult terrain of the outward journey, where 
water could only be obtained from rocky basins in 
gorges and no feed was available for the horses, 
could thus be avoided in any future journey. He 
found that the Flinders was settled from its head 
to within 280 miles of the sea. One station, 
however, was 1 10 miles lower down . The squatters 
on the (ivci had lost about thirty per cent of their 
sheep from the poison bush coming over the ranges 
from ea&t Queensland. Cattle losses had been 
considerable also from the poison bush and at least 
fifty per cent had been lost from the ravages of 
pleuro-pneumonia. A large percentage of horses 
had died from snake bites. Landsborougb had 
presented the Flinders as a 'finely- watered' river, 
1 20 yards wide and flowing. Mclntyre found it dry 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



20 miles from the sea and higher up it was often 
dry for ten miles at a stretch and the general width 
was found to be 30 or 40 yards. Most of the 
stations were completely out of provisions. They 
were cut off by the drought from all 
communication with Port Denison. 

Mclntyre called at Bowen Downs Station at the 
head of the Thomson River and found the cattle 
there were all clean and in splendid condition, 
despite the dryness of the season. From there to 
Coopers Creek the country was well-watered but 
unstocked. Mclntyre had planned to return near 
Landsborough's tracks, to the source of the Bulloo 
and from that river to the Paroo and accomplished 
the whole journey in twenty weeks. (13) 

That Mclntyre was convinced he had found 
traces of Leichhardt is evidenced by his hasty 
return to Victoria. As soon as he had reached the 
telegraphic line at Swan Hill on the Murray River 
he sent a telegram to the Secretary of the Royal 
Society of Victoria on the 15 December 1864 — 

Found between Burke and Sturt tracks about 200 
miles from Carpentaria two old horses and saw very 
old tracks of a party going south west; also two trees 
marked L about fifteen years old. 

Duncan Mclntyre 

Glengower by Castlemaine. 

Dr Robert L.J. Ellery of the Victorian 
Observatory the Secretary of the Royal Society, 
got in touch with Dr Mueller for his views as to 
whether Mclntyre had come across some traces of 
Landsborough's party. Mueller replied promptly 
that no horses had been lost by Landsborough in 
his South West expedition from the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. Hence if the two L's were made by 
the party to which the horses belonged they could 
not be marks made by Landsborough. Mueller 
wondered if there might not be some mistake as to 
the distance from the Gulf of Carpentaria. He told 
Ellery that Mr Gregory had told Mr Giles of the 
discovery of other trees marked L at or about the 
Alice River. Mueller advised Ellery to publish the 
telegram. It appeared in the Argus with 
accompanying brief letters from Ellery and 
Mueller on 17 December 1864 and was republished 
in the Australasian on the following Saturday 24 
December. 

The almost immediate follow up by Drs Wilkie 
and Mueller appeared as already stated in the Age 
on 21 December 1864. This was republished in the 
Australasian on 24 December. Apart from the 
detail about the location of horses and trees 
already covered, the letter had this to say after 



stating the conviction of those concerned that the 
two L trees indicated a Leichhardtian camp — 

With this position the traces of Leichhardt, recently 
found on the Alice River, can be brought into a line 
of contact. These L's are clearly distinct from any 
marks of Landsborough's camps, who in that latitude 
kept the eastern bank of the Flinders River and who, 
moreover, attached a consecutive number to his 
marked camp trees. If further proofs of distinction 
were wanting, we might add that the bark had 
encroached to the extent of four of five inches on the 
incision of the L's, whereby a much greater age of the 
letters is established than that of Landsborough's 
camps; and still further we have evidence of one of the 
natives, who served both Landsborough's and 
Mclntyre's expeditions, declaring the camp foreign to 
the expedition of the former gentleman. The position 
of these momentous trees being in flooded ground, it 
would have been in vain to search for further camp 
traces. Mr Mclntyre, in carrying out a judiciously 
arranged plan, went homeward near Landsborough's 
tracks, to the sources of the Bulla (sic! Bulloo?), and 
finally from this river to the Paroo, accomplishing in 
twenty weeks a journey, by which he has secured a 
prominent and honourable position amongst our 
explorers, and this by slender and entirely private 
means, accompanied only by one of his countrymen 
and five (sic) aborigines. 

Shall, whilst we can avail ourselves of the talents of 
tried and spirited travellers, like Mr. Mclntyre and Mr. 
Giles, the fate of one of the most famed explorers 
which the world ever possessed, remain uncared for? 
Shall the destiny of him, who, in Australia, discovered 
the k North-west passage', remain still for an indefinite 
period unascertained? And shall the revelation of the 
fate of this truly great man be any longer left to the 
chances of mere accident? 

A lengthy account, entitled 'Late Explorations 
on the Shores of Carpentaria', of the journey of 
Mclntyre and Barnett appeared in the Riverine 
Herald of Echuca on 31 December 1864. It was 
this article which was reproduced as a supplement 
in the Brisbane Courier of 12 January 1865. The 
L's on the trees were described in detail; Mclntyre 
expressed the opinion that the letters seen were 
evidently cut by a skilled hand and could not have 
been the work of the blacks. The horses, which 
Mclntyre had brought back with him, were also 
described. One was a bay and the other a black. 
There were illegible brands on both of them and 
each had a blotched brand on the same part of the 
back. Both were old horses. Mclntyre said he had 
horses in his mob fifteen or sixteen years of age, 
which performed the whole journey well, while the 
two picked up by him knocked up in a very short 
time. This indicated they must have been of great 
age indeed, for when found they were rolling fat. 



10 



i OtELNSL AND MUSEUM 



Sfl-'ELLER AND THE LADIES OF 
MELBOURNE 

On V February 1865 Dr Mueller gave a lecture 
at S*. George's Hall, Melbourne on 'The Fate of 
Leichhardf - In his own words — 

"some space of time has elapsed amce Or. Wflkic 
and myself drew public attention to the important 
bearings of Mr Mclntyre's researches on 1 eichhardt's 
Caie, without any champion appearing lor the lost 
explorers; and on consulting with raj honourable 

friend, wc teH that! ouj call should do* be suffered to 

die away, and tcsolved thai il i ' b renewed in 
the present demonstration . 

Hu then went on at great length to discuss the 
possible ends which Leichhardt and his parly had 
met; murdered by the natives: destroyed in I 
terrible hailstorm; drowned in a flood or burned 
in a bushfire. On the other hand they might have 
lost their livestock to poison weed and be living 
marooned in an area, which might be capable of 
sustaining them on a subsistence level, but from 
which neither retreat nor advance was possible. It 
was a very dramatic presentation and aimed at the 
ladies of Victoria in an endeavour to enlist their 
support for a fund raising venture to finance a 
search for Leichhardt based on ihc seemingly new 
evidence found by Mclntyre He advocated the 
services of Mclntvrc should be secured Mueller 
said — 

This travel mains a persuasion, in which I 

fully share, that Leichhardts fate can be discovered, 
VU) is uisjiiK.t wuit ftA enihusiam far bC&flOG ! 
standard of geographic science still farther through 
this continent With calm judgment he combines 
trained knowledge, travelling experience, an earnest 
will, and an unflinching persev-- >ove oil 

he is wiilinr, it- S8Cftficti private inren*st in t fie good 
cause. I am commissioned by Mr Mclntyre to state, 
that whosoever in Leichhardt's search will take rhe 
field may unhesitatingly command from him every 
information calculated to secure success. 

At the end of the lecture several men addressed 
the meeting. A deputation was appointed. 
consisting of Drs Wilkie, Crooke. Eade>, Embling. 
Bleasdale and Mueller 3D<3 Messrs Summers. 
Bon wick and Kytc, to wait on the heads of the 
church sections to so hen that the measure 
.suggested by Dr Mueller, to call the ladies together 
for delegating representatives to a central 
committee be carried out. The central committee 
would, when appointed* solicit Funds to finance a 
search for LeicMtatdr. (14) 

The enterprise, needless to say, attracted some 
attention A Mr S, Deveson of Little Bendigo, 
Ballaiat, came up with the suggwi on thai if an 
expedition was sent il should be supplied with 



rials for making a number of Tut balloons- 
One should be sent up each evening when the relief 
party came to country considered by the leader 'to 
afford a reasonable prospect of proving 
serviceable to the lost men". Mr Deveson expressed 
the view that any survivor who sighted the fire 
balloon would at once conclude thai civilised 
[icings wrre m their vicinity and would use every 
effort to come in contact with them. (15) 

John Roper, who had accompanied Leichhardt 
to Port Essington wrote, from the River Aeheton 
m Victoria's southern highlands, to Dr Mueller 
expressing his gratitude at the efforts being made 
to promote a search his old friend and leader, 
Leichhardt. He wished the endeavour every 
success and hoped that a last the world would find 
what had happened to Leichhardt. (16) 

A.W- Howitt also wrote to Dr Muellei. He said 
he had questioned the natives about parties of 
white men in the interior and had done this as far 
as latitude 25°30' south. Because of his ability to 
speak the language of that part of the interior he 
could be sure of understanding and making 
himself understood. He found that the natives 
were acquainted with the movements of Sturt's 
party, Gregory and the later explorers. He could 
never gain the least intelligence about such a party 
as Leichhardt's, In the circumstances Howitt 
considered that their traces must be sought 
considerably north of the latitude he had 
mentioned This supported the hypotheses of 
Mueller and Mclntyre. (17) 

However, all was not sweetness and light, A 
discordant note had been struck, about three 
weeks before Howitt's letter, by a gentleman who 
signed himself *A Murray Squatter'. He WTOte 
from Kasima on 28 April 1865 to the Riverine 
Herald as follows — 

Can you inform me and many others who reallv 
think that something should be done to lenrn 
tciohhardt's fate, what has been done or is to be done 
about this Leichhardt expedition. I have received a 
circular from (tie I ndiea 1 Committee, written with 
gft&l taste and ^ood feeling, as might be expected, but 
we want something more than taste, or even good 
feeling, in fining out such an expedition. There was 
enough of both and to spare in that most woeful Burke 
and Wills affairs, yet see what a miserable end they 
came CO, To initiate, and even carry on, such a 
benevolent movement, to enlist sympathy and collect 
Hinds, the ladies are admirably suitable; but imagine 
tixtecn ladies nele tiny llOfWfi and bargaining for 
saddles in Bourfce Street, Of course, they will leave ill 
that io otheis but to whom? Who is to be the leader? 
Who haw the ladies in i ill and advise with 

HMce ot a leader? And who is that leader to 

consul) with aUo his scndftl proceedings? \manmu 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



11 



be chosen who may be entrusted with everything, but 
upon many points any prudent man would prefer being 
supported by other men's opinions. There must be a 
pre-arranged route, for instance, and who is to lay it 
down? Certainly not the leader unrestricted; it would 
be unfair to him, for if, for one thing, he found good 
sheep country and applied for it, it would undoubtedly 
be said that he had paid much more attention to his 
own interest than the public object of his journey, as 
was freely enough said of more than one of 
disinterested searches after Burke and Wills; and the 
best man if unrestricted, might be biased by an anxiety 
to bring the expedition to a close, to secure some 
paradise he had discovered. This has been originated 
by Dr. Mueller and Dr. Wilkie's report, and I would 
like to know if they are the ladies only advisers. They 
are both very good men — the first is a botantist of 
European reputation, and I believe thoroughly 
acquainted with the whole subject upon paper, but 
both too much mixed up with Burke and Wills failure 
to give entire confidence to this if placed under their 
auspices. In fact, not to make too fine a point of it, 
people wont have them, that is alone; associated with 
others their unfortunate experience might be useful. I 
am ready to subscribe £10 or £20 if I can see that it 
will be carried out practically and efficiently, but with 
the greatest respect for the ladies, I should like to know 
who they intend to appoint, and who are to assist them 
in arranging with him as to his proceedings before I 
subscribe, and I can say that almost everyone I have 
spoken to is of the same opinion. (18) 

Dr Mueller, three weeks later, replied to the 
Murray Squatter at considerable length, ostensibly 
to shield Dr Wilkie against an attack which, had 
the Kasima gentleman been acquainted with all the 
facts connected with the first Victorian expedition, 
he could never have ventured. 

The Doctor pointed out that neither Dr Wilkie 
nor himself were involved with the arrangements 
which led to the disasters of the Burke and Wills 
expedition; in fact they were both opposed to the 
decision which led to its sad fate. 

Now that he had entered 'the arena' Dr Mueller 
took the opportunity to repel the attacks against 
himself. He pointed out that since 1848 he had 
travelled about 24,000 miles within Australia and 
no one can say he had ever deviated from public 
duties for the sake of personal interests. He 
treasured his reputation and would not hazard it 
in promoting the ladies' enterprise other than for 
altruistic motives. Murray Squatter should be 
aware from practical considerations that a safe and 
tried explorer like Mclntyre should not be fettered 
in the details of his operations. Rather than seeking 
to impede the objects of the enterprise every right 
minded person should be seeking to assist the 
ladies. It had been stated months ago that the 
ladies, when the fund was obtained, would go to 



gentlemen for advice that might be needed and 
seek from them the counsel for practical initiation 
of their enterprise. (19) 

Mrs Eliza S. Bromby, the president and Mrs 
Ellen Tierney, the Honorary Secretary, of the 
Leichhardt Search Committee sent a telegram to 
Lady Bowen in Brisbane. It read: 

The Victorian Government will bear a share of the 
expenditure which may be incurred in prosecuting a 
search of Leichhardt if other Governments will assist. 
If Queensland will contribute liberally say £1,000 — 
the expedition can be organised immediately; 
otherwise the services of Mr M'Intyre (sic) and the 
advantages of instituting the search a year earlier will 
be lost. Private contributions will soon amount to 
£1,000. Pray send soon an answer; surety to be given 
that no squatting interest will be pursued. 

On 3 June 1865 Lady Bowen received a further 
telegram from Melbourne: 

South Australian Government announces its 
decision to recommend unconditionally a vote for the 
Leichhardt search to Parliament. 

Lady Bowen replied on the same day: 

The Queensland Government will recommend to 
Parliament a vote for the Leichhardt Search. I will 
form a Ladies Committee to receive contributions. 

The Brisbane Courier stated, 

after her return from Ipswich, Lady Bowen will call 
a public meeting of ladies with the object of forming 
the committee referred to. Meanwhile, contributions 
in aid of the 'Leichhardt Search Fund' will be received 
by Captain Pitt, R.A., Government House. 
Subscriptions already received: — Sir George and Lady 
Bowen £5; Hon. R.G.W. Herbert £2; C. Fitzsimmons 
Esq.,M.L.A.,£5. (20) 

On 20 June 1865 the Rev. W.B. Clarke, well 
known for his geological researches in Australia, 
wrote from Sydney to Dr Mueller expressing his 
strong support for the Leichhardt search. He said 
that in 1858 he had canvassed the New South 
Wales Government to prosecute a search for the 
lost expedition to clear up the mystery of 
Leichhardt's disappearance and had 
recommended the search be concentrated upon the 
area between 25° and 28° south latitude and 
between 144° and 148° east longitude (an area of 
just on 100,000 square miles). The Rev. Clarke 
notes with satisfaction that Mclntyre's discoveries 
had been within that region, as the New South 
Wales Government had not given any support to 
his proposal. (21) 

The Australasian of 1 July 1865 also contained 
an item of topical interest — 

Mr. Donald Campbell, of Glengower, deserves 
much credit for the spirited and disinterested manner 



■ 



■1O1RS0F THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Q I h, I, CO ll s -in 

arrangements 1'or the Leichhardt search, acting on 
behalf of bis nephew, \h M Lniyn «hc takes 
conanwnd of the expedition. Those members of the 
party who are not y# wiih Mi M< liayu-, OQ ihc 
Darling, are required to he at Glcngower by the end 
of (he week, from whence they will then start with Ihc 
camels and hordes tor Mount MurcnlSOO without 
deUv. Provisions will be brought from one o»* the 
Queensland ports to thesauri esof the Thomson R v& 

For the long Weeping of I he dr 3darlefi 

indebted to the Messrs. Samuel and Charles WilsoDof 
the Wimmera. 

THE SEARCH FOR LEICHHARDT 

On 3 July 18*5 the Leichhardt searcti party left 
Glengower at mid-day (it was a Mondavi 
According to the Casiiemuinc /"■.•. V Htf all the 
men seemed accustomed io bush life and 
endurance and mostly off middle ftgjfr. None ol 
them, ftov opting the leader, Mr Mclntyre 

and Dr Murray, the second in command and 
surgeon, had been in previous expedition parties. 
Mr Mclntyre was then supposed to be about 500 
miles from the Gulf and was to meet the parly (Ml 
] August on the Darling, in the meantime the party 
was to trave! under the leadership ol Or Mun '■ j 
and Mr Gray, the latter being an experienced 
busliman. A lengthy letter from William 
Landsborough to the Queensland Guardian was at 
request republished in the Victorian press, !r 
expressed some practical views on the modus 
Opera/idl o1 the search tor Leichhardt. 
I andshorough appears to have been under the 
impression that Howitt would be accompanying 
Ihe expedition as surveyor and journal's'; duties 
which should not devolve on Mclntyre as leader. 
I [owevei . m footnote to the letter Landsborough 
says 

i ■! Vtueller has just ordered me to send a quantity 
Of provisions tQ Cornish Creek, one Of the heads of 
the Thomson; and has informed me that the 
rJrotrtcdarieS ar? about V he lakcn to the Darting, and 
that Dr. Murray (of Hewitt's expedition in search of 
Burke) is to join the party. (22) 

Dr Murray will be discussed at length later on. 
but suffice it to say at this stage it was Mueller's 
and the Ladies Commute*: mistake when 

they appointed him as second in command of ihe 
expedition. 

A Queensland letter of I July 1865 which 
appeared in rhe Australasian on 15 July 1865 
indicated that Queensland, led by Lady Bo ■ 

was putting i- ot Forward to rata money 

for the expedition. 

The Government of Queensland was expected 
to give at least E5O0. It was believed Queensland 



would bear 3 fail share of the expc I the 

expedition. 

Then full of praise for the generosity of 
Legislature and people of Queensland Dr Mueller 
: -ihed a letter he had received from Mi Gordon 
Sandeman, M.L.A. for Leichhardr (Q) which 
informed the Doctor that the Queensland 'House 
of Assembly' bad voted £1,000, in aid of the 
'Leichhardt Search Fund', by a laree majority. 
<23r 

After the Queensland parliament had voted 
£1,000 in aid of :hc search for Leichhardt Sir 
George Bowen, the Governor, sent a very full 
report about the whole matter to the Secretary of 
Stale for the Colonies. From Bowcn's despatch we 
learn that the Victorian and South Australian 
Parliaments had each voted £500. Private 
contributions amounting to about £1,500 had also 
been collected, mainly in Victoria and Queensland. 
The total collected being sufficient to maintain the 
expedition for two years, it had already started on 
its journey. Bowen then gave an account of 
lihardt's career as an explorer and of the 
search expeditions mounted for him after his 
disappearance. He went on to say, despite 
Hovenden Hely's report o( a native account of a 
massacre ot the whole party about 200 miles west 
of Mount Abundance, later explorers had found 
it aces much to the north of the reported location 
of the massacre. Eventually, Duncan Mclntyre's 
discoveries 0i -cs and marked trees in 1864 led 
to those, particularly Dr Mueller, who had a 
ceased to urge Ihe probability Of Leichhardt or 
some of his party still being alive, io espouse rhe 
cause of a renewed search for the lost explorer and 
members of his expedition. Bowen mentions 
Buckley in Victoria and Morrill in North 
Queensland as examples Of survival among the 
aboriginals in the Australian bush. 

The Governor mentioned how the Victorian 
Ladies' Committee had enlisted the aid of Lady 
Bowen, who had obtained the assistance of 
Queensland ladies of social influence which had 
been successfully exercised in obtaining the liberal 
aid which had been received from rhe Colonial 
Parliament. 

Bowen expressed Ihe view fhat whatever the 
outcome of the expedition it must add to the 
knowledge of the remoter portions of the colony 
and assist materially in its development. 

In conclusion the Governor informed the 
Colonial Office that Duncan Mclntyre had set out 
from Victoria some months before. The rest of the 
party was now moving to meet him and the 
expedition was to be finally organised in 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



:> 



Queensland. It would consist of eight to twelve 
carefully selected k bushmen' , 14 camels and about 
40 horses. It had the means to have supplies for 
two years. The expedition would proceed first to 
Flinders River where the last traces had been seen 
by Mclntyre. From thence it would proceed 
towards the interior. Bowen said the expedition 
would receive every assistance. It will be able to 
procure fresh stores from time to time from 
Burketown, the new settlement recently 
established on Bowen's recommendation at the 
head of navigation of the Albert River flowing into 
the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria. (24) 

On 21 August 1865 near Mount Murchison 
Mclntyre took charge of the expedition. On 23 
August the party moved on and on 5 October was 
camped at Curracunaya Springs. 

BARNETT JOINS THE SEARCH 

When Barnett returned with Mclntyre from the 
Gulf of Carpentaria in November IS64. he 
intended at first to pay a visit to Bendigo. but, 
again quoting from his letter to his aunt: 

a journey of 1200 railes ('tis at least 600 to Bendigo) 
i - 3 yrtrat loss, of time and with me time is more valuable 
than money & tho' it would he a great pleasure to me 
yet the pleasure to all parties will be greater the longer 
t siav away & the hetter lining I have to m\ pocket 
when I do go. so I will have another trip .somewhere 
first, 

I am having a spell now for a little hit — living like 
an eastern king. On either side of me is blad gji I 
squatting down ready to fetch a lighi to my pipe w a 
drink or anv thing else I may require. Don't blush 
when 1 tell you they are as naked as the day they were 
born; us their fashion. Outside thegunvah my black 
boy is lying asleep ready to fetch my horse or whatever 
1 order him & this morning 1 started hall a dozen 
blackfellows & their lubras the former to net ducks 
and the latter to catch fish, some of which 1 shall have 
for my supper. 

A young man's boasting, perhaps. In any event 
he stayed in the Warrego area and took up 
employment there, probably with the Bogan River 
Pastoral Company, as he had intended to do much 
earlier. 

However, upon his receiving a letter from 
Duncan Mclntyre, which informed him of the 
Letchhardt Search Expedition, Barnett left his 
employment and hastened to Glengower. where he 
was mortified to find the Leichhardt Search 
Expedition had started off a few days before his 
arrival. 

Donald Campbell advised Barnett to go with the 
expedition and assured him he would have an 
equal command with Dr Murray. ReturnuuJ up the 



Darling, Barnett met Duncan Mclntyre only to be 
told by him that on account of the arrangement's 
already made, Barnett could only accompany the 
expedition as one of the men under Mclntyre's 
own leadership. Barnett said he was satisfied to do 
this {25) This is a fair indication of his loyalty to 
Duncan Mclntyre and the trust he reposed in him. 

Barnett was deemed to have joined the 
expedition on 10 September 1865. The 
remuneration he agreed to accept appears to have 
been £78 per annum, judging by the fact that when 
he left of his own accord on 24 March 1866 he 
received £35 In addition, of course, he received 
rations. These facts arc revealed in a letter of 
Barnett's which was published in the Melbourne 
Argus newspaper on 2 December 1867. 

Two reports both dated 30 March 1 866 were sent 
to Dr Mueller and the Search Committee 
respectively by Mclntyre from the Gelliot (Gilliat) 
River covering the period ftom October 1865 to 
March 1866. The first (to Mueller) reads: 

In writing to you a full and particular account of 
everything of importance connected with the 
expedition from the time it left the Darling, New South 
Wales, until its arrival here, and especially of what 
took place in the neighbourhood of Cooper's Creek. 
we came nearly straight from the New South Wales 
boundary on the Pine River to Cooper's Creek, where 
it turns south, 0J from about 29% !44 30't:, to about 
26"S, !42 D h. and nearly in a ditect line from there lo 
the intersection ot the tropical line and Mueller River, 
and afterwards almost direct to [Mount] Fort Boweu, 




FlG 3. Typical trW blaze to mark earn, 



1-1 



MEMi »1RS Oi< THI I ISLAND Ml ISEUM 



od hi p rherit i ws& directed uxoraimcnec 

lite ttftrCll. Tlic Warcll haft been commenced, and wlU 
bccarriedonwhilcit is possible to go on with it. Along 
with our doctor and some other members of the 
expedition wc lost some thermometers, Ac, all of 
which I will try and replace ai the settlement on (he 
Albert |Bui*UTi>wn] ( and also. i surveyor it there i^one 
t(3 he had. I have kepi a complete field hook and 
journal from Cooper's creek lo this point, all Lht 
important geographical features being ascertained ft.fi 
neat aii possible, and the position of (he catttpS 
a&ceruined to a tenth part of a mile, five or six 
observations on each side of the zenith being taken 
atmusi every night. We have still foul thciniomeleis 
and iwp barometers (such as were sent up with the 

expeOj(ton), two large sextants, a number dl smalt 

Ones, and eight compasses, so that, allowing none are 
to be had on the Albert, the expedition is pretty well 
•supplied, I am doubtful abOUl being able 10 gel a 
legally qualified surgeon; and a surveyor capable of 
making, astronomical observation i-. afl| moft 
difficult to procure; othei men are plentiful enough. 
The other part of the expedition, except in horses (and 
I will m range tboul getting enough), is still al! right; 
m fact, I believe the most complete that ever started. 
I exptct you will get my other tetter as soon as thjfr, 
when you will know all about our movements. I have 
sent a hurried despatch to the committee along with 
this. V'ou must excuse this scroll (flic), lor I am really 
very busy, but 1 suppose JflftJ arid be elad to hear 
something of what we are dol fi£ 

The despatch to (he committee wis addressed 

to the Hon. Sec. of the Ladies- Lckhhardc Search 

Comimrree, Melbourne, Victoria. Aflet dealing 

With the party's movements to Currocurmya where 

sla>ed; 

until the t tth November, when, although not quite 
ready. n« jrere oWtged to move on Bfi rhe waiet was 
nearly done. Leaving Curracuuaya the expedition 
consisted of sixty five horses, twelve dromedaries, 
about five tons of stares and ten men:— Duncan 
M'lnlyte (sic) (leader), James P. Murray (surgeon and 
second in command). John M'CaJman, William F. 
fvVDonald, Alexander Cuay, »ohi) Barnes. BeJODCB 
(Indian camel-driver), Welbo and Myola (aborigines). 

Ofl the 13th November, we crossed the Bulla 
[?BuIlooJ and on the 17th reached the Wilson, which 
allowed up tor some days I Me on the nifihl »J 
the 26lh we atrived at Cooper'* Creek and found U 
■quite dry. As soon as day dawned Welbo and I started 
to look for water. We didn't go (ar After a careful 
examination of" the bed and banks of the channel, and 
old native footpaths, we returned to the £*peditton 
camp, and ■-■■■■■■ i i-r wauls .1 <■■ i-utcd back 

alone the expedition track lowaftffi the last water. This 
retreat ended in die loss, of all the horses but three, 
and the return al Or Murray. Ofty, M'lXroald and 
Barnes to the settled distnciv 

The «*oJe ol December* waft lost ut finding 

permanent water in Cooper'* Creek and collecting 



store*, firearms, annmmiii<tn. kttfleumCQU and other 
valuables, which, owing to the expedition being 
declared at an end by the of fleers in charge, had been 
thrown anywhere and anyhow, or carried away on the 
horses. On New Year's Day we were camped on a fine 
sheet of water on Cooper's Creek. But as the 
dromedaries requited a month of two's rest, and the 
natives troublesome, we moved a few miles, up the 
creek to whete there was good feed and timber. By the 
J4lh January we had a stockade up, and the annoyance 
from the natives was at an end. In a few weeks the 
horses and diomedancs got quite fresh, and an 
unlimited supply of the finest fish put us all to rights, 
On Friday, the 9th February, we packed up and 
j i in Expedition leaving Cooper's Creek 
consisted of twelve dromedaries, five horses, nearly 
two tons of stores and six men;— Uunean M'lntyre 
r), John M'CaJman, William T (?F1 Barnett. 
Belooch (Indian), Welbo, Myola (aborigines). 

On Sunday, the i Hrh February, wc were enjoying 
ourselves in the clear waler of the Docker River, and 
on the l5t March we left the Mueller, and almost 
Immediately eiitetvd the i rn t M.. g 00 the 9ft Mai 
coast range was crossed, and the next day wc came on 
the head of this river, which we traced down. On 
§*fld <>, the !8ih March, the expedition was can if) 
on the east side of the Gelliot {Oilliatl River nearly 
Opposite [Mount] Fort Bowen. Welbo and 1 started to 
see if there was a station in the neighbourhood; a few 
miles man easreiiy direction brought us to the Flinders 
River, which we crossed, and soon after we met a 
stockman looking for horses, who conducted us to Mr. 
Gibson's station neat Mount Little. 1 was informed at 
this station that no further traces of Leichhardt had 
been observed, and that natives were seldom seen tfl 
the neighbourhood. After resting a few hours we 
proceeded to Mr Morresell's station, about twelve 
miles up the Flinders and only a few miles below the 
LL trees, Leicf hjrdr'.s supposed camp. We got to the 
, bj StittdOWfl and remained all night. Mr. 
Morresel! told me that the old camp near the station 
; only trace cf Leichhardt that he knew or had 
■ (rfflfl he rive J I remained all Monday with Mr. 
Mot-resell, and on Tuesday, the 20th March, returned 
to the expedition camp. Since then Welbo and I have 
been searching foi marked trees and oihei trace* of 
Leichhardt down this river [Gilliat], up the Flinders, 
and across to the Cloncui ry, but have not found any, 
neither have we been able to Hud any natives. 

Ttw dromedaries, although in good condition, arc 
tee-weary, and will require a few weeks' rest before 
nailing into the western interior. In the meantime the 
search will be going 0D. and. ii possible, the natives 
o! the district found and interrogated, and, perhaps, 
some of them attached to the expedition. (26) 

DR MUELLER CONFIDES IN DR 
PETERMANN 

This U the longest surviving personal report 
from Mclnt>re to (he Ladies' Committee which 
lias been locared. Vet, mi the 1866 issue of Justus 



THE DIARY Or DARNETT 



Perthes Geographical Institute Bulletin 
I Utftheilungen aus Justus Perthes Geographischer 
Atistalt 1866) edited by Dr A. Petermann and 
pubbshed at Gotha in Germany, there appeared 
OK article eniiiled The Expedition in Search of 
Leichhardt in Australia, 1865 and 1S66 (Die 
Expedition zur Aufsuchung Leichhordt's tn 
Australian, 1865 und 1866), Dr Mueller is cited as 
the source. After briefly canvassing the beginning 
of the expedition, the misbehaviour of Dr Murrav, 
who doled out brandy, while Mclmyre was of? in 
search of water, the subsequent reorganisation of 
the expedition and its inconclusive result* due to 
Mclmyre's death, the main content of the article 
\$ ;i report by Mclmyre from the Gregory River 
dated 2 May 1866. The letter from Mclntyre 
(which is referred to as incomplete) reads, in part, 
as follows; 

I wrote to you about 5 weeks ago from the QiUioi 
River, including wllh my letter reports and paper?. 
from the Expedition. The camels, horsey and men 
needed a lew Weeks rest. I took on a man named 
McLeod and two black boys that my brother had 
btoughi with the stock, along with } horse*. On lite 
2nd April I broke camp in order to search U*f former 
I races of Leichhardi and in order to purchase some 
more provisions at a harbour 

We went up river and reached the so-called town 
[Rim kerown] or the harbour. Its inhabitant* numbered 
about 60, and of these aboui 45 or 50 had the fever. 
People were sick everywhere. I could not find 10 thai 
were in any condition to work. I made camp by a 
lagoon about a mile from the town, and believed hy 
doing so that I was cm of the area of infection. There 
were two lents near us. By the next momlnp, one of 
lite occupants of these tents was dead, and when I went 
up to the town I found that two others had died here 
during the morning, t took some provisions with me 
■in: i iriddc camp 16 miles further upstream, but even 
while we were loading up the horses, one of the black 
boys came down with the fever and this morning 
Mcl.eod has fallen ill with it. Tb« bpj will probably 
pull through, but McLeod has given himself up for 
lost. ! am ready to travel on and am only waiting for 
the men to recover, which will be in a lew days, I hope. 
H doesn't last long— either you're in your grave within 
a week, or else you're better. 

Before 1 came here, the town numbered about 80 
people, 66 of whom got the fever. They tell me that in 
ftU, 25 have died and at the moment they arc making 
the coffins for two whose condition is hopeless. I hope 
I escape healthy. People are hurrying away a* fast as 
ihr> can hy water and across country'- There are two 
storehouses here, plenty of flour, tea and sugar, but 
the quality is very poor. We can hardly eat the flour, 
winch is quite sour. The town also has two hotels. If 
lies on a plain, a few teet above seaievel. Perhapv there 
is something strange in the afc tbfa .*ea'. but all the 
aboi iglnes seem to be quite well. 



Up until now, we have come across no definite truce 
of Leichhardi, but we arc quite sure that there tat 
white people living now among the aborigines, or they 
have been living with them within die last leu years. 
A boy and a gnl, 10 to J 2 years old, almost white, with 
blue eyes and red hair live there. In another tribe there 
is a girl of about 15 years old, in a third there is an 
adult female of about 18, and the rumour has it that 
a white man is living with a large tribe of about 200. 
a day's ride from here,. 

Since leaving the depot camp on the Oillioi , we have 
explored about 500 miles of new country, mostly along 
the northern slope of the coastal mountains. In the 
course of this we crossed over an area, which will 
undoubtedly prove to be a rich goldfield in a short 
time. We did not, In fact, Rod any gold, but from the 
formation of the terrain I have no doubt of its 
presence, 

Should the sea> uea prove to be fruitless, 

we will immediately cro.« over the coastal range and 
continue our explorations in the area around the 
southern or inland Wal I •< southwesterly 

direction, perhaps towards, the Swan River. 

The article continues with a statement that soon 
after writing tine incomplete letter Mclntyre 
returned to the depot on the Gilliat, taking with 
him W.F. Sloman from Burkctown, whom he had 
engaged to act a> second III charge of the 
expedition. On 20 May Mclntyre was on the 
Dugald Rivet (the McRmtay route). He left there 
in haste on 23 May, alone, to cover the 50 miles 
to the Gilliat in order to pick up the rest of the 
expedition from there. He was unwell at the time 
and arrived at tbe Gilliat depot compleH;. 
exhausted- Mis condition worsened and he died on 
the morning of 4 June 1866. 

Mclntyre had not kept a journal for the last pat t 
of his trip. He had trusted to his memory and notes 
written ta his field book. Sloman expressed a desire 
to put these together, bur pointed out thai 
complete notes, a field book and journal existed 
for the journey as far as the Gilliat River, Including 
the geographical position of all camps. On 7 June 
Sloman bad written to the Committee 
rhem that he had tore men. 11 camels. 32 horses 
and considerable provisions, that he was in the 
Qiflial area and awaited orders from Melbourne. 
The Committee had made no decision by the end 
of July as to the expedition's future, other than 
instructing Sloman to be ready to continue on 
receipt of word to <\o sn 

Dr Peterman concludes :he article with 
reflections on how this expedition reveals anew the 
gigantic difficulties facing all geographical 
expeditions. The bnglUh newspapers from 
Melbourne contain many crilict&ttii 61 ■ 
expeditions and may be ? ight to same extent from 



> 



I <ttl AND MUSEUM 



the matena- | 4ew, However, the good 

doctor expresses the opinion it would be a sad day 
Tor humanity if all thought this way. He thanks 
providence for such enlightened and dedicated 
men as Dr Mueller, the Director of the Melbourne 
Botanical Gardens, who worked so hard to bring 
thiN expedition about. 

No trace of Mclntyre's letter of 2 May can be 
found in the Melbourne press. Its incompleteness 
may have been the reason why Mueller did not 
release it to either Committee or press. Again he 
could have been motivated by a wish to play down 
as much as possible whal had happened to the 
expedition ai Coopers Creek, which will be dealt 
with fully by me at a later stage in this article. 
Despite everything Mueller could not resist sending 
Mclntyre's letter to Dr Peter mann in far-off 
Germany for publication there. 

In setting out ihe composition of the party the 
Age and Weekly Herald omitted one member — 
William F. Barnett. It could be that Barnet: and 
McDonald had similar initials and the scribe 
omtiied the second person inadvertently. Barnett 
had accompanied Mclntyre in his 1863-64 venture 
eo t tie Gulf and could be counted on not to desert, 
as becomes apparent when M'Qilmanand Barnett 
are McintyreN only white loilowers at and after 
Coopers Creek. The German Geographical 
bulletin of 1866 does confirm Bamctt's presence 
in ihe expedition. 

THE POOR CONDUCT OF DR MURRAY 

S«r George Bowen sent the Colonial Office a 
copy of Mclntyre's report of 30 March 1866 
:h had appeared also in the AgB on 30 May 
1866 and the Brisbane Courier on 14 June 1866). 
Bowen comments Uiat the Oelhot [Gilliat] River 
where Mclntyre had been encamped is supposed 
to be a tributary of the Cloneurr> Rivet, but mav 
enter the Hinders higher up than the Cloncnrry. 
The camp near Mount Bowen, named by 
Landsborough would be in the vicinity of 19° I2*S, 
14i:j'55*E. Mr A.C. Gregory believed the -Oocker* 
is a tributary of the Barcoo, which join* it From 
the north west in about 26°S; the Mueller is 
probably a tributary of the Thomson River coming 
in on che west side at about 24 Q S. I think A C 
Gregory placed the Barcoo and the Thomson too 
far to the west, 

Bowen also had noted that the expedition had 
narrowly escaped perishing from want of water al 
U I lOOpSTS ' 'reek during the severe dtought 
Of early 1866. The expedition was deserted by Dr 
Murray, che second in command and surgeon, and 
by others who had returned to the settled districts. 



The ..ircurnsiance* surrounding this had not yet 
been fully explained. (27) 

The drought referred to by Bowen had En fact 
commented in early 1865 and was at its worst in 
late 1865 in the Coopers Creek area. 

I was able to find one contemporary and two 
later accounts, apart from those of Mclntyre and 
Barnett, of the events surrounding the near 
disaster the party suffered at Coopers Creek. It is 
in regard to this that my earlier remarks, about the 
fatal mistake made by Dr Mueller and the Ladies 
Committee, can be explained now. 

Dr James Patrick Murray, whom they 
appointed second in command and surgeon of the 
expedition, was a peculiar person to say the least. 
He had a comfortable social background I 
manner that could win friends when he wanted 
them, and an erratic streak that often came close 
to madness. He showed brilliance at times whilst 
practising medicine in Melbourne, but all too soon 
he had involved himself in several disreputable 
incidents. Because of these his family disowned 
him. lie was for a while on the Staff of the 
Victorian Benevolent Association and was found 
to be dosing his patients with morphia to keep 
them quiet whenever he felt like a few days off 
He joined Howiif s expedition to search for Burke 
and Wills and apparently did nothing to blot his 
copy book. 

However, the failure of Mclntyre's expedition 
is to be attributed largely to Murray's gross 
misconduct. 

On 27 March 1866 !he Age published some 
correspondence which had appeared in the 
Riverine Herald on the preceding Saturday, 24 
March. On 8 March a Mr Geotge Mcdillivrey of 
Killara on the Upper Darling had written to say he 
had received a copy of the Riverine Herald in 
which lie had found a letter from Dr Murray and 
the editor's comments upon it in a leading article. 
As lUe docto! had said Mclntyre had made a faint 
attempt to find water and as the editor had 
appeared to he yiasping at something near a 
proper view of the affair, Mr McGillivrey said he 
had no hesitation in sending Die editor v a verbatim 
copy' of a letter which he had received tram Mr 
Mclntyre and which would enlighten the editor on 
the subject of Ihe disaster to the expedition. Mi 
McGillivrey stated he had always found Mr 
Mclntyre to be a man of honor and a man who 
, _ks rhe truth and he had no reason to doubt 
him in anything on this occasion F-om Wilson'- 
River on 17 December 1865 Mclntyre had 
written — 

ittppOSG you have been hearing news ol in-.- 
l.eichhardl Search Hxpediikui from Lime [0 



DIARVOFBARNETT 






I left your quarto, and. no doubt, the last tt 
has astonished you a little. The total loss of sixty six 
hOrtfiS ;»M'J Ibti LtVt ' I D< n In danger, nil m one 
day, is something quite new in exploring. I will, 

.! mas few woids as possible, tell yon all abmir 
it, SI gathered from the evidence of Ihe blacks and 
whites of the party, tor I 5am nothing of it myself. 
After leaving your place ... wc aitived fil thi 
this fiver all right — 71 horses, (2 camels, 10 white 
men and 4 blacks. My brolhet, Anderson and Statue 
did not belong to the party; they came down to Butloo 
fcooi the Baxcoo to see us stan. and ihvv Intended [g 
follow (he Thompson (sic) up to where their cattle weic 
, , We camped where there was an abundance of green 
gr&tt, and water for nearly a week . I then 
TO look for water ... leaving Dr Murray in charge ... 
with instructions to move down rhe creek, il ... but 
not until the water was done. I returned the third dftj 
... to move ... to a little water which I had found and 

would have done for a few days ... 1 found that 
Dr Murray had sent the horses and camels si\ nj cigtrj 
miles down the creek ... although there was still 
w.ut-r ... for three of four days longer. I was quite mad 
at this; all my plans were upset .. there wns nothing 
for it but to take the whole expedition with mc when- 
ever I went as there w;*s no use leaving anything in 
charge of ... Dr Murray; and bad as he was, he was 
the best 1 had to leave in any charge, and you know 
.. a person ... at the head of an exploring party ... 
often finds it necessary ... lo go ahead and see ... [so 
nsj not to nek the whole party at once ... on 25th 
November we all started for ... Cooper's Creek ...the 
distance being sixty six wiles ... found the creek quite 
dtv. and no certainty of getting water for !00 miles 
further ... The horses had been thirty six hours wu hour 
WfltBF and Ihe men about six hours. I then started to 
look for water and told the doctor to follow the 
back to thelasr water ... finding water within ten miles 
of our former camp . . I immediately sent on flftj Coui 
quarts -■- the main party reached the camp and the 
doctoi ... lost all command o\ himself , he , r-ned the 
brandy, got quite drunk himself, and made everyone 
■ I he same. and ... all went to sleep. About half the 

• were unpacked, and the rest were left with their 
packs on. In the morning ... all ... w r ere gone, packs 

i The doctor declared the expedition at an end, 
saying, ,l We may as well go ihe whole tlOJ 
Leichhardt expedition is ended". He again got quite 
drunk ... The end ol' il is— all lives Eared, tour i 
only out of seventy one, all the camels, nearly half 
i alions saved, all instruments saved; but to do all this 
I have travelled 600 miles within the last two weeks . 
The expedition is far from being at an end. I have now 
W Caiman. Barnett. Belooch fEasl Indian) and |wo 
... with rations enough to take us to ... the 
North coast, and as soon as the camels are rested I will 
start on. Perhaps 1 am belter — certainly safer — than 
before, fot 1 am not depending on any one. Six years 
on the roads is too little for the doctor [Mclntyrc 
meant by this Murray deserved to be convicted and 
sentenced lo t&ti lypc of bald Iftbotlf] Hie blacks 

d themfi h a far better than the white men BUI) 



saved the If in men wfctti the) WU% exposed 

to a glaring sun when m a state ol helplcxs 

drunkcni; i of the Wac> to] fiouxs 

withoui water, and then svas DUI so helpless as the 

doctor when twenty Pom hours without. Hid u noi 

been for the doctor and his confounded brandy all the 
men and sixty of the horses would have been into water 
m thiny hour at ' - I have found water about 25 
miles NW from here ... and will remain there till the 
camels gel ail right Von need not show this to anybody 
as the less said about it the batter. It will be all found 
in my journal when I return. Vou will, however, be 
able 10 tell anyfttC WHO 0Ontfa<8cW wfc^I I have here 
stated that they are wrong. 1 have no doubt that the 
doctor wilt spread reports it) my detriment, but it he 
does he may look out when 1 ictum. M'Dona 
Gray will no doubt support htm. They no doubt will 
say they were not drunk , The doctor acknowledged to 
having taken three quarters of a pint. They, at all 
events, finished six hollies between them ... I send (his 
hurried note by private hand up the Baicoo. it may 
reach you ft and It may n 

material, only these leaves o( my note booi 

It is obvious that Mclntyrc did not want hearsay 
reports about what happened at Coopers Creek to 
proliferate. He was looking forward to telling all 
the facts Lo person and damning Dr Murray 
beyond redemption. However, he realised he could 
be absent a long time and accordingly by w/8rj 
a form of insurance placed lis amount of events 
in the hands of his friend McGillivrey so any 
mischievous reports to his detriment could be 
answered; and that is just what happened. In the 
following report ihe person making it has located 
Anderson with the wrong Mclmyre initially. 
Certainly the corning of Donald Mclntyrc, 
Anderson and Statue to see the expedition offi ;1S 
Duncan McJnj in his letter, could cause 

someone like Kruger to garble Ihe tale and place 
Anderson with the expedition instead of merely 
visning il 

Mr Kruger wrote 10 his brother Bernbard of 
Rutherglcn, Victoria, about April 3 866 to say that 
whilst on Ins way back Warrego River he 

had met and talked to a Mr Anderson. The latter 
said he had been looking for new country on the 
Paroo (Mitchell's Victoria) and hearing that 
Mcintyre was on the road, he made up his mind 
to join him. He met Mcintyre ai the Bulla (Bulloo), 
I creek between the Paroo and Coopers Creek. 
Having seven horses of hi> own he succeeded in 
joining the expedition. The expedition moved on 
to a station occupied by a Dr Hutchinson (from 
the Ovens district in Victoria] where all going well 
they moved to a v . S3 miles away. From 

this ivas a journey of seventy five miles ro the next 

water hole on C corners Creek. The whole party set 

All the animals were heavily laden and 






10JRSO] [I QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



red greatly* being three days without water 
To Mclntyre's great distress, on reaching Coorxis 
Creek, u was found thai ihe bed of the creek, 
eighteen months ago full of water, was now 
completely dry. There were only two courses of 
action open; to advance or retreat. The latter 
having been decided on, Mclntyre with either 
Belooch or one of the aboriginals (it is not clear 
which) returned with two camels Ln advance of the 
main party intending to rejoin if with a supply of 
water. Murray was to bring the rest of the party 
back (o the last waierhole. Mclntyre got to the 
watcrhole, loaded up, and returned to meet them 
Meantime this is what happened. Scarcely was 
Mclntyre out of sight when Murray called a hair, 
and knife m hand ripped up the bags of flour, in 
which were concealed several bottles of brandy. 
All excepting Barnes (according to one report), or 
Anderson on his own wy so, drank o\ Ihe spirit 
until they were delirious aod then fell ir>t 
drunken stupor. The fifty or sixty hordes were 
abandoned en masse and wandered away with 
their packs and saddles on |o die in agonies of 
thirst. Only three were saved, 

Barnctc says that it was Owing to him U.a; the 
calamities which happened were not far greater, 
for though he could noi prevent what took place, 
he did prevent Dr Murray from serving the men 
with spirits of wine, which would, in all human 
ibflicy, have- occasioned loss ol life, 

Kruger said that Mclntyre dismissed Murray 
and Gray, McDonald and Barnes elected to go 
with him. Mclntyre was said to have given them 
one packhorse and one of the aboriginals went 
with them as a guide ... They went first to Dt 
Hutctnnson's station and after a three day rest 
went on to Charleville on the Warrego River (28), 

ti should be noted again that Mclntyre says thai 
Anderson had been with his brother Donald and 
neither of them were ever members of the 
expedition. 

Mclntyre's statement about Murray, had as hi 
was. being the best he had to leave in charge might 
seem to show a lack of confidence in Bainett. It 
must be remembered, however, Ba/nct held no 
office in the expedition, was in fact a 
supernumerary and finally he was only 24 years of 
age. His being placed iu charge could have been 
resented by other members of the party . 

Not unexpectedly Murray began e\. 
himself and accusing Mclntyre for the debacle at 
Coopers Creek before he even gol hack to 
Melbourne. What had prompted George 
McGtflfvrey and the Riverine Hertdd to publish 
Mclntyre's letter on 24 March 1S66 was a letter 



•vniiMi by Mui i a', from VVallumbilla in 
Queensland on 4 January 1866 to a Dr James 
which was first published In the Bendixo 
Advertiser and then on 7 February 1866 in the 
Riverine Herald. Murray inters that Mclntyre had 
been rash in trying to reach Coopers Creek from 
Labrine Creek (Wilson River). Then he talks of 
Mclutyie's 'faint effert' to examine Coopers 
Creek for waterholes. The retreat to ihe last water 
supply is covered, but there is no mention of 
brandy. AH the Victorian portion oi the party 
resolved to go no further. Three returned with 
Murray, but one remained with Mclntyre (at his 
urgent request) until he could get another hand. 
The men of the party were obliged to resort to the 
most horrible expedients to quench their burning 
thirst , 

The editoi of the Riverine Herald fell this letter 
left many matters unexplained The chief of these 
were whethei Murray had left Mclntyre to his fate 
and ihe circumstances surrounding the break-up 
of the expedition. 

On 28 Februaiy 1866 the Riverine Herald 
published an account of an interview the Bendigo 
Independent had had with an experienced 
bushman recently returned to Sandhurst from the 
Wilson River (oi Lubma (sic) Creek) in 
Queensland. This man said he had met returning 
members of the Leichhardt's Search Expedition; 
the circumstances relating to the break-up of the 
party were not at all creditable to those whom he 
had met. 

When the Riverine Herald published 
McGillivrey's and Mclntyre's letters on 24 March 
1S66 the editor in n scathing editorial soundly 
castigated Murray for his misconduct, ln passing 
he expressed the opinion that it must be highly 
satisfactory to the friends of Mr Barnetr, a son of 
Dr Barnett of Sandhurst and who had 
accompanied Mr Mclntyre in his (earlier) gallant 
journey across the continent* to learn that Mr 
Barnett had remained true to his leader. 

On 27 March 1866 Murray, by then in 
Melbourne, wrote a letter to the Melbourne Herald 
avowing to refute Mclntyre's accusations. He 
said there was a very minute consumption of 
brandy (barely a quarter of a bottle) and it only 
had been consumed, in his case, to give him 
strength to work at unpacking the loads of the 
camels. The Riverine Herald repubb'shed this letter 
on 30 March and rhe editor again castigated 
Murray for his desertion of Mclntyre and asked 
also why the Committee should wish to conceal 
the break-up of the expedition from the public. 

On 29 March Murray wrote a further letter to 
the Melbourne Herald. He may have had help with 



THE DIARY OF BARNLTT 



19 



this as it is a much better written missive and facts 
arc better marshalled than in his earlier letters. 
Murray denied his moving animals from where 
Mclniyre had told him to keep them had caused 
undue delay (three hours only) in the moving off 
Of the expedition. Mclntyre was in 3 bad humour 
and his anger was responsible for him making rash 
moves. This letter was reprinted in the Riverine 
Herald on 4 April 1866 and accompanied by a copy 
Lit the editorial from ihe Melbourne Leader. This 
Inst expressed the opinion that it was a dreary and 
dUgfaceftil stoiy which had come to light, it had 
not been the 'correct thing' for Dr Murray to have 
consumed any brandy because of the demoralising 
effect his example had on the rest of the party. 
Had Mr Mclntyre and the blacks also yielded to 
the fascinations ol lite bottle as the only possible 
source of strength, the expedition, if not Ihe I 
of the explorers, would have been brought to a 
ignominious end. The view was expressed thai it 
was a pity the exposure had come before 
Mclmyre's journal became available. 

I be Riverine Herald pointed out that McJntyre 
knew nothing of Murray's communications to 
newspapers. McGilliviey and the Riverine He/aid 
alone were responsible for the publication of 
Melntyic's letter and subsequent comments. 

Murray's allusion to Barnett as the one 
Viciorian who stayed with Mclntyre only at his 
urgent request was an insult to Barneu. The 
Riverine Herald did not believe for one moment 
that Barnett required any urgent pressing oi 
pressing at all, to stay with his leader. 

The fiery editorial concludes by BCC 
Murray oi incapacity and cowardice, if Mu 
does not like this, he Vrtows where lo find his 
remedy. A classic example of "sue and be damned 

lo >Oli\ 

Despite the lambasting Murray was receiving he 
was claiming it was he who had saved the 
expeduioii sad thai Mclntyre should never have 
been placed in charge Of it, His persuasive powers 
were such that there were many peopk who 
believed him, Thus on 1 1 April 1H66 \\ 
Ci iber 1 wrote to the Riverine Herald 
expressing support for Murray a; 'a man or' high 
minded principles and upright character* and 
claiming thai, he had been made a scapegoat. 

The Riverine Herald printed on 2 May 1866 an 
interview with a Mr McDonald who had just come 
.roin the Wilson River. This is the Neil 
McDonald mentioned later with whom Mclntyre 
W9B able to trade some surplus stores foi foul 
horses after the debacle at Cooper's Creek. 
McDonald corroborated what Mclntyre had to say 



about Murray and expressed hi* indignation at the 
efforts of Murray to attempt to 'throw the blame 
of his own cowardice and indiscretion on Mr 
Mclntyre*. Murray had 10W Mclntyre he would 
leave the country, which was the only reason 
Mclntyre had no* written to Melbourne 'anything 
iiiai would compromise the doctor* , Neil 
McDonald also revealed that Murray, W.F. 
McDonald and Barnes had caroused all day while 
Gray, McCalman and Donald Mclntyre laboured 
at unloading the camels and stacking stores. Then 
when the three last-named » worn out by their 
labours, were sleeping Murray and his two 
confederates had moved off wth the camels leaving 
the three sleeping men lo their fate. This confirms 
(it need for Barnelt to have carried Donald 
Mclntyre behind him on his horse during the 
tctreat from Cooper's Creek. 

On 9 June 1866 the Riverine Herald printed an 
article from *A Darling Correspondent* who 
reviewed the whole matter and concluded his 
summing up by sa} 

there was no disaster till after the brandy was druruV. 
There was nothing disastrous about having to turn 
hack. The only disaster was the loss of horses and 
, fUMJ It Dr Murray had kept sober these could 
have been saved. Perhaps Dr Murray thinks his 
returning to Melbourne the disaster*. It was a pity 
that lit cvet left H, and I would advise him in the future 
to confine his explorations to the Richmond Paddock 
or Fiu'roy Gardens. 

Subsequently Murray turned his hand lo 
blackbirding and became a partner in the 
recruiting ship CarL After kidnapping 70 natives 
in September 1871 3 further SO Buka men were 
kidnapped and the ship was grossly overloaded 
The main method of kidnapping was to run down 
fishing canoes and then sieze the men left 
floundering in the water. The natives in the 
crowded hold started fighting Murray panicked 
and he and the crew started firing into the packed 
hold. Seventy natives were killed or badly 
wounded. The latter, although still living were 
thrown overboard with the corpses. Murray 
aped the gallows by iurning Queen's evidence. 
A letter his father wrote which the Sydney 
Morning Herald published on 23 May 1873 is a 
truly remarkable document. It reads; 

As regards Dr. Murray, the celebrated Carl 
-nancatching approver, whom I have for years cut off 
as a disgrace to creed, country and family — your 
condemnation of thai CTUfiJi unhappy being 1 fully 
endorse and add, although opposed to capita! 
punishment on principle, that if any of (he Carl crew 
murderers ever ascend the gibbet for the seventy 
kidnapped and cruelly Slaughtered pooi Polyncsinm, 
Dr. Murray should be the In 91 (29) 



:o 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



THE DEATH OF McINTYRE 

So much for Dr Murray; but a fresh and final 
disaster awaited Mclntyre. The wanton loss of 
stores at Coopers Creek, as a result of Murray's 
misconduct, led to certain replenishments being 
required before the remainder of the expedition 
set off for the western interior. From the base 
camp on the Gilliat River Mclntyre went in to 
Burketown, towards the end of April 1866, to 
purchase the required stores. He could not have 
gone in at a worse time. It happened that in late 
March or early April the ship * Margaret and Mary' 
sailed into Burketown with its crew mortally ill 
from unknown fever which had been caught in 
Java. The captain alone of the ship's crew 
survived. The fever, assuming plague proportions, 
swept the town. It was the wet season, the climate 
oppressive, there was a want of proper provisions 
and medicines, and resistance to the disease was 
low. In April 60 persons fell ill and in May and 
June 1866 there were 40 deaths out of a population 
of 90. Of the survivors there were few who had 
not suffered an attack of the "Gulf fever" as it 
came to be called. For a while it looked as though 
Burketown might have to be abandoned, but the 
fever ran its course and by 1868 it had cleared up 
and the town site was no longer regarded as 
unhealthy. (30) 

Whilst Mclntyre had camped about sixteen 
miles from Burketown, where he remained from 
20 April to 4 May, he frequently visited the 
township on expedition business. He reported on 
4 May that he was following rumours of a white 
man among the aboriginals, but as previously 
revealed, on 23 May he fell ill with the Gulf fever 
while on his way to the base camp on the Gilliat 
River. There he died on 4 June 1866 and was 
buried on the east bank of a billabong by the 
Gilliat River. (31) 

On 23 July 1866 Mueller released to the Age 
newspaper a communication from Mr John P. 
Sharkey, Queensland Crown Lands Commissioner 
for the Burke District with statements by Sloman 
and George Gracey as to the circumstances of 
Mclntyre's death. Sharkey had written on 1 1 June. 
A sad fact emerges that although the expedition 
had a large medicine chest, Mclntyre was unable 
to make use of it because all the labels were written 
in Latin. Having heard of this Sharkey set off for 
the camp on the Gilliat with some medicines which 
he thought might be of use, only to find on his 
arrival that Mclntyre had died five days earlier. 

The ladies of Melbourne sent a handsome 
gravestone, inscribed in both English and Gaelic, 
to be erected over Mclntyre's grave. For many 




Fig 4. Gravestone sent by the ladies of Melbourne to 
mark the resting place of Duncan Mclntyre. 



years it lay unnoticed on the beach at Thursday 
Island, whence it had been shipped from 
Melbourne en route to its final destination. 

It was finally brought in via Normanton and 
erected over the grave by the billagong, seven miles 
away from Dalgonally Station. (Fig. 4). (32) 

By the time Duncan Mclntyre died Donald 
Mclntyre, with 1000 head of cattle, had taken up 
a run on Julia Creek, which became the Dalgonally 
Station I have mentioned. Duncan Mclntyre had 
examined this fine area in 1864 and had directed 
Donald to it. Donald was to remain in occupation 
of this run until his death in 1907. 

BARNETT JOURNEYS TO BURKETOWN 

On 17 September 1866 the Age published a letter 
which Barnett had sent to the Riverine Herald after 
his recent return to Victoria. He deals at length 
with the cowardice and villainy of Dr Murray. It 
is in this letter he first mentions what he repeated 
in his letter published in the Argus on 3 December 
1867; namely he physically prevented Murray from 
serving out spirits of wine (i.e. absolute alcohol) 
to the party. He then covers the reorganisation of 
the party and the journey to the Gilliat River, 
about 150 miles south of Burketown. Mclntyre 
expressed the intention of remaining there about 
a month to spell the camels and make up the 
deficiencies of the party. Barnett goes on to say — 

... and I, with his consent, and I am happy to say a 
testimonial of his satisfaction of (sic) my conduct, left 



THDDIAKV U! HARNETT 



:■ 



the party, ar.iu.nni! no* easily get a man m my place 
I Maned lor Burketown, and when I arrived J.G. 
M'pormld, Esq., was just waning a hoar party to 
endeavour to Hud ihe mouth of the Leichhmdl River. 
I became one of the crew, and we were successful in 
finding (hctiHHiiii only two miles east of Albert Heads 
[i.e. where the Albert River enters the Gulf of 
< .irpeninnaj. We succeeded in getting up fifty miles 
10 the crossing place, three miles below the falls, which 
are from fifty to sixty feet high, the water being under 

fiii.d tofhtcnet Mow the tails. we returaod 10 

Bufketown, Albert River, and ! started overland for 
fort Uenison, across the Minders, the Norman, and 
the Gilbert, over the Gilbert Ranges, and on to the 
Lynd, down the Lynd and the Burdekin and thence to 
Port Denison. I think the Leichhardt navigable for 
about thirty mites. It possesses fine high banks* much 
to be preferred to the low mangrove fringed banks of 
the Albert. The Flinders, Leichhardt, and Albert and 
the tributaries are alt pretty well settled, Out there is 
still splendid pastoral country to the weMwmd, and 
aho there is some good country between the Hinder 1 . 
and the settlements on the Lynd. Respecting the half 
caries mentioned by Mr Mcln<$re« i Can fftfppon '" 
statement of their existence amongst the blacks about 
the country he speaks of. There can be no doubt ot 
whites having been amongst them about ten or fifteen 
year* ago, and k is likru enough tncr$ are still some 
t think the northern country is likely to become as 
valuable to the miner as it is undoubtedly to the 
squatter. 

Barnett had been released from the expedition 
on 24 March 1866. He received £35 wages, which 
were due to him As it WW necessary to conserve 
muds he walked two hundred miles to 
Uurketown, alone and unarmed at a time when 
armed horsemen made up parties c\^ threes and 
fours Tor mutual protection. His eyesight was 
affected by ophthalmia, and semi-blind he 
(ravelled the last one hundred miles through the 
bush in three days without anything to eat. At no 
stage does he give a reason for leaving the 
expedition and any effort on my part to assign a 
teason could only be putc conjecturc. 

There is no doubt he was resilient , when so soon 
after lus arrival in Burketown he took the 
opportunity to augment his funds by takmj: 
employment with J, G. McDonald. This man, with 
all pattv, had visited the Plains of Promise in 
1865. He discovered a more practicable route for 
cattle and sheep to the pastoral lands on the 
Flinders. He did not settle in the Gulf country, 
although he investigated much of that country. He 
had a run at Carpentaria Downs (neatly 400 
kilometres IfSE of the Gulf) and resided in the 
Lower Burdekin area. On the completion of 
McDonald's examination of the I eichhardi Kivei 
Baniett was returned to Burketown as he - 



Mo steamer or other vessel being available at 
Burketown, nor the early arrival of one being 
anticipated, Baniett was forced to travel overland 
to Port Denison (Bowen). He took ship to Sydney . 
By this tune h^-ing used up his small financial 
resources he was compelled to walk to Echuca in 
Victoria. 

EVENTS AFTER MclNTYRE'S DEATH 

A-'tcr Duncan Mrlm\r<*\ death, Dalgottailv 
became the base for the expedition. Donald 
Mclntyre appears to have exercised the role of field 
supervisor, but does not seem to have participated 
actively in the exploration. McCalman was joined 
by a Mr W.F. Sloman (to act as leader), Dr White, 
a medical man and G. Widish (sic — WLldish), Dr 
White had 'performed great exertions' to look 
alter the fever stricken population of Burketown. 
Landsborough, who filled the dual roles of 
magistrate and crown lands commissioner there, 
spoke highly of the service Dr White had rendered. 
We learn also from a report from him that Dr 
White had not escaped the fever himself and that 
McCalman and Donald Mclntyre also had 
suffered from if. 

On 22 November 1866, over five months after 
Duncan Mclntyte's death, Df Mueller forwarded, 
with a letter to the edit - Age at the wish ol 

t he ladles of the Leichhardt Search Committee 

a copy of the journal oh be lute Duncan Mclntyre 
compiled by Mr. Sloman from the diary and field 
books of the lamented explorer, and very recently 
received thtouxh Donald Campbell. Esq., of 
Glengower 

The compiled Journal adds little to what has 
been said already about Ihe expedition up to the 
time of Mclntyrc"s death, It confirms that Barnett 
joined Ute expedition on the Paroo on 10 
September 1865. He had replaced a man named 
Steward. The Journal amply testifies what a 
valuable and useful part Barnett filled in the 
expediiiLut. 

It does reveal that Donald Mclniyre was with 
the expedition until 4 December 1865, Thiv 
substantiates Barnett T s claim in the Argus of 3 
December 1S67 that for one whole day, during the 
retreat from Coopers Creek to the nearest water, 
he carried Donald Mclntyre behind him on his 
sc with the result that the horse 'knocked up' 
and Barnett, himself, was compelled to walk many 
miles 'under the scorching sun, with fearful 
agonies of thirst' upon httn. 

Donald and Anderson led (he expedition when 
Dr Murray, Grav, McDonald and Barnes did. 
Accordin nccocinl Ihe lour last mentioned 



tf 



.MEMOIRS OF THE QLlfhNSLAND MUSEUM 



were giv«n two out of the three surviving horses to 
help them get back to the nearest centre; not jum 
one as stated in Ki tiger's account. A reason is given 
for Duncan Mclntyre electing not to go on with 
anyone else but McCalman, Barnett and Belooch 
lie said he had no means of taking them due to 
the loss of so many ol' i he horses at Coopers Creek. 
Thus the disaster is glossed over and no blame is 
attributed to anyone. 

On 26 March 1866 reference js made ;o Barnett 
having left the expedition- That his departure must 
have been without hard feelings on either sid<-: i-- 
confirmed, because he accompanied Duncan 
Mclntyre and Welbo to the Flinders on 26 March 
and then parted company with them so he could 
carry on to Burketown. 

Doituld Mclntyre must have wasted uo time 
after leaving the expedition, because by 27 March 
1866 the journal refers to his station on a waterholc 
(Palgonally) near the River Giliiat and about three 
and a half miles noun of Duncan's depot camp. 
He must have had little gratitude in his makeup in 
the light of his later treatment of Barnett, 

Mclntyre was able to make good some of his 
loss of horses in a small way on 16 December. A 
Mi Neil M'Donald who was in charge of some 
cattle and then camped on the Wilson River heard 
of the disaster from the returning party. He 
concluded Mclntyrt had more stores than he could 
take on without horses. He called at the camp at 
Safety Camp and offered on 9 December to 
exchange four horses foT some of the surplus 
stores. The c> v;t> made on 16 December. 

The journal was long and occupied several 
inns in the issues of thereon 23, 24 and 26 
November and i December 2866. 

Dl M udler can led his apologia even further for 
in the 1867 issue of Justus Perthes Geographical 
Institute Bulletin iMiuheilungen aus Justus 
PrrttwsGeozraph&cher Anstait 1867) edited by Dr 
A. Pctcrmann and published at Gotta in I 
there appeared an .article entitled 'Melntyre\s 
Diary of his Journey from the Darling to the Gulf 
Of Carpentaria 1865-1866* (Melntyre's Tugebuch 
Seiner Reise vom Darling zum Golf von 
Carpentaria. 1865 bifi MJ66M) 

Much is made of the fact that alrhough an 
expedition may fail in the eyes of the public if its 
initial goal is not reached, it has ajHvays grear 
usefulness for the geographer, even if this is in 
areas not expected originally. 

A number of examples are cited, but getting 
back to Mclntyre it is said that although it had not 
been found what became of Leichhardt, ye( 
Geography has been rendered a priceless $& v\& 

that i! h&s received a list of height measurements for 



lite fiftl lint of the relief of the large region between 
the Barcoo and the Gulf of Carpentaria ... 

A short synopsis ol the Course of the Mclntyre 

expedition, along with detailed Statements about its 

sad conclusion was carried in the previous issue ot the 

Geographical Bulletin (pp. 365-368) (this would have 

been Mdntyre's own account as set out in hi* 

incomplete lener of 2 Ma\ 1866 to Dfi Muelln ! hul 

mii'.c then Dr. Ferd. Mueller, whose efforts have 

largely given the expedition some standing, has 

published the diary left behind by Mclntyre and edited 

for publication hv his companion, Slomnn. This diary 

was published in the *U''' l&ftf. Nov., 1866 fttHl 

following issue;;), so thai we could reconstruct the 

tome and record ir on the map (Kig. 5). 

The German article says no more than what was 

in the journal, published in the Age about what 

happened at Coopers Creek. Melntyre's version 

of the disaster to the expedition, published in the 

same newspaper on 27 March 1866 is blandlv 

ignored by Dr Mueller in both the release U> I he 

Age and to the German Geographical Bulletin. Dr 

Mueller obviously would not have liked the full 

story to have been resurrected. Self-interest would 

have dictated tins course, as well as chivalry 

towards the Ladies' Committee 

I be uiattet having been put to rest in a 'decent* 

way, it was little wonder that Barnett, as will be 

received shon shrlfl when he advanced a 

Cfaim for compensation in the latter part of 1867, 
In the latter part of 1866 Stamen died suddenly 
from the combined effects ol sunstroke and an 
mganu- disease of the heart, alter having followed 
several of the Gulf Streams, but not succeeding in 
discovering any further traces of Leichhardt. 

BARNETT AS LEADER 

Barneir by then had beeti three weeks back in 
Victoria. He was requested by Donald Campbell 
LOJ ijoin the expedition. Barnett was agreeable and 
returned to the depot camp at Julia Creek overland 
from Rockhampton, where he had arrived by 
.-.learner. Donald Mclntyre then called on Barnett 
to assume command of the expedition. Letters 
from Barnett to the Ladies* Committee (dated 21 
December 1866) and Donald Mclntyre to Dr 
Mueller and Donald CampbcJ! (dated, it seems, 22 
December 1866) were taken by Belooch to Port 
Denison (Bowen) in The ship Black Prince. Me If 1 1 
Julia Creek on 23 December and arrived at Port 
Denison on 11 January 1867. Belooch repotted 
that the party were all well A press item in the 
Port Denison limes of 12 January (copied in the 
Australasian on 23 February 1867) stated: 

L9 the party itself there I I be some 

difficulty in ohtaining a competent teadei , and 



THE DfARY OF BARNETT 



11 




,. ■ five - u 3 

/ 

J ■,■.... |n 



i ' -4 — * ^i- <h> *.„.liTlt 

Si ' ^$& 7 fc -r* x- 

t i s&» -*v a n^...'..- . >■■■ -" t fc ■ - 



u 



MEMOIRS CI- THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Con&ftta] il ' mongst the men in 

consequence thereof. We arc inclined to hope lhal Mr. 
Christ ieson, ol whose competency ihcrc enn be no 
question ... will become the tesdftl BtlOOCfi has. «*o 

underhand, sent telegrams to Dr. Mueller and the 

I adits' Committee in Melbourne uul is awaiting the 

result. There are at preser * frjfcltc 

camp, the whole party consisting of eight, the five who 
are not in camp being engaged In oxajntnitlg the 
surrounding cou n 1 1 y . 

The Port" Denison Times hopes for Mr 
Christicson were not fulfilled as the Ladies' 
Committee and Mr Donald Campbell confirmed 
the appointment of Barnett. (33) Before dealing 
with the final stages of the expedition under 
Barnett's leadership, some consideration should be 
given to the public feeling prevailing at the time 
he undertook the tftsk. 

An ami Mchi'vn- school of thought grew up in 
some quarters dre to the vilifications of Dr Murray 
and statements such as that of Mr Kruger in hi» 
letter to his brother Bernhard* 

He [Duncan Mclntyre] purposeK did not accept any 
Sfljftry from the committee in CMC nny mishap should 
befall the party; he only looked out to himself. He 
afterwards selected a run on the Bulla, but, having no 
stockmen to put on, a Mr. SulHvaD jumped it. When 
he found he had lost his run he pushed on to the 
Thomson River where he had no business to go, as bis 
p.uh and duty lies due north across die Thomson and 
on to the Barcoo, and up the Barcoo on the Flinders 
River, where he would come across Leichhardt*s trail 
in 22 parallel, but never by going east into the settled 
districts, This is the second time that public money has 
been thrown away in such .1 shameful manner through 
bad riianiuictuent in not selecting proper leaden and 
men; it is no wonder people be«in to drop to it, and 
will nor tiivrii more- mwt.ey 

... I am sure it is not ihebe^t way to jtet Leichhaidr's 

travelling rhrough the titled districts of 

Victoria and New South vValea Cot i,.'00 miles, 

wearing out man and beast to !i( tic 01 no purpose 04] 

A substantially similar letter appeared in a 
newspaper called the M.A . Mail from which it was 
reprinted by the Riverine Herat iJ on 2ft May 1866. 
It was claimed that Herman fCruggf was a returned 
member ol the I.eichhardr Search Expedition. The 
tfiverinr Herald made short work of this claim. 
pointing out the only ones to return with Murray 
were McDonald, Gray and Barnes 

David Blair, in his Cyclopaedia of Australia, 
already referred to. says the expedition was an 
ignominious failure, the result of want Of 
judgment and experience. Blair considered the 
marked trees on the Flinders were done by 
OTOtlgb, i'mi the horses had been left by 
MeKinlav 



Notwithstanding this Mclntvre's honesty and 
bushcraft must have received tuoie than a 
modicum of support when the provision and 
transport of the handsome gravestone by the 
Ladies' Committee is considered Also Or Mueller 
not appear ever to have launched any 
criticism of Mclntyre. 

Perhaps Duncan Mclntyre was one of those 
children of misfortune for whom any enterprise, 
once it commences to go wrong, despite all care 
taken and skill employed, can never be righted 
again. In his case the ultimate loss was his own 
life, 

Nevertheless Barnett was to suffer from the ill 
feeling about the expedition which was prevalent. 

BARNETTS DIARY 

Before presenting the text of Barnett's dial . Il 
i \ desirable that some anomalies should be cltaiei I 
up. He refers to the Jenny River and William River 
of MeKinlav. However, Barnett appears to have 
them in the wrong order; McKinlay finds and 
names the Jeannie (not the Jenny) on 30 April 1862 
between his Camps 47 and 48. Then between 
Camps 48 and 49 on 1 May he discovered and 
named the William (35)* Therefore the William 
must lie to the north of the Jeannie, but Barnett 
refers to them in the reverse order 

This has made even harder the preparation of a 
map of the area covered by the travels described 
In the diary. However, if the order of the William 
and the Jeannie is reversed it is possible to prepare 
a map which may describe the area traversed by 
Barnett and his party McKinlay 1 s meridians are 
not accurate. He is up to 20 miles out: with some 
of his locations. Barneit does not give any latitudes 
let alone longitudes However, his bearings are 
some help, but his failure to give a total mileage 
for every day makes it harder to truly delineate the 
route taken by his party and the area covered. 
Therefore the map (Fig 6) must be regarded as 
largely conjectural. However, it does give an 
indication that the area searched could be 
circumscribed by latitudes 19°30'S to 21 n S and 
longitudes 139*45*6 to 14! D 30*E — 9500 square 
miles. 

It should be noted that the party was beset by 
sickness — fevers and agues and in Barnett's case 
ophthalmia, which resulted in him having to be led 
by MeCalman for some days as he was too blinded 
|0 see where be w;is going. Vagaries of weather 
-.list' played a pai t in inhibiting the progress of the 
expedition. Excessive summer temperatures, 
thunder Monti?, Flash floods and resultant 
bogginess of flat areas slowed down the transport 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



25 




Fig 6. Map showing the conjectured search area. 



36 



MEMOIRS Ol THE QUEENSLAND Ml 



aniniaU (i.e. the camels) and limited the speed of 
exploration activities. An example of this occurred 
between 11 and 1< Match 1867. 

Baxnetf s camp identifications LE over a Roman 
numeral over \\ arc (0 be interpreted as "Leichhardi 
Expedition 1 followed by the number of the camp 
and then Harnett' as expedition leader. 

Name! of topographical features allocated by 
Barnett have noi survived. The non-publication of 
his journal could account for fin*. The names 
never came into current usage, as, say, did those 
given Ui features by McK inlay which were 
published \Q the world at large in his journal and 
maps. 

The diary commences on 20 January 1 867, when 
Barnett describes the depot camp, the flora and 
fauna of the surrounding area and outlines what 
may be described as the guidelines of the 
expedition in its search for traces of l.ciehhardt. 
He details also the party personnel and the 
transport and stoics logistics. 

The dairy now commences: 
Sunday 20th January, 1867 

Depot Camp situated on a deep water-hole 
about 3 miles long, and 1(H) yards wide id .Julia 
Creek, an eastern tributary of the Gilliott which is 
a western tributary of the Flinders. The creek is 
only timbered here and there with small patches 
o\' scrub or a little worthless box; below the water- 
hole rhe creeks runs out over low flat plains and 
above it, it becomes a very small creek occasionally 
breaking into several billibongs and then again 
forming large watci holes. Eta general course is 
E.S.E. and W.N.W. 

The country on either side ol the creek is a gently 
rising well grassed plain of dark loomy soil for 
about 2 mis when there is a si rphr sandy rise lightly 
timbered bevond which arc gently swelling, well 
grassed undulations relieved by scrubby and lightly 
timbered sandv rises 

About 25 mis up the creek are several springs 

which cover many acres of ground the waters of 

which arc slightly impregnated with soda, there are 

two large springs of the same kind about 20 

miles to the west of us situated near the Gilliott. 

There was plenty Of tain aboUl a month ago so 
that the country is now looking its best and that is 
indeed beautiful. There is a fuvsh and wonderful 
exuberance of life. The whol,' coururv blooms in 
the magnificence of a tropical midsummer, 
creeping plants and many coloured flowers ate 
plentiful over the plains which are covered with 
insects of even description. 

The flies and mosquitoes axe very numerous 
making the horses and camels very restless, many 
af whose eyes show the disagreeable effects of 



: Insects, two oi the camels arc quite blind in 
consequence of them. 

There are several pelicans and ibis' on the water- 
holt- together whh numbers of water-hens, du 
and other aquatic birds. 

Snakes iguanas and lizards are very numerous 
in the adjacent country as well as flocks of Stuns 
flock pigeons. 

The max. temp has been 1 1 1*F. in the shade but 
light zephyrs relieved the oppressive heat. 

It is proposed that the party start tomorrow 
westward for these re^oi^ "That all the other 
country has been well explored and most of it 
taken up by squatiers who and whose men are 
continually riding over it and would most probably 
ere tins have found traces of Leichardt did any 
exist rtiat, in consequence of the country 
becoming thus inhabited by white men the 
aboriginals have all receeded to the west and to 
discovei if any traces of Leichardt are amongst 
them we must follow. That if Leichardt arrived all 
safe at his marked tree on the Flinders, his most 
probable route would then or shortly after have 
been to the west, and that by thus travelling 
shall cross all the western tributaries of the Flinders 
and on arriving at any one that has uot hitherto 
been followed a camp may be formed and the 
creek searched both above and below our track 
and if possible communication established with the 
aboriginals, after leaving the water-shed of the 
Flinders all other rivers and creeks that may be 
meet with may be searched in like manner." 

The party now consist of Wm. Fred Barnett 
(leader), J. McCalman (second in command) Dr. 
White (Medical officer) C. Mclntyre. George 
Wildish and Myola (an aboriginal). We shall take 
with us all the camels consisting of 9 capable of 
bearing packs and 6 young ones, 10 horses and 
stores suffleJem tor i Months. 

Monday 21st January, 1867, 

Started on a bearing of 230 over well grassed, 
gently swelling plains and in one hour and a half 
arrived at the middle creek, we continued on the 
same bearing over similar country crossing two 
Mats subject to inundation and at 1.25 struck a 
blue bush flat betow Mclntyre Camp L1I followed 
it up south for about a mile and arrived at the 
< 'amp I at 40 minutes past one. We travelled about 
1 1 miles and found that the camels suffered very 
much being so fat and the young ones were a great 
nuisance. The camp is on a billybong of the Gilliott 
Mid there is very little water gt it 

I .arge flocks of galars and cockatoos were flying 
about. 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



27 



Tuesday 22nd January, 1867. 

At 5 minutes past 8 on a bearing of 180 to avoid 
billybong and then 200 across the Gilliott, at 9.10 
passed a spring Continued across creeks and 
billybong and to avoid water had to make more 
southey than desirable until about 12 o'clock when 
we struck over a low range running N.N.W. & 
S.S.E. beautifully grassed but covered with 
pudding stones. To the south the range is higher 
and thickly covered with gydia scrub. From the 
top of the range 1 observed about 2 mis W.S.W. 
a large belt scrub, over to the west a belt of timber 
which I believed to be a creek and I could see very 
high downs apparently on the other side. We 
arrived at the creek at 1.10 and camped on a 
billybong. There is not much water and as the rain 
appears not to have been so plentiful here I intend 
to go ahead tomorrow. We travelled 12 mis today. 
The max. temp has been 110°F. This country 
appears to be equal to any in the north as far as 
grazing capabilities are concerned and the creek 
we are now on most probably contains permanent 
water holes. 

Wednesday 23 rd January, 1867. 
Leaving the party encamped at Camp II; which 

LE 

is branded yr and B, I started with Mr. 

McCalman to examine the country to the west. We 
crossed several billybongs of the creek which has 
taken the name of Western, then over a fine high 
plain and in about a mile came on to a small 
channel sandy and the[n] crossed two sandy 
branches. We now could see a beautifully grassed 
rise before us the top of which is covered with 
patches of gydia scrub we continued in a west by 
north direction to the top of rise and could see that 
to the south by west it increased in height and the 
scrub became more dense, we observed a range 
running sou-west and nor-west about five miles 
distant. At about 4 mis from Camp II we arrived 
at a small dry creek running south which appears 
to continue into the range when it is thrown round 
into Western Creek. Continuing in a west by north 
course we crossed a small spinifex ridge and then 
for three miles over well grassed plains when we 
again came on to spinifex covered with decayed 
ant-hills and stunted apple leafed gums with 
occasional stunted bloodwood and bohemia trees. 
After travelling over this kind of country for about 
seven miles and seeing no prospect of a change 
ahead, we turned east and continued for 10 mis 
over similar desert country crossing several heads 
of the small creek we crossed in the morning when 
we came on to well grassed plains and gydia scrub 
and in five miles struck the Western Creek which 



has here no sandy channel. We crossed it and 
followed it up three miles to camp It was my 
intention to have travelled west from Camp II but 
the country I have seen today causes me not to 
attempt it as the camels are in no condition for 
hard work. I shall therefore follow down this creek 
a few miles and then strike about NNW for the 
Cloncurry waters 

Thursday 24th January, 1867. 

Started at 8.20 a little to the east of north over 
well grassed plains which run back from the creek 
about three miles and then rise to a low well 
grassed range running nearly parallel with the 
creek timbered with patches of gydia scrub. On 
the opposite side of the creek there is a scrubby 
ridge running along within a mile. As we 
proceeded the plains became wider and dotted with 
small lagoons filled by shallow billybongs out of 
the creek. At 11 a.m. we crossed a billybong and 
camped at a good water hole in it as I see there is 
apparently a break in the scrubby ridge on the 
other side of the creek There is scarcely any defined 
channel in the creek here, it running in a broad 
flat cut up by small channels. 

In the evening heavy rain clouds rose to the 
north and vivid lightning was observed in the same 
direction The max temp has been 115 F in the 
shade today Branded a tree LE 

III 
B 

Friday 25th January 

Started across the creek at 8 AM on a bearing 
of 330. Over break in range which open into well 
grassed stoney undulations intermixed with the 
patches of gydia scrub, Then crossed belts of gydia 
and well grassed stoney plains alternatively At 1 1 
AM arrived at a spinifex ridge and followed down 
a small water course about same bearing to a blue 
bush swamp with water timbered with india- 
rubber trees. We made a little east to avoid swamp 
and then came through a small belt of gydia to a 
well grassed plain and in half a mile struck a 
branch of a large creek we can see farther to the 
north. The country travelled over today is very 
beautiful in appearance and if it proves to be well 
watered will be very valuable to squatters. I went 
over to the large creek and found that it is a large 
sandy channel in which there is at present water 
but it will not last long The timber consist of very 
fine gums and gum saplings together with box 
which runs back from the creek about half a mile 
on either side Heavy rain clouds are rising all 
round us and I observed a rainbow at 6 PM. 



28 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



dealing 11 U, i temp baibeen 116 today in 

the shade. Tree branded L E 

B 

Sansrday 26th January 1S6? 

Led hi H.20 on a bearing of 340 over creek 
running south and in half an hour arrived at 
another running in a similar direction which we 
followed up into a creek coming From the west and 
running to the nor-east which 1 think the 
Cloneurry and the creek we followed up merely an 
a 1 1 r< bra ncli of it We crossed the creek coming from 
the west and travelled in a north by west course 
through a box forest crossing two small billybougs 
running west by south, At length we arrived at a 
well grassed stoney rise liglitlv timbered with gydia 
and acacjac which we travelled up ana crossed a 
little spinifex We struck the head of a small watcj 
course and followed it down to a blue-bush swamp 
and crossing a small gydia ridge arrived at a small 
creek running north. The max temp has been 117 
F Toward sundown heavy rain clouds gathered to 
the N.S and E and about 8 PM the was a slight 
fall of rain Vivid lightning was observed to the S.W 
and N.E. 

Sunday 27th January 1867 

Camped. The day has been fine with gusty 
breezes Max temp ti3F. Heavy ralfl clouds are 
gathering all round us At about 7 PM there was a 
smart fall of rain but having received warning we 
were all prepared having one tent over the stores 
and in the other we all managed to make out selves 
comfortable 

Monday 28th January 1867 

In consequence of the packs getting in disorder 
last night by reason o\' the rain we did not get 
started till 9 AM. After travelling for about a mile 
west over sandy ridges on which there was a 
sprinkling at spun lux, wc came on to a blue bush 
swamp which contained water Fn order to avoid it 
we were obliged to make a little southing 
Continuing a little to the north of west we crossed 
a small dry creek running north and then passing 
through some gydia scrub in about two miles from 
camp came on to a small but very good creek 
running NNE in which there was large numbers of 
water-fowl of different descriptions and round the 
edge of the water heavy tracks of blacks We had 
lo make to the east a little for a crossing, we then 
went through n belt of gydia and on to lightly 
timbered stoney undulations which soon became 
plains and then again utldulatjoiw At l JO PM we 



came on to a small creek with water timbered with 
gydia which we crossed bearing N We then 
proceeded for two miles over stoney well grassed 
undulations lightly timbered with blood wood and 
icacias and at past 2 PM, arrived at a small creek 
running about north timbered with box gydia and 
a-rubber trees called Whites Creek The max 
temp, has been 1 15 and it threatens tarn. 

Tuesduy 29th January IH67 

Having made all snug last night wc had scarcely 
turned in when it Commenced to tain and 
continued until 1 AM this morning. During the 
storm a very fieice stroke of lightning struck close 
up followed by a most terrific pea! of thunder The 
state of the ground and our blankets causes me to 
spell today. 

Wednesday 30th January 1867 

Started at about 8 O'clock across creek 
travelling west and to the north of it we passed 
through some gydia scrub and then on to stoney 
undulations with patches of scrub and acacias. 
Then over well grassed plain to a small water 
course running north and again plains to a small 
ridge timbered with acacias, Plains succeeded until 
1 * past 10 we arrived at a creek running north 
generally running In a number of small billybongs 
but every few miles joining in a good water hole. 
We crossed the creek and a billybong of it and 
traveled over a rising plain on to high sandy flats 
timbered with blood-wood gums, box and acacias 
and covered thickly with portulac We found that 
the rain had been much heavier here and we made 
a very zig-zag way m order to avoid the boggy 
patches On arriving at a small creek running south 
about which there is a good deal of blue bush we 
camped at a water hole in it, The max temp has 
been 1 1 8 F and heavy white headed clouds foretold 
rain which commenced very heavily about 3 PM 
and continued till nearly sundown 

Thursday 31 si January 1867 

The ground being loo boggy for the camels to 
travel the parly encamped. With MeCalman, I 
started west and in about five miles travelling over 
country at first similar to that about the camp and 
then open plains. We came on to a small billybong 
which we crossed and in a few minutes came tin io 
.i very large dry sandy channel which I believe to 
be the William of McKinlay. We crossed it and in 
about a mile came on to a billybong containing 
water we then returned to camp It threatens more 
rain, anyhow we shall be compelled to continue in 
camp In consequence of (he stale of the plains 



THL DIARY OF BARNLTT 



29 



Friday 1st February 1867 

The thermometer reached to 123°F and heavy 
rain clouds and thunder storms have been all 
round us today but the sky cleared towards the 
evening and the night was clear and starlight The 
everlasting "parquil poker" of the frogs and the 
musical wheel-like click of the locusts are heard 
throughout the night, 



Saturday 2nd February 1867 

Started at half past 8 down the small creek on 
which we camped until we came to a crossing; we 
then travelled generally sou- west over lightly 
timbered sandy ridges and small plains At 1 1 AM . 
we an-ived at the William, in which now a small 
stream of water is flowing The river possesses high 
banks timbered with gum box, cabbage palms and 
fig trees and a few small beef-wood trees. We 
followed up the river for about 3 miles passing a 
box flat and camped. 

As Leichardt might have travelled on this river 
wc shall follow it up and then if possible cross on 
to another water course farther west which we will 
follow down. 



Sunday 3rd February, 1867. 

Camped as Camp VIII. The day is fine and clear 
with a cool breeze from the son-sou west 
LE 
Tree branded VIII 
B 



Monday 4th Feb 1867. 

Travelling up the William a little to the east of 
south we passed several box flats and then on to 
the fine high banks of the river very well timbered. 
At about 3 mis a point of the river compelled us 
to make a little easting and then on our former 
bearing we passed over fine open well grassed 
glades with clumps of box running parrallel with 
them Two miles brought us on the lightly, 
timbered sandy undulations and we then changed 
course to the west of south and in a short time 
came on to some small billybongs of the river. 
Observing a blacks signal fire bearing 225 we made 
for it and struck the river and continued up it until 
past 12 PM. Toward evening my head became ver> 
bad and I soon found 1 had an attack of fever but 
1 must endeavour to get out of this camp tomorrow 
LE 

Tree branded IX 
B 



Tuesday 5th Feb 1867 

Generally south up creek for about 3 mis when 
I noticed a good waterhole in the William and 
came on to some most beautiful country much 
higher than (hat we had been previously travelling 
over composed of well grassed stoney abrupt 
undulations amongst which various small creeks 
make their way and small plains of red loom 
magnificiently grassed and rich with herbage, 
relieved by clumps of gydia and acaciae. We 
crossed several small creeks and changing bearing 
to the west of south again struck the river and after 
following it up a short distance came on to a deep 
narrow channel coming from the east and camped 
LE 

Tree branded X 
B 

Wednesday 6th Feb 1867 

Feeling too unwell to travel I desire Mr. 
McCalman to cross the river and examine the 
country about "He informs me that up ihe river 
it bears SW There is a blood wood ridge running 
along about 2 mis back off the river and two dry 
broad shallow billybongs. About a mile up the 
creek on this side a billybong Joins it containing 
some good water holes. 

Thursday 7th Feb 1867. 

1 am still very weak and in much pain and 
consequently remain encamped 

Friday 8th Feb 1867 

Camped. The creek commenced rising towards 
evening and heavy clouds threatened rain, It 
commenced raining lightly about 10 PM. 

Saturday 9th Feb 1867. 

Heavy rain from 3 to 5 AM. The day has been 
very close and oppressive, the sky is dark and wild 
all round By 12 noon the river had risen 9 ft The 
rain recommenced heavily about sundown and 
continued throughout the night. 

Sunday J 0th Febry 1867 
The day has been fine and the river commenced 

to fall rapidly 

Monday 11 rh Feb 1867 

Started with Mr. McCalman up billybong to 
river about 6 mis. It is very much broken here and 
the main channel bears a good deal to the west 
becoming broader and shallower. A small branch 
OOllies in from the south On returning to camp 
Mr. McCalman started after the camels but was 



JO 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSGI IM 



unable to find one of the males for a considerable 
time At length tailing in with some fresh blacks 
tracts he followed them and found lhat ihey had 
driven him into the river and very severely 
maltreated him They had only just left the camel 
when McCalman found him no doubt it was him 
Who disturbed them This little incident shows that 
The blacks are both bold and hostile about here 

Tuesday 12th Feb 1867 

Started about SE to avoid the deep narrow 
channel of the creek running WNW and on 
striking it up where it is broken and timbered with 
gydia wc crossed it and [ravelled over a well 
gi assed plain to a good water hole in the billybong 
of the William. Colin Mclntyre brought word that 
there are some tracks of cattle up the river — 1 
intend tomorrow for Mr. McCalman to examine 
them and see if there is chance of getting a bullock 
and 1 will endeavour to overhaul the blacks. 
LE 

Branded tree XI 
B 

Wednesday 13th Febr 186? 

Starred with Myola down (o Camp X and found 
there had been two blacks at it yesterday. We 
continued down the river and saw a great many 
fresh tracks of blacks After about nine miles 
travelling we arrived at a large camp where they 
had slept last night and about half a mile further 
came on to about ten men and a number of boys 
most of them busy gathering honey On perceiving 
us they all immediately precipitated themselves 
into the river and shortly disappeared not however 
until 1 had been able to show them that our camels 
were not to be maltreated with impunity. Having 
examined their camp and tools we returned to 
Camp XL 

Mr. McCalman informed me that the cattle 
tracks seen by Colin Mclntyre were too old to lead 
hiij] to expect cattle in the immediate vicinity 

Thursday 14th February 1867 
Encamped, shooting ducks 

Friday 15th February 1867 

Crossed billybong and proceeded up the river to 
where a deep creek joined it coming from the 
soulh, the river coming from the sou-west We then 
recrossed the billybong on which we camped last 
night, it coming out of the river just below the deep 
creek. The ground being very much cut up by deep 
narrow gutters we made out on the high downs on 
the east side of the river After five or six miles 



travelling wc crossed a creek timbered with gydia 
and box coming from the sou-sou east and I then 
observed two mounts one bearing 235 on the east 
side of the William and other bearing 260 which I 
have named after Mr. McCalman of the 
Expedition, I noticed these bearings at 1 1.6 AM; 
Bearing 260 for Mount McCalman over inferior 
plains. Over sandy soil timbered with Bloodwood, 
Bohemia and Apple leafed Gums at about 2 PM. 
i I ck the river which we crossed and camped. I 
proceeded 2 mis on a bearing of 260 to 
Mi. McCalman and observed another mount which 
1 have called after the late Mr W F Sloman 
LE 
Tree branded XII 
B 

Saturday 16th February 1867 

Passing over sandy soil country timbered with 
Bohemia Bloodwood and Gums to hard stoney 
plains at three miles bearing 280 we made Mount 
Sloman which t ascended and observed a long 
heavy range about 25 mis distant the south end of 
which was bearing 290 which I will call Mcfntyre's 
Range after our much lamented and talented 
leader Duncan Mclntyre, 1 likewise observed a 
mount bearing 320 to which we proceeded and 
camped on a small creek running east-nor-east 
which I afterwards found to be the Jenny 

Sunday 1 7th February 1867 
Camped. 

LE 
Tree branded XIII 
B 



Monday 18th February 1867 

Leaving the party encamped I started with Dr. 
White on a general bearing of 290 over high broad 
stoney ridges, At 3 miles struck a creek which 'we 
ran down and found it rapidly increased in size 
running north and east, We travelled 280 over high 
stoney ridges to a small creek running N.N.E. 
Again over stoney ridges which soon became 
covered with quartz surfacing triodia and apple 
leai'ed Gums and passing over a quartz range we 
came on to a small creek. Crossing another Quartz 
range we came on to another small creek which we 
followed down until it meet the previous one on 
then we returned to Camp. 

Tuesday 19th February 1867 

Removed the party to a water-hole on The firsi 
creek I had struck yesterday and camped as it 
threatened heavy rain which luckily held off until 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



31 



we had made all snug when it commenced heavily 
and continued for about 2 hours. 
LE 
Tree branded XIV 
B 



Wednesday 20 February 1867 

Travelled with the party over the first quartz 
range and followed the creek down nth & nor-east 
with much difficulty the ranges coming in abruptly 
and travelling on the top of which was rendered 
almost impossible by deep gutters running at right 
angles into the creek. Having followed down the 
creek some distance we were able to cross and 
make on to the stoney ridge and follow down creek 
until we meet another coming from the sou-west 
which we crossed Continuing down creek we 
struck another from the west-sou west which was 
so deep and narrow and whose banks were so 
precipitious that we were compelled to follow it 
up some distance until it broke into several small 
ones which we crossed Finding travelling along the 
creek most difficult I struck over a timbered flat 
for a rock bearing 290 which I ascended and 
observing nothing but frightfully broken and 
scrubby country to the westward I changed bearing 
to 320 on to a quartz reef from which I observed 
small plains to the nor-east Changing bearing to 
60 we continued over a timbered flat to a small 
plain, Seeing there was a water course on the other 
side I travelled east until we struck it but finding 
it a confused mass of deep gutters timbered with 
gydia I continued along plain a little to the east of 
north and observing the gydia lose itself in gum I 
made a little more easting and struck the creek, 
the heads of which we had crossed in the morning, 
which had now became a large sandy channel and 
which I believe to be the Dougall of McKinlay 
LE 

Tree branded XV 
B 



Thursday 21st February 1867 

Travelling about nor-east down river we crossed 
it and continued down over high sandy soil country 
lightly timbered with Bloodwood Beef wood Box 
and Gydia to a Lime stone ridge which ran 
abruptly into the river. Travelling along a large 
plain we struck the river at Duncan Mclntyre's 
XLV Camp of his first expedition to the Gulf, the 
camp at which he found the two horses. 
LE 

Tree branded XVI 
B 



Friday 22nd February 1867 

Leaving the party encamped I with 
Mr.McCalman followed along the bank of the 
river and in two miles came on to a lime stone ridge 
on which is the grave of Davy, one of 
Mr.McIntyres black boys. There is a good water 
hole in the river here, We searched up and down 
the river and returned to camp 

Saturday 23rd February 1867 

Started at half past seven over sandy soil 
timbered with Bloodwood Beefwood Gums and 
Bohemias on to a large plain at 9 AM we struck a 
point of timber and in a mile cross a small 
billybong Over hard sandy soil lightly timbered 
with acaciae; crossed a sand ridge timbered with 
box and acaciae and then again on a hard sandy 
soil and small rich loom plains with occasional 
small timbered ridges Recrossed billybong and 
followed it down to Camp 17 I started west by 
north and in a mile pulled the river which I found 
had decreased in size and making much easting I 
followed it down three miles without seeing any 
water nor does its appearance promise any ahead 
LE 

Tree branded XVII 
B 

Sunday 24th February 1867 

Camped. We shot a good many ducks, There 
are numbers of emus about this country and I 
forgot to mention that about the country we 
travelled over from the William to the Dougall 
kangaroos are plentiful 

Monday 25th February 1867 

Travelling about nor-east we passed over high 
lightly timbered plains and at a little more than a 
mile struck a large shallow water hole in billybong, 
Thence over well grassed plains entirely destitute 
of timber for three miles when they became lightly 
timbered and approaching the river the country 
became high and sandy timbered with box, gum 
and bohemia A large blue bush swamp compelled 
us to make a little to the east crossing a small 
billybong which we followed down along a 
sandridge passing two large recent camps of 
blacks. The billybong making in for the river we 
left it crossing the sandridge on to a low plain and 
in a mile and a half struck the river and camped 
as it had been raining a little and threatened more 
We had barely time to make all snug when we 
experienced such a wind storm that the pegs of our 
tent were torn from the ground and before we 
could set it again the rain came down as it were a 
sheet of water 



32 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Tuesday 26th February 1867 

Crossed the Dougall to its west side on to long 
well grassed plains gradually rising for 2 miles to 
a broad rather stoney ridge bearing 30 down river 
along plains in four miles they became dotted with 
small clumps of gydia scrub with a line of gydia 
to the right fringing the river. Making a little more 
to the east the plains became lightly timbered with 
acaciae and in about a mile we came on to a 
billybong of the river timbered with box and india 
rubber trees and camped. It rained shortly after 
arriving in camp. 

Wednesday 27th February 1867 

The party encamped, Mr.McCalman and I 
started down the river and found that it is now cut 
up into many channels and has lost its former 
sandy nature its bed now being either quicksand 
or mud The timber is principally box, gydia and 
india rubber trees with a few bohemias. On the 
west side a gydia creek comes from the ridge while 
on the east side is a high long plain well grassed, 
In the afternoon I crossed the river and followed 
it up over plains crossing which to the east I found 
them cut up by small water courses timbered here 
and there with box, I observed a number of turkeys 
and several native companions. 

Thursday 28th February 1867 

It having rained again yesterday the plains are 
too boggy for the camels we are therefore still 
camped, Mr.McCalman and Mclntyre with Myola 
have started again down the river. 

Friday 1st March 1867 

Camped, Mr.McCalman and Mclntyre up the 
river 



Saturday 2nd March, 1867. 

Rode over to creek on the west side of river, 
crossing which I entered a gydia scrub which was 
about two mis wide, Keeping a west course for 
seven miles over spinifex ridges crossing several 
small creeks which flow into the Dougall 

Sunday 3rd March 1867 

Camped at XIX. The river commenced to rise 

Monday 4th March 1867 

Steady rain with a reef-top-sail breeze from the 
sou-sou-west which in the afternoon became gusty 
and shifted to all points of the compass and the 
rain became heavier and continued until midnight 



Tuesday 5th March 1867 

A little rain in the morning, The country is in a 
frightfully boggy state. 

Wednesday 6th March 1867 

Rain again at 1 AM. Cleared towards daybreak 
Creek falling rapidly 

Thursday 7th March 1867 

Rode out in several directions to see if there was 
any chance of being able to travel but found the 
country in such a dreadfully boggy state that to 
attempt it would be useless. We had a few light 
showers in the evening 

Friday 8th March 1867 

The day promises to be fine. I, sincerely hope it 
may prove so, for being cooped up in this manner 
is anything but pleasant especially when such a 
short time has been allowed me 

Saturday 9th March 1867 

Fine during the day I rode over to the creek to 
the west and found it much flooded, managed to 
cross it and followed it about sou-west for five 
miles but could not find a crossing for the camels 
Travelling east I struck the Dougall and followed 
it down but could not find a crossing 

Sunday 10th March 1867 
Camped 

Monday 11th March 1867 

Finding it impossible to travel with the whole 
party on account of the boggy state of the country 
I determine to run down the river to find out into 
what it flows Accordingly started with 
Mr.McCalman across river with much difficulty 
and travelled down it about 15 miles general 
bearing 30. We now observed a spinifex ridge close 
in to the river on its west side and force it more to 
the east 

Travelling on a bearing of 90 at five miles we 
had crossed several small channel of a water course 
which I believe to be the Jenny of McKinlay and 
then came on to a large water course having at this 
point besides billybongs two large sandy channels, 
the one being a billybong of the other This must 
be the William, Having crossed we followed down 
bearing 60 for five miles and camped on a small 
billybong 

Tuesday 12th March 1867 

On a bearing of 60 for six miles over well grassed 
plains Observing that the spinifex ridge on the west 
side of the Dougall appeared to force that river 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 






close into the William we recross the William the 
tejtny and the Dougall and found their waters meet 
about here While their main channels run parallel 
with one another Having travelled about eight 
miles general bearing 25 we crossed the point of 
the spinifex ridge and observed to the east a large 
water comse running north and south whose 
timber a little north of the point of the spinife.x 
ridge joins the timber of the river we had just 
lied This water course is the Cloncurry and 
ott conjoined Bearing nearly north in about a 
mile and a half we came on to a camp of Mr 
Slom.ms situated about V* of a mile south o\' 
Mr. Palmers sheep station on a billybong of the 
Cloncurry and Gilliott conjoined. We now 
proceeded to return to Camp XIXB recrossing the 
William to its east side and travelled over at first 
small plains to a great extent flooded and cut up 
by anabranches and small creeks coming off the 
I i ^acaciae timbered plains running between the 
William and the Cloncurry Then high and rather 
stoncy plains, well grassed and on to haid sandy 
country to the billybong on which we camped last 

Wednesday 13th March 1867 

Travelled over loomey plains o\\ to the sandy 
bank of i he William which we crossed and having 
passed over a similar sand bank and loomey plain 
on the west side we came on to high well grassed 
stouey undulations until we arrived at the Jell 
Having crossed the Jenny we passed over rankry 
gr£$$ed gently swelling plains until we ! rudf the 
Dougall three miles below our XIX €a — Camp 
We crossed the river with some difficulty and 
arriving at the camp found all right 

Thursday 14th March t9S7 

Started out to endeavour to find a crossing on 
I lie river for the camels, I'ound good cursing on 
all the channels except the main one and over 
I determine to make a btidge which was made 
accordingly The bed of the river being principally 
quicksand to attempt crossing the camels through 
it would greatly endanger them 

f'riday 15th March 1867 
Crossed the Dougall to its east side and bearing 
i if to the south of west over well grassed plains 
in two miles crossed a west branch creek of the 
Jenny Two miks farther on the same bearing 
brought us to the Jenny which we crossed and 
observed the timber of the William about three 
miles to the east. We followed up The Jenny five 
miles over loomey plain* covered with good mass 



and herbage and camped on a hillybong From 
Camp XX I rode across the jenny to its west sidr, 
its billybong stretching over about a mile of 
country Having recrossed about a mile up I .struck 
over the plain passing over a low stoncy rise in 
three miles I struck (he William and followed it 
down to a Black's camp where I noticed they had 
beds raised fully five loot oil the ground. I saw 
the tracks of a great many blacks but could [not] 
seethe black*. 

Saturday 16th March 1867 

Travelling B little lo the west Of south up the 
lenny at first over loomey plains and with good 
herbage Then over a gently sloping hard sandy soil 
rise which soon became broken with small loomey 
plains and cut up by small creeks At about 6 mis 
yl a water hole in a small branch creek I observed 
some blacks. I rode up to them but they cleared 
leaving their weapons etc behind them We 
camped at the water hole and I tracked the blacks 
about half a mile west to the Jenny. I followed up 
the Jenny about three miles south, It is timbered 
principally with box with a little gydia and india 
rubber trees Travelling east about two miles 
crossed on a bloodwood ridge the head of small 
creek which 1 followed down to Camp XXI. 
Mr.McCalinnn fend ! followed down :he river a 
short distance crossing its billybongs on to the 
main channel | intend leaving the blacks weapons 
etc uninjured and shall also leave a small present 
for them in case they come back 

Sunday J 7th March 1867 

Camped . No appearance of the blacks There arc 
large numbers of corillas, pigeons and a good 
many whistling ducks about. 

Monday Wth March /867 

Crossed the small branch creek on which we 
camped and continued up the Jenny over rankiy 
grassed plains crossing here and there a low hard 
sandridge. spurs of the bloodwood ridge running 
parallel with Jenny After travelling about six miles 
the plains became very rotten covered with coarse 
herbage and grass At two miles farther we struck 
a billybong of the river and camped. During trie 
afternoon ! followed up the Jenny and found it 
came from the south for three quarters of a mile 
and l hen I mm the east by south for three quarteib 
of a mile Continuing up it a mile farther over high 
sandy country timbered with blood wood bohemia < 
and apple leafed gums (for the ridge that had been 
Tunning about parrallei comes close into the Jenny 
here) I came on to a black's camp which they had 



.4 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



lately left but found nothing interesting Crossing 
the Jenny I travelled west about three miles over 
a well grassed plain which then gently rises to a 
ridge timbered with patches of gydia 

Tuesday 19th March 1867 

Crossed the plain on a bearing of 136 at one 
mile to the point where the Jenny and ridge are 
together and where there is a good water hole Then 
on a general bearing of 126 for 2 miles over sandy 
soil timbered with blood wood apple leafed gums 
and bohemia and dotted with decayed ant-hills 
Passing through about half a mile of gydia scrub 
we came on to a small plain and then again on to 
sandy timbered country Here and there where the 
soil is hard are a few shallow lagoons fringed with 
polygynum bushes on one of which we camped 
having travelled about nine miles After dinner I 
followed up the Jenny about five miles sou-west 
and saw a mount bearing 210 I then crossed the 
Jenny and followed down to camp The channel 
where we followed it up this morning was a deep 
and narrow but above the camp it became wider 
having good holes and several billybongs 

Wednesday 20th March 1867 

Travelling about sou west we passed over rotten 
sandy country timbered with large gums and 
crossed a branch creek coming strangely from the 
east nor east In two miles the country improves it 
being red soil with clay-pans, timbered with gydia 
and then a plain dotted with acaciae and gydia 
bushes While travelling over this plain I observed 
a mount bearing 210 and shortly after another 
bearing 225 Crossing two small branch creeks we 
camped on the west side of the second having 
travelled nearly 12 miles After a spell I followed 
round the ridge from east to nearly west crossing 
the heads of a number of small water courses 
running from the mounts which bear from a point 
200 yds 240 from marked tree commencing east 
165.190.205.225.247.262 and 275. Noticed an 
eclipse of the moon 

Thursday 21 March 1867 

Dr. White reporting Mr.Wildish not fit to travel 
in consequence of an attack of fever the party 
remain encamped. I crossed the Jenny to its west 
side and following the ridge struck it again at a 
point which bears 270 from camp and found it here 
a sandy well defined channel timbered with gums 
a stoney ridge timbered with gydia running close 
along side. The reason for my thus circling was 
that the Jenny has about here hardly any 
perceptible channel it spreading over a low plain 
subject to inundation tho' occasionally there is a 



deep narrow gutter The number of small creek 
coming in also rendered it difficult to determine 
where the main channel came from Having found 
it I followed up and from its position description 
and its course where I left it believe that we shall 
find the head of the Jenny to be the small creek 
we camped upon after leaving the William There 
are innumerable Kyber about who seem to fancy 
a rather bare plain which much resembles a race 
course 

Friday 22 March 1867 

Mr. Wildish being no better the party remained 
encamped. Mr.McCalman, Mclntyre and Myola 
crossed on to the William and struck it between 
Camp XI & XII After following it down on its 
west side for some distance they recrossed on to 
the Jenny striking it where I turned back on 
Wednesday afternoon to camp and followed it up 
to our present camp On returning Mr.McCalman 
complained of not feeling well during his ride and 
ere long he was compelled to lay up. Dr White 
reporting it to be a severe attack of fever 

Saturday 23 rd March 1867 

Encamped in consequence of the sickness of 
Messrs McCalman and Wildish. I imagine they 
must have brought it from our 19th Camp where 
we hove to for the rain. I am glad to say. I should 
think this healthy country. Luckily both horses 
and camels seem to fancy our camp; most 
probably its being free from mosquitoes which 
were very troublesome down the rivers. 

Sunday, 24th March 1867 

Camped. The water not being good at the camp 
1 have been in the habit of fetching it from a water 
hole in a billybong of the Jenny situated where it 
would be imprudent to camp as the country is 
flooded at times. 

Mr. Mclntyre when out after the camels found 
a good water hole the good water hole about a 
mile to the north of this; I went over to and finding 
a good camp close handy and the country round 
about high and dry, deem it advisable to shift over 
tomorrow, Dr White agreeing with me that this is 
the best to do and is of opinion it will be attended 
with no bad results to the patients 

Monday 25th March 1867 

Moved the party to a water hole in the Jenny 
about one mile north of Camp 24. The patients 
stood the journey bravely 

Tuesday 26th March 1867 
Camped at 25 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



« 



Wednesday 27th March 1867 
Followed up the Jenny to Camp XI 1 1 

Thursday 28th March 1867 

The Dr reporting that the patients tho' doing 
well would not be abte to travel for a week I 
thought it would be well for me to visit the depot 
camp and send a report of our progress to the 
Ladies. I therefore started at break of day and 
travelling a little to the north of west arrived at the 
depot camp at sundown having travelled about 60 
miles 



Friday 29 March 1867 

Saturday 30 March f86? 
Sunday 31 March 186? 



At the Depot Camp 



Monday 1st April 1867 

Taking a course to the southward of my journey 
to the depot camp I travelled back to the Jenny. 
When crossing the Cioncurry I observed a number 
of blacks the women scattered about collecting 
portulac When they noticed me they commenced 
howling like so many native dogs Being 
mbered with a pack horse and the day drawing 
to a close I did not attempt to hold any 
communication with them, It was dark when I 
arrived at the Jenny and it being very troublesome 
riding I camped 

Tuesday 2nd April 1867 

Followed up Jenny a mile to Camp 25 and found 
all ught, McCalman recovered and Wildish much 

improved 

Wednesday 3rd April 1867 
Getting packs in order for a start tomorrow 

Thursday 4fh Apr !S6 7 

Crossed the Jenny and travelling four miles over 
lightly timbered stoney ridges we arrived at the 
Creek on which is situated C14 and camped not 
being sure of water until we arrived on the Dougall 
and that journey being too far for our invalid 

Friday Sih April 1867 

On a bearing of 300 over stoney well grassed 
ridges. At five miles arrived at .sandy soil timbered 
with blood, bohemia and gums which continued 
for about a mile when crossing a small branch 
creek we struck the Dougall and crossed it, 
Following up the Dougall we crossed our track 
coining down it to camp 15. Passing over lightly 
timbered sandy country covered here and there 
with quartz surfacing and a great deal broken by 



branch creeks Observed north end of range 
running S by E and N by W bearing 260; travelling 
for this as well as the country would allow we 
arrived at a small creek running south (a tributary 
of the Dougall) at which we camped, The end of 
range bears now 270 & another 180 

Saturday 6th April 1S67 

Continuing up the Dougall our general course 
was 200; the range running parallel with the river 
to our right. The country is becoming very rough 
We crossed a spur of the range that came bluff 
into the river The best of our travelling was when 
we could follow the small sandy frontage of the 
river 

Sunday 7th April 1367 

Camped on the Dougall surrounded by 
mountains — 1 am suffering from a severe attack 
of opthalraia and in consequence I must give up 
the leading of the party to Mr. McCalman 
tomorrow as 1 cannot see where 1 am going 

Monday 8th April 1867 

Continued up the Dougall being compelled by 
the roughness ot the country to travel in its bed, 
The country is rapidly rising and low ranges come 
continually bluff into the river, where this happens 
there is a bar of blue rock across the river in which 
there are slight indications of copper. We managed 
with much difficulty to make six miles south and 
camped on 3 small sandy frontage of the river 

Tuesday 9th April 1S67 

Travelling generally in the bed of the river we 
made about eight miles sou west. We could only 
camp in the sandy bed of the river as it would be 
difficult to find a level piece of ground large 
enough for a camel to sit down elsewhere, The 
camels and horses have to content themselves with 
the small green fringe on the river bank 

Wednesday 10th April 1867 

Continued nearly west up tbe bed of the 
Dougall, At half a mile from camp we passed a 
tributary coming from the north of west and at 
three miles entered a gorge where the bed is 
generally a blue rock and on either side the ranges 
come high and bluff on to the river Half a mile 
took us through the gorge and the high ranges then 
recede from the river tho' they can be seen coming 
in again ahead forming a kind of basin Having 
proceeded about three miles from the gorge we 
camped again on the sandy bed of the river, 
Mr.McCalman rode up the river and at one mile 



* 



MUMOJRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



from camp came to a perpendicular rise in the bed 
or itutnveru! about foul feet- Three miles further 
he came on another similar rise He found the 
country on both sides of the river quite impassable 
for camels it being rocks of quartz, sharp iron 
stone ridges and parallel strata of slate standing 
on end with wondrous deep narrow crevices 
between them He saw what he beheved to be the 
mam range about ten miles ahead 

Thursday 11th April 1867 

From Mr.McCalmau's description of the 
country and taking into cottfideratiofl the state of 

(he camels feet which have lately been getting very 
tender so much so that it is a question if I cot on 
to the southern water-shed whether they would be 
able to come back without a spell of a month or 
two, moreover not knowing of any water I could 
depend upon for any length of time this side of 
Camp XXV together with my own blindness 
determines me to return and bearing in mind that 
the Ladies demand I shall always have a safe 
retreat 

Colin Mclntyre prospected a small creek for 
gold and was successful in getting the colour, as it 
is called in cold diggers phraseology, twice but 
altogether 1 do not consider the prospect about 
here favourable for gold Bar 29 SVS Ther 92F 
shade Midday 

Friday 12th April 1867 

Followed down Dougall to gorge about three 
miles east by north From the top of the ranee 
which come bluff in here a mountain being 
peculiar from its having one single tree growing 
on its top bears 45, A conical hill 64 A flat topped 
mountain 70, A mountain with a small sugar-loaf- 
like hill on the top 130 and a high conical hill in 
the basin above the gorge 195 

Saturday 13th April 1867 

Passing through the gorge bearing generally nor- 
east we left the bed of the river and crossing some 
stoncy ridges we were lucky enough to fall in with 
a small strip of open stoney gydia which was much 
better travelling until we arrived at a creek 
timbered with bo\ crossing which we were again 
on rough stoney ridges or sandy country with 
quartz surfacing and sptnifex lightly timbered with 
stunted apple leafed gums and bloodwood until 
we arrived at Camp 29 which is now also 33 

Sunday 14th April 1867 
Camped 



Monday 15th April 1867 

Bearing a little to the east Of north and passing 
over very similar lo rhat travelled yesterday we 
came to Camp 28 which now also 34 

Tuesday 16th April 1867 

Followed along track to within one mile of 
Camp 27 and camped on a water hole in the 
Dougall The north end of Mclntyres Range bears 
270 and is distant about four miles 

Wednesday 17th April 1867 

Followed along track to Camp 25 which is now 
also Camp 36 

Thursday 18th April 1867 

Crossed on to the William to Camp 12 but there 
being now no water we followed down our old 
track to Camp 1 1 which is now also Camp 37 I 
notice that although we were much put about by 
rain on the Dougall scarcely any has fallen on the 
country travelled to day since we passed over it 
before 

Friday 19th April 1867 

Travelling a little to the south of east we passed 
over well grassed plains sometimes lightly timbered 
with acaciae At four miles we arrived at a billybong 
of the Cloncurry and another mile over sandy soil 
timbered with blood and gums brought us to the 
river which we crossed, it being here a broad dry 
sandy channel We followed down the river about 
three miles and camped 

Saturday 20th April 1867 

Today we followed down the Cloncurry about 
three miles east and striking a deep creek from the 
south we recrossed the Cloncurry to get round it 
and tamped on the west bank of the river 

Sunday 21st April 1867 
Camped 

Monday 22nd April 1867 

Re-crossed the Cloncurry and travelling 
generally east passed over about six miles of desert 
country (hard sandy soil with decayed ant-hills and 
spinifex lightly timbered with stunted apple leafed 
gums and occasional blood and bohemia trees) 
alternatively with loomey plains and arrived at a 
box creek having a good Frontage generally of 
about two miles in width on both sides Crossing 
the creek and going over about five miles more of 
desert country we came on to gydia scrub and 
crossing a small creek travelled over four miles of 
desert country when we again came on to gydia 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



37 



scrub which continued for about three miles at 
times being so dense that we had great difficulty 
in getting the camels through it Keeping our 
easterly course we followed down a water course 
the gydia receding on either side, The water course 
seemed to lose itself on a plain and four miles from 
where we emerged from the gydia we struck the 
Western Creek and camped about four miles 
below Camp 3 

Tuesday 23rd April 1867 

Travelled up the Western Creek five miles over 
well grassed plains a good deal subject to 
inundation, In the afternoon Mr.McCalman with 
Myola started after a bullock to kill and returned 
at sundown with the bullock and two of 
Mr. Donald Mclntyres black boys whom he had 
met being out for the same purpose 

Wednesday 24th April 1867 

Jerking meat, I wrote to Mr Donald Mclntyre 
of our whereabouts and intentions and send the 
letter to him by his black boys 

Thursday 25th April 1867 
Camped at 41 jerking meat 

Friday 26th April 1867 
Camped at 41 Mr Donald Mclntyre arrived 

Saturday 27th April 1867 

Dr. White started with Mr Donald Mclntyre for 
that gentlemans station with instructions to return 
tomorrow as we make a fresh start on Monday 

Sunday 28th April 1867 

Camped — Dr. White returned from Mr 
Mclntyre 

Monday 29th April 1867 

Travelling a little to the west of south up the 
west side of Western Creek for one mile when we 
crossed a tributary from the west Bearing then 
generally south in three miles we had crossed the 
Western Creek and its billybongs to the high well 
grassed plains on the east side Continuing the same 
course in four miles we arrived at Camp 2 and we 
camped on the creek about 500 yds 320 from that 
Camp 

Tuesday 30th April 1867 

Crossing on a bearing of 160 the billy bong on 
which is situated Camp 2 we travelled five miles 
south over gently undulating plains well-grassed 
and with an abundance of herbage but all getting 
dry The country gets much higher as we proceed, 



Camped on the east side of Western Creek and 
branded a tree LE 
XLIII 
B 

Wednesday 1st May 1867 

For about three miles we travelled a little to the 
east of south over high undulations covered to a 
great extent with lime stones and not possessing 
such good pasturage as the country passed over 
yesterday, Observing the creek was coming more 
from the west we changed bearing to the west of 
south After five miles travelling over similar 
country we struck a billybong of the creek and 
noticing the dry appearance of it we changed our 
bearing a little to the north of west to cross the 
creek and its billybong, At about one mile we 
arrived at the main channel and found it to be dry 
narrow sandy channel but we were encouraged to 
proceed but observing that blacks had lately been 
in the neighbourhood Desiring the party to halt, 
Mr McCalman Myola and myself started in search 
of water We soon found a large hole in a billybong 
with a small quantity of water but not considering 
it sufficient for us Mr McCalman crossed the creek 
to follow a western billybong whilst Myola and 
myself followed up an eastern one We shortly 
came on a large black's camp recently left and a 
large hole in the billybong with sufficient water. I 
started Myola to fetch up the camels but before 
they arrived Mr McCalman returned and 
informing me he had found good water in the 
western billybong when the camels came up we 
proceeded there, camped and branded a tree LE 

XLIV 
B 

Thursday 2nd May 1867 

The party remained encamped, Mr McCalman 
Myola and myself started up the west side of the 
creek on a general bearing of 270 The creek is a 
narrow dry channel timbered with box and gum 
and having a bed of quicksand On both sides there 
are good billybongs generally timbered with box 
or gydia. 

Friday 3rd May 1867 

Travelling generally west up the Western Creek 
over stoney well grassed undulations At four miles 
we passed some small lime stone hills of very 
picturesque description. Three miles farther we 
struck a billybong of the creek and camped From 
the high undulations running parallel with the 
creek on its west side the mountains are to be seen 
to the south and south east and the line of 
Mclntyre's track running north 



38 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Further search should be made over the range 
on to the south western water shed but before we 
could arrive there the contract time would have 
expired and moreover the camels feet in 
consequence of their late trip in the mountains are 
so tender that it would be necessary to spell them 
some time before they would be fit for rough 
travelling Tree branded LE 
XLV 
B 

Saturday 4th May 1867 

Leaving the party encamped, I accompanied by 
Dr White started for the depot camp prior to 
bringing in the party 

Sunday 5th May 1867 

Leaving the Dr at the Depot Camp I returned to 
the party 

Monday 6th May 1867 

Travelling nor east generally over high well 
grassed undulations sometimes stoney principally 
country that has elsewhere been described in 
twenty miles we struck the Gilliott and camped 

Tuesday 7 May 1867 

Travelled 1 mile north and then nor nor east 
across the Gilliott and its billybongs and passing 
over a plain on the same bearing in three miles we 
arrived at the Eastern Creek. Over undulations for 
six miles and then we crossed the Middle Creek, 
six miles farther over similar country we arrived 
at the Depot Camp 

Since our return to the Depot Camp 
Mr.McCalman and Myola followed up Eastern 
Creek over high downs for about 60 miles S.S.E. 
I with another horse party crossed to Camp 1 
situated on the Gilliott and followed down that 
watercourse to its junction with the Cloncurry We 
then followed down these rivers conjoined on its 
east side to opposite the junction of the William, 
we then crossed the Cloncurry and followed it up 
to camp 39. 

About the watercourses followed by the party I 
may mention that the Dougall is a large sandy 
channel timbered with large gums cabbage palms 
and teatrees having on its bank bohemia fig and 
bloodwood trees About our 18 Camp it breaks into 
a number of small channels and before long looses 
its sandy bed having one of loamy quicksand and 
loam and is timbered with box indiarubber trees 
& gydia which continue to its junction with the 
William 

The Jenny is a small sandy channel timbered 
with from Camp 13 to Camp 25 when it breaks 



into many channels, the beds becomes loamy and 
it is timbered with box and gydia & indiarubber 
trees to its junction with the William 

The William is a large sandy channel timbered 
with large gums cabbage palms tea trees having on 
its banks bohemia fig and a few beef wood trees 
it retains its sandy bed & character to its junction 
with the Cloncurry & Gilliott (conjoined 

The Cloncurry is a similar channel rather larger 

The Eastern Creek is a loamy channel having 
scarcely any timber; what there is, is a little 
worthless box 

The Western Creek at Camp 45 has one channel 
timbered with box possessing a bed of loamy 
quicksand together with with good billybong it 
loses its sandy channel between Camp 2 & 3. 

The Gilliott from Camp 1 to its junction with 
the Cloncurry is a creek of many channel 
principally timbered with box 

The water courses mentioned are confluent 
streams but the junction of any does not increase 
the size of the recipient, the sandy channel near 
Palmers Sheep Station not being so large as either 
of the channels of the William the Cloncurry or 
the Dougall fifty miles up. 

(sgd) Wm. Fred Barnett 

Leader 

27th May 1867. 

The names of the William and Jeannie Rivers 
have not survived. Barnett speaks of the junction 
of the Dougall (sic) and the William, but it is hard 
to reconcile this with the text of the diary. The 
William appears to join the Cloncurry River south 
of where the Dugald joins it and not to be 
connected with the Dugald at all. If however the 
William is the Corella River of today, then it might 
be so. 

The text of the diary has been left unaltered; for 
example the spelling of Leichhardt with one 'h' 
and a few other incorrect spellings. Also distances 
have been left in imperial measurements and 
temperatures in the fahrenheit scale. 

It has not been sought to alter the punctuation, 
particularly in regard to the absence of full stops, 
but inadvertently some may have crept in. 

On Saturday 16 February Barnett pays tribute 
to 'our much lamented and talented leader Duncan 
Mclntyre'. He was a loyal soul. 

On 28 March with Wildish and McCalman sick 
and unable to travel, Barnett rode in about 60 
miles to the depot camp so he could send in a 
progress report to the Ladies' Committee. Another 
reference to the Ladies is on 11 April, where he 
says that they demand he shall always have a safe 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



39 



retreat; that is to say he should not go beyond a 
point of no return. Lastly on 3 May he decided 
not to progress further to the southwest, as before 
he could arrive at the watershed the contract time 
would have expired. He did not seem to have any 
doubts about his accountability to the Ladies' 
Committee. 

In the period between 7 and 27 May Barnett and 
McCalman examined the watercourses in the 
vicinity of the depot camp both to the north and 
the south, covering several hundred miles in the 
process. 

The final result was that no further traces of 
Leichhardt were to be found in the area of the 
search. The expedition was at an end. 

FATE'S LAST BLOWS 

Once the expedition was officially terminated 
Barnett began to find out who really were his 
friends and supporters. 

In the first place when acceding to Donald 
Campbell's request to return to Carpentaria, 
Barnett understood that his ultimate appointment 
was to rest with Donald Mclntyre in Dalgonally. 

However, his consent to go back was on the 
following conditions: 

(i) In the event of his not taking charge of the 
party, he should receive his expenses to 
Carpentaria and back to Victoria, with fair 
remuneration for his loss of time; but 

(ii) If he was appointed leader he was to be paid 
his expenses 'going and returning' and the 
compensation for his services, although left 
an open question until his return, was to be 
'ample and satisfactory*. 

Barnett arrived at the depot camp on 29 
November 1866. Donald Mclntyre was absent and 
did not return until 22 December, when he 
acquiesced in the appointment of Barnett as 
leader. 

On Barnett's return with the party to the depot 
camp on 7 May 1867 he received a letter from Dr 
Mueller requesting him to continue the expedition 
for a longer period than that which had been 
contracted for. With this request he could not 
comply as Donald Mclntyre was not agreeable. 

On Barnett requesting Donald Mclntyre to give 
him £50 to pay his expenses to Victoria this request 
was refused. Mclntyre told Barnett he would pay 
him only from the time he was appointed (22 
December 1866) at the rate of £200 per annum. 

Also, and this was, perhaps, the unkindest cut 
of all, Mclntyre said that he supposed Barnett 'had 
come over, like any other man, for the job*. He 
then proceeded to debit Barnett £25 for a horse 



and £10 for tobacco for which Barnett had chosen 
not to charge the members of the party considering 
they were entitled to be supplied with that item. 
As a result Barnett was left with £37. 15s. He had 
to borrow £12. 5s from Mclntyre, for which he had 
to give his note of hand, to enable him to get back 
to Victoria. 

On his return to Melbourne Barnett immediately 
visited Donald Campbell and requested a 
settlement. Campbell told him he could do nothing 
until he had seen the Ladies' Committee, but at 
Barnett's request advanced him £20. Campbell 
asked Barnett to call on Dr Mueller, but the doctor 
was too unwell to see him. However, Mueller sent 
a message to Barnett to call on Mrs Tierney, the 
honorary secretary of the Ladies' Committee, who 
told Barnett that the ladies had nothing to do with 
Mr Campbell's arrangements. 

Barnett saw Campbell again; the latter said that 
any moneys paid would be out of his own pocket 
and he could not think of giving Barnett more than 
£25, which, with the £20 already advanced, would 
pay his expenses from Carpentaria. That was all 
Barnett received. 

He had returned to the family home at Rowan 
Street, Sandhurst. From there he wrote on 12 
August 1867 to the Ladies' Committee seeking a 
just settlement, as he had failed to receive one from 
Donald Campbell and Donald Mclntyre on whose 
honour he had relied. Mrs Tierney responded on 
20 August. She said she would place his letter 
before the next meeting of the committee in mid- 
September, but did not think that it would 
interfere in any monetary transaction between 
Messrs. Campbell and Barnett. 

After some procrastination on the part of the 
ladies, they, in a letter (18 October 1867) signed 
by Mrs Tierney told Barnett they could not 
entertain his claim as they had contracted out the 
management of the expedition to Donald 
Campbell, who alone was responsible to Barnett. 
In any event the ladies no longer had any funds at 
their disposal. 

Barnett's gullibility seems to have stemmed 
from his hero worship of Duncan Mclntyre. 
Campbell and Donald Mclntyre would have 
known of the admiration he had for Duncan and 
seem to have taken advantage of this. Barnett does 
not appear to have been informed until after the 
expedition was completed and he had returned to 
Victoria that the ladies had contracted out the 
balance of the expedition to Donald Campbell. He 
seems to have been under the impression that 
Campbell and Donald Mclntyre were acting as 
advisors to the ladies, whereas they were in fact 
sub-contractors who had taken over the 



40 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



responsibility of the ladies* committee towards the 
expedition and its members. Obviously they did 
not want to lose money from their contract. The 
ladies were remiss also in that when confirming his 
appointment as leader of the remainder of the 
expedition they did not tell Barnett that he was not 
their financial responsibility. 

On21 September 1867 Mr Thomas Dicker of St. 
Kilda wrote to the Argus about circumstances 
which had recently come to his knowledge through 
an acquaintanceship with the family of the late Dr 
Barnett (Adolphus had died on 14 February 1867 
aged 54 years). (36) 

Dicker, after setting out the terms of Barnett's 
appointment as already related, strongly put 
forward Barnett's claims and enclosed all the 
correspondence between him and the ladies. He 
also made the point that any reports sent in by 
Barnett had been 'suppressed'. 

When publishing the correspondence the Argus 
added an editorial note saying all the 
correspondence had been received some weeks 
before, but had been held over in consequence of 
Dr Mueller being absent at King George Sound. 
As a result of the holdover Barnett's letter of 1 
October to the ladies requesting a reply to his 
earlier letters and the ladies' reply of 18 October, 
already referred to, were published as well. (37) 

The day after Dicker's letter with all enclosures 
was published a lengthy letter from Dr Mueller 
appeared. The doctor reiterated that the Ladies' 
Committee had entered into an agreement with 
Duncan Mclntyre for a two year search for 
Leichhardt. Before a year elapsed Mclntyre was 
dead of fever in an area not previously known to 
be unhealthy. Mr Sloman, who was unknown to 
the committee, but Mclntyre's appointee as second 
in command, then became leader of the party, but 
died soon after from sunstroke in the vicinity of 
Burketown, an area where traces of Leichhardt 
were not likely to be found. The Ladies' 
Committee, to keep faith with supporters, decided 
to keep the search party in the field for the 
remainder of the two years. They contracted out 
to Mr Donald Campbell of Glengower the balance 
of the time. It was Campbell's sole responsibility 
that Barnett was entrusted with the leadership for 
the remaining time and this arrangement met with 
the concurrence of Donald Mclntyre who, from 
his Gulf Station, supervised the expedition. 
Mueller says Sloman 's post easily could have been 
filled before Barnett ever arrived at Carpentaria. 
By reason of the contract process the Ladies* 
Committee had no responsibility, monetary or 
otherwise, towards any member of the party. They 



felt on the other hand they were entitled to some 
real field work during the winter of 1867 to 
compensate for all the delays at the Gulf camps. 
They had hoped for an examination of all the Gulf 
rivers and not merely some eastern waters. There 
had been deep disappointment when the search 
party returned after 'two months of easy travel'. 
The reports from an area so limited and already 
so well known were documents so devoid of 
importance that it would have been unfair to have 
sought newspaper space for them. Mueller had 
kept them so that they might be used in some final 
report, but would recommend now that they be 
returned. 

Dr Mueller asserted that the ladies had dealt 
most generously with the contracting gentlemen. 
Thus the severe loss 60 horses resulting from an 
incautious but very courageous movement during 
an extended drought, a movement over which the 
committee had no control and which ruined the 
expedition, nevertheless resulted in a £500 
supplement of the contract sum being granted. 

The doctor lamented that after two years 
exertions of the ladies, 'maintained bravely under 
great difficulties and discouragements', their 
operations were now being made the subject of 
public controversy. He promised a full accounting 
of the expedition expenditure would be made to 
the public. 

He also expressed anxiety that the ill-starred 
enterprise might become the topic of public 
discussion to an extent which could discourage 
reorganisation of the expedition, seeing that the 
camels were now available at Carpentaria. This 
would subdue a chivalrous spirit for exploration 
and, above all, poor Leichhardt again would be 
abandoned to his fate. (38) 
Dicker had said: 

It would almost appear that mismanagement and 
blundering are fated to attend every exploring 

expedition equipped from this colony of Victoria 

the proposition to enlist the services of a leader in 
Victoria for such an expedition and then to offer to 
pay him off in that heartless huckstering fashion at 
one of the ends of the earth is certainly as preposterous 
as one can well conceive. But this does not appear to 
be the only point on which the management of the 

expedition had blundered. Mr. Barnett recopied 

Mr. Slowman's (sic) journal and forwarded it to head 
quarters— that has been suppressed. On another 
occasion he rode in seventy miles to send a report; and 
on a third occasion, on the return of the expedition to 
the depot, he journeyed 130 miles in three days to catch 
the Burdekin mail to forward another report, both of 
which reports were also suppressed. 

.. It might be said of Dr Mueller's letter, in 
which he sought to reply to Dicker's allegations, 



T Hi-; WARY OF BARNETT 



41 



that he did protest too much and was inclined m 
dear-cm issues with emotive statements. 
The Argus seems to have had his measure. 
[hough; in a leading article on the following Friday 
it was said that the correspondence published on 
the previous Monday (Dicker with enclosures) and 
Tuesday (Mueller) showed, if it did nothing else, 
the relative value attached by some people to alive 
Engjishman and a dead German . The leader writer 
traversed the whole sorry story. He praised 
Barnett *s courage and endurance: 

they seem ro indicate that Mi. Barnetl i* AU 
the right Stuff, and possesses the hardihood and 
endurance so essential to success in the work of 
exploration. 

He went on to say that the laying of the al Tan 
before the public had resulted in a reply from Dr 
Mueller, but not a confutation. The doctor seemed 
to be of the opinion that Barnett was fortunate 
that the leadership of the expedition, with its 
munificent stipend, was not filled up before 
Barnett could arrive at Carpentaria. The doctot 
was taken to task for deprecating the labours of 
(he search party (as *two months easy (ravel'), 
suppressing the journals forwarded to him and not 
allowing the newspaper editors to form their own 
opinions as to their worth. As regards the £500 so 
generously awarded to the contractor for thr | 
of sixty horses, might not a similar sympathetic 

feeling have been extended to the lender who 
brought back his party intact, whose sight W8S 
irrcpanibty injured by the hardships he had 
undergone and who was incapacitated from 
obtaining aoy employment in consequence? 

The Argus no less than Dr Mueller had a genuine 
anxiety about the fate of 'poor Leichhardt \ but tt 
also felt some anxiety for the health and safer 
living men and for the just recompense ol UvOStf 
who had already engaged in the search for 
I .eiehhardt. 

The leading article concluded on a note of 
inquiry — 

We SfC t'fu from agreeing with the Government 
Botanist, "thai this ill-Marred enterprise should not 
become the topic of public discussion", because ll is 
only by such dtecUSflfOfl that the public arc likely to 
arrive at a satisfactory conclusion as 10 the #l6d0fjl 
nnd propriety of persevering in these distal 
Mptditiens. The time Is arriving when we should ask 
ourselves this question — Is it expedient to continue 
explorations of which other colonies reap the solid 
kdvantages, and from which we obtain nothing but 
barren honour? At the fifiCrtflcCOl Iheil ^vn lives, and 
at an enormous cost 10 Victoria, tturke and Wills 
opened up a tract of magnificent covMry from 
<r\ Creek to the Gulf of Carpentaria ll wa* 



shortly afterwards incorporated with Queensland, and 
is now , <l|y OCCUpied oy the squatters of thai 

colony. We pull the chestnuts out of the fire, and they 
cat them; and wc may reasonably ask ourselves 
whether we cannot find more profitable employment 
lot our surplus cash and superfluous energies. (39) 

This wu hardly conducive to the encouragement 
ol further searches being mounted for Leichhardt 
and no doubt thoroughly mortified Dr Mueller. 
However,, he had been less than pragmatic in his 
approach to the whole Leichhardt Search 
Expedition and its aftermath and was not 
undeserving of the criticisms levelled by Diekei 
and the Argus. 

W.E.P. Giles wrote from Mount Murchison on 
23 December 1X67 deploring the implied 
accusation that the affairs of the expedition bad 
been mismanaged by Dr Mueller. He felt if Dr 
Mueller accused Mr Barnett of having failed in his 
duties, ihe doctor would have good grounds for 
so doing, or he would not have made ihe 
accusation. Mr Giles, 'as a personal friend' of Dr 
Mueller requested the publication this letter, 

especially as I know, 3nd doubtless you are as wel3 
aware, that since the committee first agreed with Mr. 
Mclntyre, Dr. Mueller's self-imposed duties with 
regard to the expedition have produced to turn no 
mental sinecure (40) 

Giles, on his own admission, was hardJy an 
unbiassed commentator! 

As is not unusual, the sound and the fury seem 
to have died down after each protagonist had had 
ay. No record can be found, after Giles' letter 
to the Australasian, of any other reference to the 
controversy in any other 1 868 newspaper. There is 
no evidence thai Banieti gained any pectin 
satisfaction, although bit honour and his 
leadership capabilities had been defended by the 
Argus. He is not on record as bavins undertaken 
atiy further journies of explfll anon; no doubt his 
health prevented that, 

Barnett, in his twenties, was an unsettled type 
of person. His dislike of a desk job was made 
obvious in his letter to his Aunt Eliza Newman in 
1864. The outdoor life seemed to .suit lum. Vei he 
had to assume the role of a knight errant. The 
combination of idealism and naivetic made him 
fair game for the dour, hard her 
entrepreneurism of the Melntyres and CampbelN 
of this world. He ruined his health and his 
economic prospects because of his loyalty to 
Duncan Mctniyre, both before and after the 
hatter's death. Barnctt's disregard for his own 
material interests in cOfl ^ luuiout and 

devotion make him a quixotic figure in the 



4: 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



immediate aftermath of the expedition; his tilting 
at windmills was no more successful than that of 
Don Quixote. 

On 19 October 1869 at St. Lukes Church of 
England, Emerald Hill, South Melbourne, at the 
age of 28 years he married Charlotte Harris (a 
widow since 22 January 1868) aged 32 years. The 
bride was the mother of three surviving children, 
a fourth having died before her second marriage. 
Mrs Harris was a licensed victualler and like her 
bridegroom normally resided at Sandhurst. 
Barnett gave his occupation as 'explorer', but he 
roamed no more. (41) 

He settled down as landlord of the Crown Hotel, 
Hargreaves Street, Bendigo (as Sandhurst now 
came to be called). His privations between 1864 
and 1867 continued to tell on his health. The 
delicate boy may have grown into the hardy 
backwoodsman, but even the latter had limits to 
the extent to which he could punish his body with 
poor diet, untreated fevers, eye disease and 
alternately roasting and steaming in the 
unrelenting climate of the lands below the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. 

A combination of liver disease (acute hepatitis) 
and epilepsy carried him off, at the age of 37 years, 
on 18 March 1879 and he was buried at Back Creek 
Cemetery, Bendigo on 19 March. (Fig. 7). It will 
be noted that under his name on the tombstone 
the words '(late explorer)' appear. 

He was survived by his widow and two of the 
three children of their marriage. The third had 
predeceased him in her infancy. The remaining two 




Fig 7. The tombstone of William Frederic Barnett in the 
Back Creek Cemetery, Bendigo. Under his name 
appear the words 'late explorer*. 



children were both daughters, so he left no male 
issue. (42) 

His obituary recounted his exploring trips and 
quoting from a Riverine Herald report (43) on the 
end result of the Leichhardt Search Expedition 
said: 

We believe that a greater mistake was never made 
by any leader [Duncan Mclntyre]. Had Mr. Barnett 
been given a command, the frightful disaster at 
Cooper's Creek might have been averted. At all events 
it was due to his exertions in a great measure that worse 
results did not follow. (44) 

Among those who knew him his reputation was 
not diminished by death; his judgment again was 
vindicated by contemporary opinion, but the 
recognition he deserved still eluded him. 

REFERENCES 

(I) Jose, Arthur Wilberforce (1863-1934), journalist and 

historian (See 'Australian Dictionary of Biography' 

Vol. 9). He recognised the historical significance of 

the diary. Miss Ida Leeson, the Mitchell Librarian, 

also had a considerable reputation as an Australian 

historian. 

'Our First Half Century' . Government of 

Queensland, Brisbane 1909. pp. xxi-xxiv, 162-163. 
'Australian Dictionary of Biography' (ADB) Vol. 5; 

State Archives of New South Wales — Index to 

Assisted Migrants Arriving Port Phillip 1839-1851, 

Shelf Location 4/4813 p. 4a. 
ADB Vol. 5. 
Government Statist, Victoria. Death Entry 3556/ 

1867. 
Government Statist, Victoria. Marriage Entry-F.W. 

Barnett to C. Harris 3603/1869. Death Entry-F.W. 

Barnett 2971/1879. Unassisted Shipping Records 

Series VPRS 3501 MF Reel 14. 

(7) West Sussex Record Office, Chichester, U.K., 
Corfield Papers (Accession No. 5533). Not currently 
catalogued. 

(8) Victorian Government Gazette 1861 p. 1139. 

(9) Riverine Herald, Echuca, Vic. 31 December 1864. 

See also supplement to Brisbane Courier 12 January 
1865 and Favenc, Ernest. 'The History of Australian 
Exploration for 1788 to 1888', Sydney 1888 (xv + 
474) p. 246. 

(10) Riverine Herald 31 December 1864, Brisbane 
Courier (Supp.) 12 January 1865. 

(II) Australasian (Melb.) 31 December 1864. 

(12) Riverine Herald 31 December 1864, Brisbane 
Courier (Supp.) 12 January 1865. 

(13) Age (Melb.) 23 December 1864, Australasian 31 
December 1864. 

(14) Australasian 18 February 1865. 

(15) Australasian 4 March 1865. 

(16) Australasian 15 April 1865. Leichhardt, Dr. 
Ludwig. 'Journal of an Overland Expedition in 
Australia' (London 1847) p. xiv et passim. 

(17) Australasian 27 May 1865. 



(2) 
(3) 



THE DIARY OF BARNETT 



« 




Fig 8. In December 1986 Mr. K.C. Leslie received an addition to the Corfield papers from Epsom in Surrey, which 
included some more Barnett material. One of the photographs, undated and simply marked Australia on the 
reverse, shows what is obviously an exploring party. The second European from the right resembles closely 
the photograph of Duncan Mclntyre. The young man on his right, holding a camel halter, could be Barnett 
who was the most junior member of the party. Lacking positive evidence the identification of any person in 
the photograph must be treated as pure conjecture. 



(18) Reprinted in the Australasian 6 May 1865. 

(19) Australasian 27 May 1865. 

(20) Australasian 12 June 1865. 

(21) Australasian 1 July 1865. 

(22) Australasian 8 July 1865. 

(23) Australasian 5 August 1865. 

(24) Queensland State Archives (QSA) Gov/24 p. 333. 
Despatch 52 8/8/1865. 

(25) The Argus (Melb.) 2 December 1867. 

(26) ,4ge30May 1866, The Weekly Herald (Brisbane) 9 
June 1866. 

(27) QSA Gov/24 p. 497. Despatch 34 17/6/1866. 

(28) Agell May 1866, The Weekly Herald 2 June 1866. 
Blair, David. 'Cyclopaedia of Australia' 
(Melbourne 1881) p. 230. Argus 2 December 1867. 

(29) Holthouse, Hector. 'Cannibal Cargoes' (Adelaide 
1969) pp. 106 e/. seq. 

(30) Blainey, Geoffrey. 'Mines in the Spinifex' (Sydney 
1960) p. 9. Pughs Almanac 1867 and 1868. QSA 
Gov/24 p. 654. Despatch 68 17/12/1866. 

(31) ADB Vol. 5. Palmer, Edward. 'Early Days in North 
Queensland' (Sydney 1903) p. 79. Fysh, Hudson. 
'Taming the North' (Sydney 1864 reprint) p. 21. 
Australasian 21 July 1866. QSA Gov/24 p. 522 
Despatch 46 3/8/1866. 

(32) Palmer, op. cit. p. 80. Fysh, op. cit. p. 22. Blainey, 
op. cit. p. 9. Black J. (Comp.) 'North Queensland 
Pioneers' (Charters Towers n.d. 71934) p. 74. Age 
24 July 1866. 

(33) Australasian 2 March 1867. Mclntyre, J.N. 'White 
Australia: The Empty North' (Sydney 1920) p. 8. 
Black, op. cit. p. 74. Argus 2 December 1867. 



(34) The Weekly Herald 2 June 1866. 

(35) McKinlay, John. 'McKinlay's Journal of 
Exploration in the Interior of Australia'. 
(Melbourne n.d. 71862) pp. 85-86. 

(36) Government Statist, Victoria, Death Entry 3556/ 
1867. 

(37) The Argus (Melb.) 2 December 1867. 

(38) The Argus 3 December 1867. 

(39) The Argus 6 December 1867. 

(40) Australasian II January 1868. 
(4\)Government Statist, Victoria Marriage Entry 3603/ 

1869. 

(42) Government Statist, Victoria Death Entry 2971/ 
1879. 

(43) Riverine Herald 7 December 1867. 

(44) Bendigo Advertiser 19 March 1879. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

That I was able to complete this paper to 
something approaching my own satisfaction was 
due to the help of a number of people. 

First of all, Dr W.E. Savige of Camberwell, 
Victoria, who carried out research for me and who 
investigated W.F. Barnett successfully from the 
somewhat sparse details I was able to give him. 

It was Dr Savige who put me in touch with Mr. 
D.K. Muir of Balgowlah, N.S.W., who has been 
researching the Barnett family for his friend, Mr 
K.C. Leslie, Education Officer at the West Sussex 
Records Office, Chichester, England and a Barnett 



44 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



descendant. As a result I had put at my disposal 
the Barnett family tree compiled by Mr Muir with 
much other information. This included the copy 
of the invaluable letter from Barnett to his aunt, 
Eliza Newman, which Mr Leslie kindly gave 
permission to be used. Mr. Leslie also furnished 
the interesting photograph reproduced here as 
Fig. 8. 

The Director and staff of the Queensland 
Museum and the State Librarian, New South 
Wales and his Mitchell Librarian and staff all 
endeavoured to find the provenance of the W.F. 



Barnett diary, held by the Queensland Museum, 
which provided the basis for this paper. 

The John Oxley Librarian made a valuable 
contribution, when, by chance, he purchased a 
map showing Mclntyre's route from the Darling 
to the Gilliatt River. From notations on this we 
found it had been torn out of a copy of Justus 
Perthes Geographical Bulletin for 1867 and this in 
turn led me to the relevant issues of the Age in 
which Mclntyre's posthumously compiled and 
edited journal had appeared. 

My thanks are extended to all of them. 



Mem. QdMus. 25(1): 45— 70.[1987] 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS REVEALED BY TRAWLING IN THE INTER-REEF 
REGIONS OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF 



Cannon, L.R.G.*, Goeden, G.B.j, Campbell, P.J 

♦Queensland Museum. 

fFisheries Research Branch, Queensland Department of Primary Industries. 

JZoology Department, University of Queensland. 



ABSTRACT 

Several series of exploratory trawls on and adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef produced 
approximately 15,000 specimens of fish and macro-invertebrates representing some 700 species. 
Classification and ordination analyses of the catch from the principal trawl series made over easily 
trawlable grounds showed no clearly definable community assemblages — rather a gross continuum 
with a tendency to depth descrimination — a discrimination revealed most sharply by the fishes. 
More rigorous sampling in a smaller area, but including 'foul ground', reinforced this depth related 
patterning (again most evident from the fishes) which, in turn, correlated well with sediment type 
and distance from shore. This study supports others which suggest the trawlable regions of the 
tropical continental shelf may be biologically separable into few continua. Complete faunal/station 
lists are given. 



INTRODUCTION 

Despite extensive commercial trawling activity 
along the Queensland coast we have a relatively 
poor knowledge of the animal assemblages that 
inhabit trawlable areas. From September 1979 to 
May 1982 several series of trawls were conducted 
by both Commonwealth and State Fisheries to 
explore for new trawl areas, especially in the more 
difficult inter-reef regions. Although not designed 
to systematically sample the Queensland shelf, the 
trawls did produce a great quantity of demersal 
and macrobenthic animals which were made 
available to the Queensland Museum. This paper 
attempts to interpret and summarize these data. 

Although Frankel (1978) listed some 4500 
citations for the Great Barrier Reef Region, most 
of these relate to the coral environs. Literature 
dealing with the structure of the trawl fish 
community and its distribution in this geographical 
area is limited to Kailola and Wilson (1978) and 
Watson (1984) for the Gulf of Papua, Liu (1976), 
Lui, Lai and Yeh (1978) and Lee (1979) for the 
northern Gulf of Carpentaria, and Rainer and 
Munro (1982) for the southern Gulf of 
Carpentaria. 

Our trawl data are for the Great Barrier Reef 
Region especially between Cape York Peninsula 
and Townsville and our intention was to determine 
the nature and limits of the assemblages or of 
community types that occupy the trawlable soft- 
bottom environment between coral reefs. 



Differences in collection methods and data 
handling techniques has meant that final analyses 
were limited to subsets of the original material. 

Available data suggest that commercial trawling 
beyond the established trawl zones in inter-reef 
areas of the Great Barrier Reef Region currently 
is quite limited, but increasing as a result of 
economic pressures on the large, coastal prawn- 
trawl fishery (Hundloe, 1985). It can be assumed, 
therefore, that the data sets for such areas are 
descriptive of the original unexploited demersal 
communities and thus have considerable value as 
base-line information from which longer term 
management decisions can be formulated. 

Rainer and Munro (1982) confined their study 
to fishes and cephalopods, both relatively easy to 
identify and highly mobile within the environment. 
This study included most macrofauna collected by 
the trawls, viz. fish, echinoderms, Crustacea, 
molluscs, cnidarians and sponges. While trawling 
undoubtedly may not be the favoured collection 
technique to sample all these groups most 
effectively, in practical terms trawling does yield 
large quantities of all the groups mentioned. We 
included the six major groups (but excluded 
'minor' groups such as ascidians, bryozoans and 
various worm groups) because we believed that 
they were likely to increase the resolution of 
community types and because they seemed most 
likely to show the effects of increased trawling 
effort in the future. 



45 



4c 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



STUDY AREA 

The Great Barrier Reef Region is a vast area of 
diverse and complex geological and hydrological 
features (Maxwell, 1968) dominated by coral reefs 
and lying along the Queensland coast north from 
approximately 25 °S. To the north the Region tends 
to disperse through the Torres Strait (9°S-11°S) 
and merge with the huge coastal estuaries of the 
Papuan Gulf. To the west of the Torres Strait the 
Region merges with the Gulf of Carpentaria which 
is an expansive shallow gulf with relatively little 
hydrographic variation (Munro, 1972) and an 
almost complete lack of coral reefs. 

Seven series of trawls (0 through VI) were 
undertaken in the Great Barrier Reef Region (Fig. 
1). While the vast majority of these trawls were 
completed on the soft-bottom inter-reef areas of 
the continental shelf, most of the Series III trawls 
were on the continental slope. A summary of 
station data for each trawl series including dates, 
locations, depths and bottom characteristics is 
presented in Appendix I. 

METHODS 

From February 1979 to May 1982 a total of 229 
sites in seven series of trawls were sampled: more 
than 15,000 specimens representing approximately 
700 species were obtained. Because the rationale 
of each trawl series varied, there has been 
corresponding variation in the methods of 
obtaining and handling the biological material that 
forms the basis of these analyses. 

Biological Data — Trawled material was 
generally frozen in bulk aboard the survey vessel. 
The frozen samples were then returned to the 
laboratory and thawed, where practicable in 
preservative, and sorted to phylum. These 
preserved specimens were transported to the 
Queensland Museum for identification. Species 
were identified from available literature. In many 
cases (especially for the lower groups) 
identification to the species level could not be 
determined with confidence because the fauna is 
in need of considerable taxonomic research . 
Where names could not be applied, and more than 
one species was believed present, they were listed 
as spp. Every attempt has been made to make 
names and classifications follow the most current 
available literature. Appendix II gives a checklist 
of the fauna related to stations. 

Physical Data — Only physical data relating to 
depth and some subjective classifications of 
bottom type derived from the trawl logs are 
presented (see Appendix I). Other data were 
inconsistently gathered or reported. Sediment 



carbonate content was derived from Maxwell 
(1968). 

Data Analysis — No attempt was made to 
analyse all the data because of the disparate nature 
in which they were collected. Two series (I and V), 
however, were analysed. In the larger (series I) data 
set only binary (presence, absence) data were 
collected. The series V cruise was made specifically 
to investigate potential patterning and numerical 
data were obtained. 

Stephenson (1973) summarized the earlier 
attempts to understand and quantify the nature of 
marine benthic communities or assemblages. 
Community analysis in recent times has commonly 
used either ordination or classification techniques. 
These strategies are not considered mutually 
exclusive (Mcintosh, 1967) and can be gainfully 
combined in a single analysis (Lambert and Dale, 
1964). 

Ordination techniques attempt to reduce data 
dimensionally while retaining maximum 
information on inter-entity relationships. At least 
in marine benthic work, however, classification 
has been more commonly employed in community 
analysis (e.g. Rainer and Munro, 1982). It places 
entities in classes based upon shared attributes. 

In the present study both ordination and 
classification were used in interpreting results by 
highlighting complementary facets of the data 
patterns. In particular the ordinations allowed 
interpretation of the classificatory dendrograms by 
providing a means of observing group overlap. 

The analyses made use of the TAXON 
programme package (CSIRO computer network). 
We used the Canberra metric dissimilarity measure 
to generate the classifications and as input into the 
principal coordinate analysis used for ordinations. 
For classification the 'flexible' sorting strategy of 
Lance and Williams (1967) was used. This follows 
the successful precedents of Stephenson and 
Williams (1971), Williams and Stephenson (1973) 
and Stephenson, Williams and Cook (1974). The 
'cluster intensity coefficient', Beta, was set at 
-0.25 which means it is a slightly space dilating 
strategy less likely to show 'chaining' tendencies. 
In addition we employed the Cramer measure to 
provide an insight into which attributes (i.e. 



Fig 1. Locality of trawls. 

a. Distribution of trawl series along Queensland coast. 

b. Series I stations 

c. Series II (A) and III (•) stations 

d. Series stations 

e. Series IV stations 

f. Series V stations 

g. Series VI stations 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



47 




48 



MHMOIRSOF THE QUEENSl AND MUSEUM 



species) contributed most significantly to the 
determination of classjficatory groups (Lance and 
Williams, 1977). 

In series [, apart from a small group of stations 
in Princess Charlotte Bay where large nets were 
deployed, material was collected with a 
commercial 'try' net, i.e, one with only a 2m gape. 
Quantitative measures were not obtained, thus 
analyses were confined to binary attributes. The 
large number of species (>700), many of which 
were rare oeurrences, suggested iruneat'ion o\ the 
data .set, thus single species and/ or site occurrences 
were eliminated. We restricted the data set further 
by analysing attributes at both the family and 
genus level separately rather than at the species 
level (which was used only for the fish). This served 
several purposes, it eliminated some of the 
taxonomic uncertainty, it increased the coarseness 
of the analysis to one more in keeping with the 
area surveyed and measures used in collecting 
while retaining biological reality and, not 
insignificantly, it greatly simplified the data 
matrix. 

In series V the small 'try' nets were again used, 
but numerical counts of the Species Were made. 
These data were analysed by the same methods; 
because of the relatively small area and greater 
rigor of the trawling procedure there was no 
truncation of the data. Before analysis, this data 
set was transformed (square root) in an attempt to 
normalise the data. 

The other trawl series were net analysed because 
we felt the disparity in collection methods 
precluded useful conclusions. Series trawls which 
gave some very preliminary results from simple 
statistical tests were undertaken as a ancillary to 
trials of underwater video gear (Goeden and 
Cannon, 1980). Series II were designed specifically 
to investigate scallop grounds, III were conducted 
with large fish trawls in deep water towards the 
edge of the continental shelf, IV were specifically 
to search for Crovvn-of-Thorns starfish and VI 
employed both main gear trawls and a small 
dredge in a exercise to trial a new boat and its gear. 
The station species lists are included in Appendix 
II t however, for they may be considered to fulfill 
a useful role in their own right. 



RESULTS 
Trawi. Serifs 1 
Primary Ana i 

Initially analyses were directed at the stX 
major groups; Fish, Echmodermata, Crustacea, 
Mollusca, Cnidaria and Porifera. 



Family Level 

When analysed ai the family level the 
classi factory programme generated ten clusters, 
but the level at which these clusters were 
discriminated suggests only three biologically valid 
(meaningful) groups (Figure 2a): 

I A, B, C, D, E 

II F, G, H 

III I, J 

Of these three groups none showed any strong 
correlations with the abiotic factors geographic 
position or bottom type, but depth did show a 
weak influence. From examination of the Cramer 
discrimination values, tbe invertebrates showed 
strongly in group I (Echinoderms ; Comasteridae. 
Laganidae) and fish in groups II (Lciognathidac) 
and III (BothidaeL The ordination analysis (Fi 
2b) showed sites grouped by the classification were 
not discretly differentiated, but rather the site 
groups overlapped strongly. The family most 
strongly influencing the ordination wafe the 
Penaeidae (prawns) found predominantly in one 
of ihe subgroups of group II. This particular 
subgroup corresponded to* collection sites in 
Princess Charlotte Bay. The families influencing 
iheordin : -iiively included the fish families 

Leiognathidae, Hermpteridae, Scorpaenidae and 
Apogonidae. In contrast, the eehinoderm fan.i 
Comasteridae, Temnopleuridae and Goruastendae 
were inversely associated with the pattern Thus 
these data produce no convincing patterns 

Genus Level 

The ciassificatory programme was run a second 
time on the six major groups using, taxa at tbi 
generic level. Once again ten clusfers were formed 
which were best discriminated again into three 
groups (Fig 2c)- 

I A, B, C, D 

II E.F, G, l 

III J 

In two groups, we found the genera Minoits 
(Scorpaenidae: Fish). Atvusium (Pectinidae: 
Mollusca), Leiognattxus (Leiognathidae: Fish), 
Nemipterus (Nemipteridae: Fish) and Comaiula 
(Comasteridae: Echinoderm) were the most 
influential taxa. being i datively well presented iu 
group 11, hut not, or poorly in group I, i.e., in 
group ! invertebrates dominated and in group |] 
ii-i dominated. The ordination of site groups 
determined at the generic level (Fig. 2c), although 
overlapping in some cases, differed from i: 
found at the family level The major exception to 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



49 



this was again the strong isolation of the Princess 
Charlotte Bay sites (Group III). 

Both analyses of the six major groups produced 
a similar pattern: an invertebrate rich group of 
sites and one rich in fish, plus the Princess 
Charlotte Bay sites. The composition of the 
groups, however, differed in the two analyses. 

Secondary Analysis 

Both analyses involving all the groups implied 
that taxa in the groups Mollusca, Cnidaria and 
Porifera had little effect upon the classification. 
The data set was therefore restricted to Fish, 
Echinodermata and Crustacea i.e., removing all 
sedentary sponges and cnidarians and also the 
molluscs — predominatly animals living in the 
sediments. Although such fauna is collected by 
trawls, they are perhaps more ably sampled by 
other techniques. 



Family Level 

The classification at the family level (Fig. 3a) 
created four groups, one of which containing only 
2 stations was considered inconsequential (Group 
IV/J). The important groups were: 

I A,B,C,D,E,F — rich in all three' groups of 
organisms and including a subset from Pincess 
Charlotte Bay, 

II G — with some Crustacea, but generally poor 
in fauna, and 

III H,I — rich in fish and echinoderms, but 
relatively poor in Crustacea. 

The ordination of these data did not produce 
any clearly defined axes of variation. This lack of 
strong pattern was emphasized by the diffuse 
spread of the classification site groups over the 
major ordination axes (Fig. 3b). 









a 






c 










-1.0 




















1.0- 

L 


■0.8 

r- 

I 












. ' 


I 


ir 


11 


rr~ 


i— A-, ' 

i : I 

1 ! ! 


H ! 

i | 

1 ! I 


i 

1 

i 

| 


O.B - 


rr i" z T""| 






L 
|_J 

__ J 


! ! 1 


i i ! 




0.6- 




1 1 

1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 1 1 1 » III 




A B C D I 


1 F G H 


1 . 




A 
"0.6 


B C D E F G H 1 J 






i 




b 




2 


d 


» , 


■ 








• ■ 


: '■■:• • 




■ 

.-. i 
1 - »- 


- 

7 1 % 




- 


i 


* * * 


>7." •■ 






■ n : v 

• 

- 


a , ■. - 
„ 
" e 

O B 

B e 

it 

n r 




■ 


• 

• 


■. 


■ 










i 





Fig 2. Analysis of sites from series I (Fish, Echinoderms, Crustacea, Molluscs, Porifera and Cnidaria). 

a. Classification — Family level 

b. Ordination — Family level 

I = A, !I = o, III = ■. (Groups from 2a). 

c. Classification — Genus level 

d. Ordination — Genus level 

I = ■, II = □, III = A. (Groups from 2c). 



50 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Ii 



nr 



ABCDEFGH 



1.0 



ET 



1.2 



-1.0 



0.8 - 



0.8 









T 1 


I 


m 


TV 


J. 1 1 












! 












r*~i 




i — '--1 j i 




i 





ABCDEFGH i J 



. :• > a 



' 



Fig 3. Analysis of sites from series I (Fish, Echinoderms and Crustacea). Group IV points have been omitted as 
insignificant. 

a. Classification — Family level 

b. Ordination — Family level 

[ «= A, II = A, III = O, (Groups from 3a). 

c. Classification — Genus level 

d. Ordination — Genus level 

I = O, II = ■, 111 - ▲. (Groups from 3c). 



Genus Level 

In Fig. 3c we see some chaining of the site groups 
occurs at the generic level. Ignoring the clearly 
aberrant group (IV/J) we again see three groups: 

I A,B,C,D,E,F — rich in some genera of 
crustaceans and echinoderms, 

II G — a small group containing Saurida and 
Comatula and 

III H,I — a large group rich in Crustacea and fish 
(this group includes the Princess Charlotte Bay 
sites among others). 

Once again ordination of these data (Fig. 3d) 
revealed overlapping groups and, as occurred 
when all groups were considered, it was not easy 
to directly relate the analyses to one another. 
Certainly the Princess Charlotte Bay sites were 
discriminated, but overall analyses of the series I 
trawls using higher taxonomic levels failed to 
reveal discrete assemblages and, at best, presented 
only a weak depth related pattern. 



Tertiary Analysis 

In all the analyses so far presented fish appeared 
to be the most influential taxa in determining what 
separations did occur. Thus a further analysis of 
the fish alone was performed and at the species 
level. 
Species Level 

Fig. 4a shows the pattern of the classification 
with four groups revealed: 

I A — A group of shallow water sites largely 
from Princess Charlotte Bay. The most 
significant representative fish were Psettodes 
erumei, Saurida lumbil and Pseudorhomhus 
e leva t us. 

II B,C,D, and E — Also a cluster of shallow sites 
lacking the above species but characterised by 
Engyprosopon grandisquamma. 

III F and G — A number of slightly deeper sites 
with the fish Euristhmus elongatus and 
Amoglossus spp. 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



53 







a 












II 


m| |is 10 ~ 


1 1 

1 1 

1 __L_ ! I 

i ' i | ,-i. r". oe _ 

i i t i i i i i i 
i t i i i i i i i 
i i i i i i i i i 

'1 ' 0.6- 

A B C D E F G H 1 


r 
n c 

C n 

no D ° 
1 n n D C "- 


b 

> 

• 

a a • 

• • • 

• • 

• • • 


o 

■ 

■ 


■ ■ ■ ■ 
■ 1 

1 

■ 
■ 



Fig 4. Analysis of sites from series I (Fish only) 

a. Classification — Species level 

b. Ordination — Species level 

I = •, II = ■, III = 0, IV = □. 
(Groups from 4a) 



IV H and I — Also deeper sites, though lacking 
the Arnoglossus spp. they did have Pristotis 
(Daya) jerdoni. 

An examination of the Cramer values revealed 
that sites in groups I and II were discriminated by 
Pomadasys spp. while those of groups III and IV 
had several influential fish species, viz. 
Pseudorhombus elevatus, P. diplospilus, 
Grammatobothus polyophthalmus and 
Paramonocanthus sp. 

The ordination analysis (Fig. 4b) reinforces the 
separation of four groups and emphasises the 
similarity of I with II and III with IV. Indeed, 
compared with the earlier analyses, the overlap of 
sites between site groups is not at all marked. The 
most influential species in this analysis were as 
follows: 
Group I Pomadasys argyreus, Nemipterus sp., 

Upeneus sundiacus. 
Group II Apogon fasciata and Rogadius sp. 



Group III Pseudorhombus spp., Saurida 
undosquamus and Grammatobothus 
polyophthalmus. 
Group IV again Apogon fasciata. 

The mean depth of the groups I and II was 
25.7m while that of III and IV was 35.5m. This 
analysis showed more clearly that a separation 
related to depth (or distance from shore) was 
apparent. These presence/absence data reveal that 
distinctions were based often on the absence of 
certain species in an otherwise similar mix as well 
as the presence of significant species e.g. Apogon 
fasciata in more than one group. 

All the analyses tended to reinforce the 
importance of certain taxa, most notably 
flatfishes, grinners and nemipterids, but at each 
level groups were not always consistent (with the 
exception of the suite of sites from Princess 
Charlotte Bay). Nevertheless, the analysis of the 
fish data at the species level provided the most 
convincing evidence of site separation, albeit 
slight. 

Trawl Series V 
This series was undertaken to enable more 
critical assessment of the community structure 
than was afforded by the binary data of series I 
and consisted of a tight grid of stations consistently 
sampled. Quantitative counts of species numbers 
were made. From the dendrogram (Fig. 5a) three 
site groups were accepted from the classification 
after transformation of the data (square root), 
thus: 

I 1,5,6,8,10 and 11 

II 2 and 7 

III 3,4,9,12,13 and 14 

The results of ordination (Fig. 5b) support these 
three groups. 

The Cramer measure provided evidence of 
which species contributed to the groupings; this 
together with the dissimilarity measure indicated 
that group I was characterised by the fish 
Upenaeus sulphureus and Pomadasys argyreus 
and to a lesser extent Priacanthus tayenus and 
Apogon fasciata as well as the crab Portunus 
gracilimanus. Overall, however, this region shares 
most of its fauna with the group III sites differing 
mainly in being considerably less diverse. The 
group II sites lacked much of the fauna of the 
other sites (especially site 7 which was quite 
depauperate), but contained several sponges and 
echinoderms not found elswhere. By contrast the 
group III sites were rich in fauna: again fish 
appeared the dominant influence and the more 
important taxa were Trachinocephalus myops, 
Synodus variegatus, Saurida undosquamis, 



52 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Engyprosopon grandisquama and Pristotis (Daya) 
jerdoni. A few other invertebrate taxa contributed 
to the group separation, viz. Comatula spp. 
(Echinodermata), Portunus spp. (Crustacea) and 
some sponges. 

Examination of influences upon ordination 
showed that fish again were dominant notably 
Saurida tumbil, Nemipterus sp. Upeneus 
sulphureus, Priacanthus tayenus, Apogon fasciata 
and Pomadasys argyreus which as well as the crab 
Portunus gracilis strongly influenced the pattern 
positively (i.e. contributed to group I sites). In 
contrast the fish Synodus variegatus, 
Trachinocephalus myops, Saurida undosquamis, 
the crabs Portunus tenuipes and P. argentatus 
together with the cephalopod Sepia pharaonis 
showed a strong negative influence (i.e. 
contributed to the group III sites). 

All three site goups were considered in relation 
to depth, distance from shore and carbonate 



concentration of their sediments. These 
parameters are clearly correlated with one another. 
Table 1 shows data for depth and distance from 
shore and Fig. 4c shows the distribution of 
carbonates. 

TABLE 1. The depth, distance from shore in nautical 
miles, and zone of site groups from series V. 



Site 
group 


Depth 

(m) 


Distance 
(n. miles) 


Zone 


I 


21.9 
9-55.8 


6 

2-19 


Inshore 


II 


28.8 
27-30.6 


12.5 
11-14 


Transitional 


III 


42.8 
30.6-57.6 


23 
12.5-32 


Offshore 



It can be seen that mean depth is reflected in 
distance from shore and that carbonate 
concentrations largely parallel these parameters 
(Fig. 4c). Sites 1 ,5 and 10 are shallow inshore sites 
high in terrigenous sediments, sites 6 and 11 are 



il 



m 



i 
i 



i i i i 



i i 

i i 



i i 

i i 



i_. i i ■ ' n 

; i i .'-, i 



v - --A; 






5 10 1 6 11 8 2 7 3 4 13 14 12 9 




2 

1 : 

■ 



Fig 5. Analysis of sites from series V. 

a. Classification 

b. Ordination 

1=0, II = A, HI = ■. 

c. Distribution of sites in relation to carbonate content of sediments (after Maxwell, 1968). 

d. Interpreted 'zonation' of reef in Cairns area. 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



S3 



slightly farther out with intermediate carbonate 
levels. Sites 2 and 7 also lie in the intermediate 
carbonate region. Sites 3,4,9,12,13 and 14 all 
clearly lie in the high carbonate region and are also 
farther out and deeper. Site 8 is somewhat 
anomalous: it is on the outer edge of Arlington 
Reef, is one of the deepest sites and lies in a high 
carbonate zone. Nevertheless, examination of Fig. 
4c shows it lies just at the edge of an inshore 
extrusion through the Grafton Passage. In the 
analysis sites 9 and 12 showed a close affinity; 
these lie on the approximate southern edge of the 
Grafton Passage. 

We conclude from these data that a broad 
inshore/offshore pattern occurs in the Cairns 
region . It is one related to depth and distance from 
shore, but appears influenced by sediment type 
and presumably currents. A 'zonation' is 
presented in Fig. 4d where a broad inshore 
component extends as a tongue through the 
Grafton Passage reflecting sediment type rather 
than depth or distance from shore. The reality of 
the transitional zone is questionable. Perhaps there 
are odd pockets of peculiar habitat or perhaps 
further sampling would blur these distinctions. 
Finally, earlier analysis of the untransformed data 
revealed a simpler chaining of sites from inshore 
to offshore with little discrimination, i.e. a 
relatively homogenous pattern with diversity 
attenuating towards the shore. 

DISCUSSION 

Central to the process of establishing the 
presence of biological zonation within the Great 
Barrier Reef Region is the debate over the structure 
of communities. There have been two schools of 
thought surrounding communities: one considers 
them structured, rigid groupings with well defined 
boundaries maintained by competition, the other 
as a variety of species spread along environmental 
continua — their individual abundances 
determined by environmental suitability. In work 
on marine benthos the debate arose when the 
classification of benthic fauna in shallow, tropical 
waters failed to completely support the definitive 
work of Peterson (1914, 1915, 1924) and Thorson 
(1957). Stephenson (1973) presented a thorough 
appraisal of methods and arguements concerning 
marine benthic community analysis and, 
furthermore, re-analysis of Petersen's original 
data by Stephenson, Williams and Cook (1972) 
only supported some of Petersen's original 
interpretations. As a consequence the more 
traditional concept of a structured community 
must be weakened. A similar debate has been 



pursued in the botanical literature with the strong 
phytosociology school of the Europeans countered 
by the advocacy of the Americans for the 
continuum concept (see Mcintosh, 1967 for a 
review). 

In all the analyses of series I we see evidence of 
a great deal of homogeneity. Furthermore, there 
is little consistency between analyses regarding 
specific site groupings. The exception is the 
Princess Charlotte Bay sites which, because most 
of the trawls were conducted with different gear, 
may be j usti fiably excluded from further 
consideration. Nevertheless, analyses involving 
just the fish, but conducted at the species level, did 
indicate a broad inshore/offshore (shallow/deep) 
pattern. 

Our results from the smaller scale series V 
sampling, which was carried out in a systematic 
and quantitative manner, do suggest the 
continental shelf in the Cairns area has two broad 
zones (inshore/offshore) related to sediment type 
and the correlated factors of depth and distance 
from shore. The taxa that best differentiated these 
zones were the 'errant' taxa of which fish are 
dominant. Indeed, in the various analyses certain 
taxa consistently appeared to strongly influence 
the results. Rainer and Munro (1982) used only 
fish and cephalopods in their study of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria in which they concluded similarly that 
a broad depth related (inshore/offshore) pattern 
existed. 

It could be argued that the fish alone are 
sufficient to determine patterns. Trawling, 
however, is designed to collect demersal fauna, 
notably fish and prawns, and not to collect the 
epibenthic fauna. That it does catch this fauna is 
undeniable, but it is not designed to sample them 
accurately. Our conclusions that these components 
of the fauna are not as definitive as the fish in 
determining patterns reflects method rather than 
necessarily biological reality. No doubt rigorous 
sampling of the bottom with dredge and grab 
would reveal increased resolution of assemblages 
within the benthos. It could be argued that if 
clearly definable discontinuities existed in 
epibenthic fauna a reflection would be expected to 
occur in the associated demersal fauna. Emus are 
found on plains, cassowaries in forests. Our 
analysis based upon fauna sampled effectively 
with a trawl net (i.e. fish) suggests such clear 
discontinuities do not exist, at least in the inter- 
reef regions of the northern part of the Great 
Barrier Reef. 

We believe the analyses have some important 
practical implications: they are that since fish (and 



u 



MEMOIRS OF THE QLfct'NSL AND MUSEUM 



selected other species e.e. f W€ eltVvlivley 

sampled they are likely the only oners worth 
sampling. Also fish arc relatively easily sampled 
by trawling and are certain]; more reliably 
identified than most invertebrates. Depending 
upon the geographical scale ot the survey, the 
fishes alone may provide sufficient evidence of 
bottom type and faunal assemblages. Certainly 
McKay (1970) found that in Ejunoutb Gulf, 
Western. Australia, catches of banana prawns were 
generally associated with the presence of the fish 
Potydactyius specutaris. 

Ordinations of the large Series t data set 
levealed vast areas of likeness' in terms of 
taxonomic composition. It was not possible to 
define a unique community tvpe compi i-.cd ni taxa 
which were generally ahseni or rare outside iVl 
boundaries. Instead, classifications were based on 
often subtle differences between large and diverse 
taxonomic suites which wcte geographically w I 
distributed (see Appendix 2), i.e. collections were 
indicative of a continuum although some 
confidence might be placed upon the fish. 

Rainer (1984), after further examination of the 
data of Rainer and Munro (1982), concluded that 
although a basic depth related pattern existed it 
did show .some seasonal shift (to deeper regions in 
September compared to March). He suggested the 
entire fish (and eephalupod) population was in a 
continual ilux. Poiner and Karris (1985) reported 
on further trawling in the Gulf of Carpentaria in 
1983. Their analyses of similar assemblages of fish 
and cephalopods revealed 'Th< site groups for each 
month make a coherent Onshore, offsftore] 
topographical picture and conform reasonably 
well with the patterns detected by Rainer (I9S4) 
for the 1963/4 data set' MS p. 11. Thus there 
appears a basic agreement between both recent and 
past patterns within the Gulf of Carpentaria. 
Fill ihermorc, our east coa&t data appear to 
conform to this same pattern. It may be that an 
inshote/orTshore pattern is stable despite slight 
seasonal changes or others created by the advent 
of commercial trawling. The absence o: clearly 
delineated assemblages, i.e. the presence of a 
continuum, we believe reflects a true biological 
phenomonen. 

Differentiation of the Gulf of Carpentaria data 
was only achieved at a relatively high level of 
dissimilarity and this may have been aided by the 
i> (o Irawl over larger areas less restricted by 
'foul pro mid'. Should il become possible TO carry 
out broader based sampling over much of the 
Great Barrier Reef Region including 'foul' 
ground, then we would expect to find an extension 



of our depth related zonaiion pattern rtonh and 
south from the Cairns area. 

In conclusion, if the assumption is correci that 
demersal fauna, predominantly fish, should 
refelect any major patterning of bottom 
communities, then, where conditions allow 
trawling, a fairly homogeneous assemblage occurs 
throughout large areas of the Great Barrier Reef 
This continuum is broadly separable into a 
relatively rich offshore fauna :inJ an inner, 
shallower component which is relatively 
depauperate, but has some characteristic species. 
Such a pattern may characterise much of the 
shallow tropical shelf of northern Australia. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 
We are pleased to acknowledge the support of 
the Commonwealth of Australia Fisheries Branch 
(D.P.I.), the Fisheries Research Branch (Q.D.P,!.) 
aod the Queensland Museum all of which nude 
available logistic support and personnel, especially 
M. Dredge, M. Potter, J. O'Brien, R. McKay. 
P.Davie and J.Stanisic. We thank also Prof .1. 
Kikkawa, Zoology Dept., University of 
Queensland for allowing computer analyses to be 
pursued through his department. In preliminary 
analyses we were greatly assisted by Dr M, 
Williams (Queensland Fisheries) and Prof. W. 
Stephenson (University of Queensland); and in the 
assembly and checking of appendices and the 
preparation o\' figures we thank Dr C.F.. Cannon 
and Mr S Francis respectively. For the onerous 
task Of sorting and cataloguing the bulk of the 
specimens handled we are deeply indebted to Drs 
Alice Kay and Neil Bruce and to Mr Clive Jones. 
Mr J. Hooper, Museum of Arts and Sciences, 
Darwin checked many of the sponge designations. 
liualJy the study was only made possible through 
the generous support of the Australian Marine 
ce and Technology Advisory Committee. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Fraskel, E. 1978. Bibliography of the Tier 

Reef Province. Great Barrier Reef .Marine Park 
Authority. 204pp. ( ■ 

GCEDEM, G.B. and Cannon. L.R.C I98Q ClW north 
Queensland eontincntal shelf survey c^inc T.R LP 
Unpublished Report to the Fishine Inui: 
Research Tius-l Account. 

II Noioi.T. 1985. Fisheries of rne Great Barrier k 
cial Publication Scries 2 G h,k M 
Townsville. J58pp, 

KaUjCjI \, P J. and Wiison, M. \ i 1 >7H 'trie trawl in , 
QuW Of Papua. Etas. Hull. 120. Depi. oi 

Prim." . i ladu triei Pen Mora ■ ■ 

LftMB&nr, LM. and Dam. M.B. 19X0. The lite of 
■■ 'i phW$0Clo|Ofly< 4tfV. BiOi AVv I 

». 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



55 



Lance, G.N. and Williams, W.T. 1967. A general 

theory of classificatory sorting strategies. I. 

Heirarchical systems. Comput. J. 9:373-80. 
Lance, G.N. and Williams, W.T. 1977. Attribute 

contributions to a classification, Ausi. Comp. J. 

9:128-129. 
Lee, T.J. 1979. Demersal fish resources investigation on 

trawl grounds off the northwest coast of Australia. 

Bull. Tiawan Fish. Res. Inst. 131. 
Liu, H.C. 1976. The demersal fish stocks of the waters 

of north and northwest Australia. Acta Oceanogr. 

Taiwan. 16:128-34. 
Liu, H.C, Lai, H.L. and Yeh, S.Y. 1978. General 

review of demersal fish resources in the Sunda Shelf 

and the Australian waters. Acta Oceanogr. Taiwan. 

18:109-40. 
Mckay, R.J. 1970. Additions to the fish fauna of 

Western Australia — 5. Dept. of Fisheries and 

Fauna, W.A. Fish. Bull. 9:1-24. 
Maxwell, W.G.H. 1968. Atlas of the Great Barrier 

Reef. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 258pp. 
Mcintosh, R.P. 1967. The continuum concept of 

vegetation. Bot. Rev. 133:130-187. 
Munro, I.S.R. 1972. The fauna of the Gulf of 

Carpentaria. No. 1. Introduction and station lists. 

Fish. Notes Queensl. (N.S.) No. 2. 
Peterson, C.G.J. 1914. Valuation of the sea. II. The 

animal communities of the sea bottom and their 

importance for marine zoogeography. Rep. Dan 

biol. Stn. 21: 44pp. 
Peterson, C.G.J. 1915. On the anima! communities of 

the sea bottom in the Skaggerak, the Christiania 

Fjord and Danish waters. Rep. Dan. biol. Stn. 23:3- 

28. 
Peterson, C.G.J. 1924. A brief survey of the animal 

communities in Danish waters. Am. J. Sci. 17:343- 

354. 
Poiner, I.R. and Harris, A. 1985, The effect of 

commercial prawn trawling on the demersal fish 

communities of the south-eastern Gulf of 

Carpentaria. Torres Strait Fisheries Seminar, Port 

Moresby, February 1985. Dept. of Primary 

Industries, Canberra. 
Rainer, S.F. 1984 Temporal changes in a demersal fish 

and cephalopod community of an unexploited 

coastal environment in northern Australia. Aust. J. 

mar. Freshwat. Res. 35:747-768. 
Rainer, S.F. and Munro, I.S.R. 1982. Demersal fish 

and cephalopod communities of an unexploited 

coastal environment in Northern Australia. Aust. J. 

mar. Freshwat. Res. 33:1039-55. 
Stephenson, W. 1973. The validity of the community 

concept in marine biologv. Proc. R. Soc. Qd. 84:73- 

86. 
Stephenson, W. and Williams, W.T. 1971. A study of 

the benthos of soft bottoms, Sek Harbour, New 

Guinea, using numerical analysis. Aust. J. mar. 

Freshwat. Res. 22:11-34. 
Stephenson, W., Williams, W.T. and Cook, S.D. 

1972. Computer analysis of Petersen's original data 

on bottom communities. Ecol. Monogr. 42:387- 

415. 



Stephenson, W. Williams, W.T. and Cook, S.D. 1974. 

The benthic fauna of soft bottoms, southern 

Moreton Bay. Mem. QdMus. 17:73-123. 
Thorson, G. Bottom communities (sublittoral or 

shallow shelf)- In 'Treatise on Marine Ecology and 

Paleoecology I. Ecology' Mem. geol. Soc. Am. 

167:461-534. 
Watson, R.A. 1984. Trawl fish composition and harvest 

estimates for the Gulf of Papua. Report No. 84-01 . 

Dept. Primary Industry, Port Moresby. 
Williams, W.T. and Stephenson, W. 1973. The 

analysis of three dimensional data(sites x species x 

times) in marine ecology. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 

11:207-27. 



APPENDIX I 

SUMMARY OF STATION DATA FOR TRAWL 
SERIES O — VI 

(NA = Not available) 



TRAWL SERIES O (19 Feb to 21 Feb 1979) 



Stn 


Lat. (S) 


Long. (E) 


Depth (m) 


Bottom Type 


A 


16°36.2* 


145°44.5' 


32.4 


Mud 


B 


16°37.5' 


145°44.8' 


27.0 


Mud 


C 


16°47.4' 


145°52.2' 


27.0 


Mud 


D 


16°44.6' 


145°53.9' 


36.0 


Mud 


F. 


16°43.7' 


145°49.0' 


43.2 


Sand, mud 


F 


16°45.0' 


146°02J' 


54.0 


Sand, mud 


G 


16°51.9' 


146°07.r 


43.2 


Mud 


H 


16°47.4' 


146°07.5' 


48.6 


Shell 


1 


16°44.5' 


146 Q 12.2' 


63.0 


Sand, mud 


J 


16°39.9' 


146°10.8' 


92.0 


Sand, sponge, coral 


K 


16°34.6' 


146°12.4' 


81.0 


Sand, shell, Halimeda 



TRAWL SERIES I (9 Oct to 4 Nov 1979) 



Stn 


Lat. (S) 


Long. (E) 


Depth (m) 


Bottom Type 


1 


18°35.0' 


145°49.5' 


45.0 


NA 


2 


18°19.0' 


147°04.0' 


75.6 


NA 


3 


18 D 17.0' 


146°31.0' 


30.6 


Coral rubble 


4 


17°43.8' 


146°26.7' 


41.4 


NA 


5 


17°38.4' 


146°34.0' 


57.6 


NA 


6 


17°38.0' 


146°33.0* 


59.4 


Shell, weed 


7 


17 o 37,0' 


146°34.0' 


63.0 


NA 


8 


17°36.8' 


146°36.8' 


64.8 


NA 


9 


17°34.0' 


146°27.5' 


59.4 


Shell, coral rubble 


10 


17°33.0' 


146°26.0' 


46.8 


Coral rubble 


11 


17°31.0' 


146°19.5' 


41.4 


NA 


12 


17°14.0' 


146°27.0' 


39.6 


NA 


13 


17 C I3.5' 


146°22.5' 


48.6 


Coral rubble 


14 


17°13.5' 


146°17.0' 


37.8 


Coral rubble 


15 


17°11.0* 


146°29.0' 


66.6 


Coral rubble 


16 


17°09.8' 


146°23.5 t 


50.4 


NA 


17 


17°08.0' 


146°15.0' 


41.4 


Clean sand 


IS 


17°08.7' 


146°15.2' 


43.2 


NA 


19 


17°05.5' 


146°16.0' 


52.2 


NA 


20 


17°05.0' 


146°23.0' 


50.4 


NA 


21 


17°02.0' 


146°25.2' 


64.8 


Coral rubble 


22 


17°01.5' 


I46°19.0' 


48.6 


NA 


23 


17°01.0' 


146°20.0' 


48.6 


NA 


24 


17°00.5' 


146°01.5' 


22.5 


Sandy, clean 



56 



MLMOIRS OF THE QUliliNSLAND MUSEUM 



25 


16*59.5* 


146*06.2* 


37.8 


Hard bottom 


94 


I3 r '58.9" 


144 [I I4.9' 


37.8 


Mud, shell 


26 


I6"37 Jt 1 


146 a I8.7' 




Mud 


95 


■ 1 


143*48,6' 


21.6 


Clean, hard 


27 


16 53 v 


146'IX.O' 


68,4 


Coral rubble 


96 


13*52.2' 


14.V51.6' 


30,6 


Mud 


28 


: 


146 D 08.6' 


43.2 


Hard bottom 


97 


13*45 r 


143*48.2' 


18.0 


Mud. shell 


29 


16 r 50.0* 


146 n l 1.5' 


46.8 


NA 


98 


13*44.3 


|43 r 4g 0' 


18,0 


Shell 


30 


16*48.2' 


I46°07 5' 


49 5 


Clean bottom 


99 


I3°38.6' 


143 D 42.6' 


25.2 


■.,,■ ^ 


n 


16M6.6' 




55,8 


l n ii nibble, mud 


100 


13M7.0" 


143*44.9' 


I9J 


Clean 


12 


1646.0' 


146 D 03.8* 


39.6 


Clean sand 


101 


12 45 6' 


143 3: 2 1 


19.8 


Mud 


U 


16 44 a' 


146'" 12.0' 


54.0 


Mud 


102 


12*42.5' 


|43 B 2B,r 


14,4 


Clean 


u 


u, mi sr 


146' n.r 


64,K 


( lean 


103 


I2°40.2' 


143*28.8' 


21.6 


Soft, shell 


15 


16 '34.6" 


143*32.6* 


57.8 


Coral rubble 


104 


I2°35.0' 


143*25.7' 


21.6 


Clean, hard 


w, 


16°34 5' 


|45°46.6 1 


30.5 


Clean 


105 


12*34.5' 


14V 24 (,' 


16.2 


Clean 


37 


|«°33.r 


145*39 r 


22.5 


1 team hard 


106 


12*34.1' 


143 r 23.4' 


14,4 


Mud 


38 


!6' ? 30.2' 


|45 B 56.4' 


45.0 


Lea 


107 


12*34.0' 


I43'24.7' 


18.9 


Mud, shell 


J9 


16 r 30.4' 


t45'52.4' 


42.3 


Clean sand 


108 


12 33 V 


143 22. 5" 


14.4 


Hard, clean, shell 


40 


16*25.2' 


I45 '3] ;■■:• 


17 1 


NA 


109 


12*31 y 


143*25.8' 


28.8 


Mud, shell 


41 


16*15.2' 




19.6 


NA 


1 10 


12-29.'' 


I43 B 20.3 1 


18.0 


Hard, shell 


43 


16*08.0' 


1 45' 37 (')'■ 


43 2 


NA 


111 


12*26.*? 


143-22.6' 


24.3 


Clean, hard 


4 1 


L6°04.2' 


i u ■*■ ; 


30.6 


NA 


112 


1226. 2' 


14 1 23 4' 


24.3 


Hard, sand 


44 


\5°$9.y 


145 32.4' 


2s a 


NA 


113 


12*26.3' 


143*19.7' 


ISvfl 


Sand 


45 


[5*46.6* 


145 42.1 


48.6 


NA 


114 


12*20.1* 


14.VM6.6' 


15.3 


Mud. shell 


46 


15 46.3* 


145=35.8* 


27.0 


NA 


115 


12" 16.8' 


143 10.2' 


12.6 


Clean, hard 


47 


I546.:' 


145 '34.2' 


27.0 


NA 


116 


12" 11 6" 


143*10.1' 


18.0 


Mud 


48 


15°45.4' 


145*40.2' 


u ; 


BUI 


117 


12*06.4' 


!43 n 10.I* 


15.3 


Shell 


49 


15 44.9' 


145 40.9' 


46.8 


Clay, mud 


118 


12 '06.4' 


143*17.6' 


37.8 


Hard 


50 


1544. 8' 


145*34.2' 


39.6 


NA 


119 




143*13,3' 


29.7 


■ 


51 


15*42.7' 


145^28.5' 


27.0 


Coral rubble 


I2.i 


12*04.8' 


143*13.3' 


15.3 


Mud 


: : : 


15 36.2' 


145°26.8' 


21.6 


NA 


121 


| | 




30.6 


Hard, weed 


53 


I5 fl 23.3' 


145*29.0' 


28.8 


( lean, hard 


122 


11-47.2' 




34.2 


Mad 


U 


I5 8 13.3' 


145*27 1' 


30.6 


Clean 


123 


M'45,2' 


;4jo3.i.i- 


w.s 


Clean, hard 


Sf 


I5 6 06.0' 


145 


J4.2 


Clean, hard 


124 


1C41.8' 


143*08.3' 


32.4 


Hard, smooth 


56 


14 [ 48.0* 


W5°23.0 1 


28.8 


NA 












57 


14*42.0' 


145 04.S' 


9.0 


NA 












ss 


14-40.0' 


145*07.5* 


10.8 


NA 




[■RAW] k 


59 


I4 II 39.{r 


I45°20.Q' 


19.8 


Mud. shell 












60 


I4 a 38.5' 


145° 13.0' 


13.5 


NA 


Sin 


Lit. <S» 


Long. (E) 


Depth imi 


Bottom Type 


hi 


|4°36,0 1 


145*03.0' 


12.6 


NA 


i 


22" 15 5" 


152 43 5 1 


36 


Flat, clean 


62 
63 
$4 

65 


14"35.3* 

14*32.2' 

14"27.K 1 
14*26.5' 


145*23.0' 
14J°07.5' 
144*51.0' 

144-44.1)- 


27.0 
19.8 
12.6 

12.6 


Mud, shell 
NA 
Clean, hard 

i i 1 . weed 


2 
3 
4 
5 


22*15.7' 
22*16.8* 

1 
22*02.1' 


I 1 il I' 
152" 40, 5' 
I52 a 35.5' 

152 27 7' 


61,2 

50.4 

50.4 

57.6 


Rubble 
Flat, clean 

NA 

NA 


66 

67 
68 
69 
70 
71 


1423.9' 

u 2D.:- 
14*12.0' 
14 a !2.0' 
14*12.07 

14*11 5' 


144*42.1' 

14451 I)' 
144 03.0" 
1 44*04.3' 

144 05 8' 

144 06.9' 


18.0 
23 4 
18.9 
18.9 
21 6 
21,6 


Mud 

Rubble 
NA 

NA 
NA 

NA 


6 

7 
8 
9 
10 

1 1 


21-3.2' 
21 40.2' 

' 
2140.2' 
2l a 44.0' 


152 19.7' 
152*147' 

152' 10.3' 
152*04.5' 
152*04.2 
152*04.0' 


>7.6 

sa.o 
61.2 
57.6 
63.0 

54.0 


NA 

NA 

NA 

Sand, weed 

NA 

NA 


7: 


I4"ll 4' 


144*02 D 1 


14, X 


Clean 


12 


21 46.9' 


|52 ( 50.0' 


-4.1) 


NA 


73 

^4 


14 11.0' 
1410.8' 


144*25.4* 

144"'02.0' 


6.3 
18.9 


Mud 
Shell 


13 
14 


21*45.2' 
21*50.1* 


152*01.2* 

I52 n 02.5" 


4S.fi 

59.4 


NA 
NA 


75 
76 


14 10.8" 
14 IDS' 

- o 


144*05.9* 

144*04.2' 

I44'()2,V 


21.6 
23.4 
21,6 


Clean 

Clean 
Clean, shell 


15 
16 
17 


2150.2' 
2T52 4* 
21-58.6' 


152 ■ 

152 16 2' 


43.0 
52.0 
50 T 4 


NA 
NA 

NA 


78 


14° 10.6' 


144"0K.6' 


21.6 


Clean 












79 


14*10,4' 


M4 a 0M' 


21.6 


Clean, shell 












so 


|J 10 4 


144^09.4' 


21,6 














:-:i 


14 10 4* 


144*08 .4* 


21.6 


Clean 




M-AVM .SLKIt.MII « 13 Sept 


to 4 Oct 1980) 


82 


: rimr 


144*01.2' 


21.6 


<- lean 












S3 


14' HUT 


144*01.2' 


22.5 


Mud, shell 


Sin 


1 at. (S) 


Long. (E) 


Depth (m 


Bottom Type 


Et4 


|4*0»,6' 


I44'02.0' 


21.6 


NA 


1 


26*3f 


153*48' 


480 


— 




14*09.6' 


144*05,3' 


21.6 


Rubble 


2 


26 20' 


' 


300 


— 


86 


14*09,3' 


144-03. .V 


22.5 


Rubble 


l 




153*46' 


330 


— 


87 


U L, 08.8' 


14424. 5' 


18.9 


Hard. Jean 


4 


■■ i i 




330 




88 


14*07 J 1 


I44'26.4' 


22.5 


Clean 


5 


■ 


152*47' 


320 


— 


89 


I4 n 05.3' 


I44°04.7' 


25.2 


1 nntl 


6 


' 


l.^-|9" 


562 


— 


90 


i4°04.r 


144*26.1* 


30.6 


Mud 


7 


23 30' 


153*04' 


540 


— 


91 


\4 ,u o 


I4V--6.6' 


27.0 


Mud 


8 


S3 i 


153*00' 


420 


— 


92 


14*01.0* 


144° 10.4* 


34.2 


NA 


9 


Q 


1U 10" 


570 


- 


93 


14 (Ml 9' 


143*54.5' 


25.2 


Shell 


10 




153 55' 


loo 


— 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



57 



11 


21*30' 


152 56' 


240 


12- 


21*41' 


152*51' 


150 


13 


24*05' 


152 Q 53' 


315 


14 


23 Q 5S' 


152*45' 


212 


15 


23° 50.6' 


15236.2' 


270 


16 


23°42.5' 


152*24,8' 


216 


17 


23°36.6' 


152 s 22.9' 


205 


18 


23*26* 


152° 16' 


205 


19 


23°36.3' 


I52°43.2' 


360 


20 


23 s 10.6' 


152°12.3' 


135 


21 


22 c 56.l' 


152*32.2' 


144 


22 


22*51.7' 


lS2*45 r T 


261 


23 


22°54.5' 


152*12.5' 


351 


24 


23*00.3' 


153°I8.8' 


387 


25 


22 c '36.7* 


154" 14.0" 


522 


26 


23*15.3' 


154°2I.7' 


549 



TRAWL SERIES IV (8 Oct to 10 Oct 1980) 



Sin 


Lat. (S) 


Long. IE) 


Depth Imi 


Bottom Type 


1 


16M8.8' 


145°58.4' 


41.0 


— 


2 


I6 D 46.3' 


145° 57 .9' 


40.0 


— 


3 


I6°44,5' 


143*56.5' 


30.0 


— 


4 


16°42.8' 


145 c 56.3' 


39.0 


— 


5 


16°44.3' 


145 c 59.4' 


45.0 


— 


$ 


16°44.0' 


145*59.6' 


47.0 


— 


7 


16*43.9' 


146 c 00.7' 


51.0 


— 


8 


16°44.8' 


!46 r '02.r 


50.0 


— 


! j 


16°45.6' 


146°01.5' 


40.0 


— 


10 


16 a 47.0' 


145 : 58.9' 


45.0 


— 


11 


16°48.5* 


145 59.6" 


50.0 


— 


12 


16=48.9" 


146 D 00.4' 


50.0 


— 


13 


I6 D 48.8* 


146*01.2' 


36.5 


— 


14 


16°48,5' 


146*02-5' 


36.5 


— 


15 


16°48.l' 


146°03.7' 


40,0 


— 


16 


16°46.8' 


146°04.9' 


41.0 


— 



TRAWL SERIES V {21 Jan to 28 Jan 1981) 



Stn 


Lot. (S) 


Long. (E> 


Depth (m) 


Bottom Type 


1 


1 6° 23.0' 


145*30.8' 


14.4 


Clean, hard, sand) 


2 


16*23.6' 


US*37.0' 





Clean 


3 


16 c 23.0* 


145*55.6' 


50.4 


NA 


4 


16*23.0' 


146"01.6' 


57.6 


Silt, shell debris 


5 


16°43.0' 


145 D 43.0' 


10.8 


Some weed 


6 


16*43.0' 


I45°49.2' 


19.8 


Clean 


7 


1 6*43.0' 


145°55.4' 


30.6 


Some weed 


S 


16°43.0' 


146°07.8' 


55.8 


Clean 


9 


16*43.0' 


146 rj 13.8* 


42.5 


Weed 


10 


I7°03.0' 


145*55-6' 


9.0 


Clean 


11 


I7°03,0' 


146*01.7' 


21.6 


Clean 


12 


17 Q 03.0' 


146°07.8' 


30.6 


NA 


13 


J7°03.0* 


146*14.0' 


36.0 


Clean 


14 


17*03.0' 


146° 20.0' 


39.6 


Clean 



TRAWL SERIES V! (25 April to 5 May 1982) 



Stn 


Lat. (S) 


Long. (E) 


Depth (ml Bottom Type 


1 


17*00' 


145°55.0* 


10.0 


2 


17*00' 


145*57.0' 


20.0 — 


3 


17*00' 


146*00.0' 


25,0 


-1 


17*00' 


146*03.0' 


30.0 - 


5 


17*00* 


146 "05. 8' 


35.0 - 


6 


17*00' 


146"21.r 


55.0 


7 


1 7*00' 


146 24.5' 


55.0 



8 


I7 B 00* 


145*58.0' 


22.0 


9 


17°00' 


146*01.0' 


23.0 


10 


17 D 00' 


I46 D 04.5* 


34.0 


11 


17*00' 


146 3 07.0* 


35.0 


12 


17*00' 


146°08.0 ! 


42.0 


13 


17°00' 


146*08.5' 


30.0 


14 


I7°00' 


146 1 17.5' 


58.0 


15 


\--{v\' 


146M8.4" 


55.0 


16 


No sample 






17 


I6°59.0' 


1 46 : 19.0' 


53.0 


re 


17*00* 


146 ' : 26.0' 


52.0 


19 


17 a 00' 


146*27.0' 


35.0 


20 


16*45.0' 


146*18.5' 


50.5 


21 


16=45.0' 


146*12.5' 


31.0 






APPENDIX 11 



CHECKLIST OF FAUNA 
FROM TRAWL SERIES O — VI 



PORIFERA 

Adoriidae 

Adocia sp. 

Sigmadocia sp, 
Anchinoidae 

Anchinoidae sp. 
Aplysillidae 

Aptysilla sp. 

Darwinelia sp. 

Darwinei/opsis sp. 

Aplysillidae sp. 
Aplysinellidac 

Aplysina sp , 

Psommaplysilla sp. 

Pseudoceratma sp. 

Aplysinelhdae sp. 
Axinellidae 

Acanthetla sp. 

Axiamon folium 

Axinetfa sp- 

Axinectya mariana 

Raphoxya pallida 

Axinellidae spp. 
Biemnidae 

IBiemnasp. 
Callyspongiidae 

Caityspongia \confederata 

C. subarmigera 

C. ^subarmigera 

Cafiyspongia spp. 

fEuplacella sp. 

Siphonochalina spp. 
ISiphonochalina spp. 
Toxochatma sp. 
Callyspongiidae sp. 

Chondrosiidae 

Chondhlla ausiraiieri.sis 

Chondrilla sp. 

Chondrosiidae sp. 
Clionidae 

Clionidae sp. 
Coelosphaeridae 

Histoderma sp. 
Desmacellidae 

Kerasemna horrida 



111(15. IK) 
111(26) 

K52) 

V(2,9) 

1(41) 
1(14) 
11(3) VI 12) 

1(5) 
V(2J 
11(2,5) 

1(50) 

1(51,60,61. 115) IV(7)V(9) 

ll6.V)VI(7» 

IV(1| 

V(5) 

l« | 

O(l) 1(35,63) IV{1)V(9) 

1(52) 

1(4,42.44) V< 12) 

1(97, 115,117) 

V(2) 

1(2.4,5.14.26.58)1(4,5, 

11)111(2,4,5,14) 

1(115) 

1(4.114)11(5) 1(2,4,9) 

V(2.4.9) 

1(4,14) 

O(E) 1(27.97. 115. 116) 

IV(5)VI(7) 

Vl.2) 
11(2) 
1(13.80. 102) 11(1.8) V(7) 

t<63)V(2)VI(7) 

111(18) 
1(44) 



5* 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Desmacidonidac 

Desmapsamma sp. 

Forcepia sp. 

Liosina sp. 
Desmoxyidae 

Higginsia sp. 
Uictyodendrillidae 

7 ' Dictyodendrilla spp. 

Dictyodendrillidae spp. 

Dysideidae 

Dysidea spp. 

Spongionelia spp. 

Dysideidae spp. 
Geodiidae 

Geodia cf, regina 

Geodiaspp, 
Halichondridae 

ICiocatypta sp. 

Halichondria spp. 

Rhaphisia sp. 

? Trachyopsis sp. 

Halichondridae spp. 
Halicionidae 

Halkhna spp. 

IReniera sp. 

ISigmadocia sp. 

Haliclonidae spp. 
Halisarcidae 

Halisarcidac sp. 
Hemiastrellidae 

Vibuiinus sp. 
Heterocoelidae 

lAphrocerus sp. 

Leucettusa sp. 

TLeucettusa sp. 

Heterocoelidae spp. 
Homocoelidae 

Lencosolenia sp. 
Hyalonematidae 

Hyalonema sp. 

Pheronema spp. 

Hyalonematidae sp. 
Hymeniacidonidae 

Hymeniacidon sp. 

Hymeniacidonidae spp, 
lanthellidae 

IBajalus sp. 

hnthella basra 

lanthelia sp. 

lanthellidae sp. 
Jaspidae 

Jaspis sp. 
Leucettidae 

Leucettidae spp. 
Microcionidae 

.4a*rm/.s erithacus 

A. topsenti 

Clathria hartmeyeri 

C. rotunda 

Clathria spp. 

Echinochalina anomala 

Echinochalina intermedian 

? Echinochatina spp. 

Echinoclathria sp. 

fooaona ttiberosa 

Microcionidae sp. 



V(9) 
VI2) 
1(56) 

1(63) 

V(3) 

0(1, K) 1(4,21,27,51,56) 

II(3)VI<n,14) 

1(44,51.56,58, 100) Vt.U) 

V(2,9) 

0(K)V<3) 

111(8,13) 

111(8, 19) V(9. 12) 

111(19) 

0(E.F, J) 1(43,52,66) 

1V(4,9J V(12) 

V(2,12) 

V(9) 

1(41,51,52,113) 

1(4.5.56.60)111(4) V(6, 9) 
1(69) 

1(4,5.37,51,52,53) 
O(D) 1(27.63) VI{7) 

V!(14) 

1(51) 

1(103) 

1(35) !V|2, 26,7) 

IV(4) 

IV<2) 

V(9) 

111(25) 

intio, 19) 

111(19) 

111(19) 

1(1 1.49. 59) V(9, 12) 

H(ll) 
11(15) 
UK ) 

111(14) 

1(25,35) V(2) 

11(2.7,8,10,11.14) 

1(9) 
K57) 
1(14) 
111(4) 

I(14,52,55.119)IV<6)V(2) 

V|4, 

1(14) 

1(29,72) 

1(72)111(1) 

1(4,14,55) 

V(12) 



Mycalidae 

Mytale lylstrongylo 

Mycalidae sp. 
Myxillidae 

Ectomyxilla sp. 

Lissodendoryx spp. 

Myxillidae sp. 
Nepheliospom 

Nepheliospondiae sp. 
Niphaiidae 

Amphimedon spp. 

Cribrochafina spp. 
GeUiodes fibuiata 
Miphates 8pp. 
Niphatidaesp. 

Oceanapiidae 

Biminia sp. 

Calyx sp. 

Pachypeilina sp. 

Oceanapiidae sp. 
Peirosiidae 

Xestospongia sp, 
Phorbasidae 

Echinodictyum carolinoides 

iMyrmekioderma sp. 
Pollacidae 

Semperella cf. schuhzei 

Pollacidae sp. 
Psammascidae 

IHoiopsamnw sp. 

Psammascvs chatiniformis 

IPsammopemma spp. 

Psammascidae sp. 
Raspailiidae 

R as pa ilia sp. 
Sigmaxinellidae 

Sigmaxinellidae sp. 
Spirastrellidae 

Spirastrella Imuntiformis 

Spirastrella up 

Spirastrellidae spp. 
Spongiidae 

Cacospongia spp. 

ICarteriaspongia sp. 

Coscinoderma spp. 

Dactylospongtasp. 
Hippospongia aphroditella 
Hippospongia sp. 

? Hippospongia sp. 

Wvattella spp. 
*Leiosella sp. 
Spongia Spp, 



Spongiidae spp. 



Stellidae 

Myriastra sp. 

Stellefta cf. maxima 

Stelletta spp. 

Stelletiidac ^pp. 
Suberiiidae 

Aapios sp. 

? LaxQsuberites sp. 

ITerpios sp. 
Tedamidae 

lotrochota baculij'era 



1(52) 
U(5) 

1(41) 

IC") 11(8,13) 

1(41* 

111(10) 

1(2,4,44,53,63)111(5.6, 
13) 

1(43) IK - ) 

K97) 

1(38)11(5,14, 17) V(9) 

O(C.D) 1(51,97) 1V(1) 

VK7, 13) 

1(122) 

1(51) 

11(6) 

V(12) 

|(U3) 

K6I) 

111 1.60,63) 

111(7,10,11,26) 
111(19) 

1(4,41) 

1(10.26,35) 
1(26) V(9, 12) 
11(8.10.11) 

1V(12) 

1(51) 

1(61) 

IV(4) V(2) 
1(52,64) 

1(41,43) V(2, 9) 

V(2) 

11(1,6,7,13. 14. 15) IV(fi) 

V(9,I2) 

V(2,12) 

1(61) 

V(2)VI(I8) 

1(52) 

l(58,79)V(12) 

KID 

1(26,46) 11(5) mnO, 19) 

V(9) 

0*D,1) 1(21.43) ril(4, 10) 

IV(-)V(9)VI(7) 

1(97) 
111(19) 

111(8,13,15,18,19,25) 
0(E. .1)1(42) 

IV(12) 

K-) 

1(115) 

1(61,89) 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



59 



/. coccinea 


1(35) 


Dendrophyllia spp. 


1(20, 29) III( - ) 


Tedania sp. 


V(4) 


Turbinaria spp. 


1(43,64) 


Tethyidae 




Ellisellidae 




Tethya sp. 


11(17) 


Ellisella sp. 


0(J)I(114) 


Tethyidae sp. 


1(7) 


Junceella Igemmacea 


1(31) 


Tetillidae 




Nicella sp . 


1(42) 11(8) 


Cinachyra sp. 


V(9) 


Epizoanthidae 




1 Cinachyra sp. 


111(19) 


Epizoanthus sp. 


111(25,26) 


Craniella simillima 


«-) 


Faviidae 




Cranietia sp. 


IH(8,19)IV(9,12)V(9) 


Cauiastrea furcata 


O(K) 


Raphidotethya enigmata 


V(9) 


Favites sp. 


11(7) 


Raphidotethya spp. 


1(9, 14)IV(2) 


Plesiastrea sp . 


1(51,103) 


Tetillidae spp. 


0(K)IV(4,8) 


Flabellidae 




Thorectidae 




Flabellum sp. 


11(7)111(23,25,26) 


? Fascaplysinopsis sp. 


11(13) 


IGardineria sp. 


1(4,18,41,42,51,56,58, 


TFasciospongia sp. 


1(14) 




107,115)IV(1,12) 


Hyrtios spp. 


1(35,51,52,62,115)11(10, 


Placotrochus sp. 


IV(1,2,6, 12) 


Ircinia spp. 

Psammocinia spp. 
Sarcotragus spp. 


11) 

1(4,14,35,60,62,72,76,89, 
92) 111(11) V(8) 
11(2,10,11,13,14) 
1(9) 11(13) V(4) 


Fungiidae 

Cycloseris Icyclolites 

Cycloseris sp. 

Diaseris sp. 
Gorgoniidae 


1(52,57,60,64,103) 

1(51,101) 

O(K) 


ISarcotragus sp. 


111(14) 




Smenospongia sp. 


1(35) 


Lophogorgia sp. 
Isididae 


O(J) 


Tho recta sp. 


1(55) V(2) 




Thorectidae spp. 


0(D,E) 1(27,51,52,60,86) 


Keratoisis sp. 
Lafoeidae 


111(10) 




11(2, 11,12) V(4) VI(6, 7) 








Acryptolaria sp. 


HI(26) 






IZygophlaxsp. 


KD 


CNIDARIA 




Melithaeidae 








Melithaeidae sp. 


V(2) 


Acanthogorgiidae 




Milleporidae 




.4 calycigorgia sp . 


1(97) 


Milleporidae sp. 


IV(1) 


Acanthogorgia sp. 
Muricella sp. 
? Acanthogorgiidae sp. 
Acroporidae 


111(26) 

111(22) 
1(122) 


Nephtheidae 
Capnella sp. 
Dendronephthya Ibrevirama 


11(8,13) 

1(7,18,42,45,52,61,89,92, 
112, 119) 


Acropora spp. 


I(43)IV(1,2) 


D. mollis 


11(12) 


Montipora sp. 
Agariciidae 


1(42) 


D. 1 mollis 


11(2,8,19,22,28,43,45,52, 

112) 

0(J)I(29)IV(4,5,7,12,16) 


Leptoseris sp. 
Alcyoniidae 

Sarcophyton sp. 

? Sinularia sp. 

Sinularia sp. 
Anthothelidae 


1(43) 


Dendronephthya spp. 


1(43) V(9) 

1(63,103,112) 

1(43) 


? Dendronephthya sp. 
Nephthea sp. 
Umbellulifera sp. 
Nephtheidae spp. 


11(8) 
V(9) 
1(74) 
1(34,43) IV(1) 111(11) 


Alertigorgia orientalis 
? Iciligorgia sp. 
Solenocaulon sp. 
Antipathidae 


1(107,111,114,116,120) 

O(J) 

0(B, I) 1(38,77) IV(1) 


Nidaliidae 

Siphonogorgia sp. 
Paralcyoniidae 

Studeriotes sp. 


O(J) 
K58) 


Antipathes spp. 


1(2,14,38,43) 


Paramuricidae 




Cirripathes spp. 


O(J) 1(3, 14,70,72,74,86, 


Muricella sp. 


111(22) 




89,90,97,98,101,110,112) 


Pennatulidae 




Parantipathes sp. 
Antipathidae sp. 


1(2,31,42) 
1(121) 


Pennatula sp. 
Pennatulidae sp. 


111(10) 
111(1,2,6,7,8,23,26) 


Briareidae 




Plexauridae 




Briareidae sp. 


V(9) 


Echinogorgia sp. 


1(26) 


Caryophyllidae 




Eunicea sp. 


111(20) 


Euphyllia sp. 


1(58) 


Euplexaura Irobusta 


1(97, 122) 


Stephanotrochus sp. 


111(26) 


Pseudoptumarella echidna 


1(43) 


Caryophyllidae sp. 


111(8) 


Plexauridae sp. 


11(2) 


Chrysogorgidae 




Plumulariidae 




Chrysogorgia spp. 


111(6,8,25) 


Aglaophenia sp. 


111(25,26) 


Clavulariidae 




lAglaophenia sp. 


II(6,12)IV(12) 


IClavularia sp. 


K97) 


Gymnangium cf. gracicaule 


11(7) 


Coralliidae 




G. longicornus 


1(111,118) V(3) 


Coralliidae sp. 


111(22) 


G. cf. longirostre 


11(8) 


Dendrophylliidae 




Lytocarpus sp . 


0(B,F,I, J, K) 1(87,91, 


Balanophyllia sp. 


1(119) 




120) V(5) 


Dendrophyllia cf. miniscula 


111(21) 


Thecocarpus sp. 


111(8) 



60 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Poritidae 




Bursidae 




Alveopora martensi 


0<K> 


Bursa rutia 


1(9,13,22,48,56.79,89,97, 


Alveopora sp. 


1(51) 




I04)VI(6,8. 12,16) 


Primnoeidae 




Bursa sp. 


O(H) 


Cailogorgia spp. 


HUM 


Cardiidae 




Narella sp. 


111(10) 


Fragum fragum 


IV(16) 


Plumarelh sp. 


111(6.7) 


Fragum sp. 


1(22) 


Thouarella cf. hiigendorfi 


UI(6) 


Hemieardium 'hubretusum 


1(124) 


Thouarella sp. 


111(10) 


Nemocardium probatum 


1(4) 


Primnoeidae sp- 


111(6,22.25) 


Plagiocardium setosum 


IV(6) 


Pteroeididae 




Cassidae 




Pteroeides spp. 


1(90,111,112) 


Phalium btsulcatum 


1(14) IV(8) 


Sertulariidae 




Charmdac 




1 Solatia sp. 


H(2) 


Chama pulchella 


1(52,93.97,98.101,119) 


Sertularelfa diaphana 


11(2) 


C. reflexa 


1(103) 


S. ^.diaphana 


1(72,101) 


Chama spp. 


1(55.117) 


?Sertu!ariidae sp. 


1(112) 


Conidae 




F.Subergorgiidae 




Conus cancellata 


1(14) 


Subergorgia verriculata 


1(26, 1 14) 


C. planorbis 


1(3) 


Subergorgia sp. 


V(9) 


Corbulidae 




Subergorgiidae sp. 


IV(1) 


Aloidis hydropica 


1(66,90) V(5, 14) 


Symheciidae 




Cymatiidae 




Synthecium Ipatulum 


1(92) 


Cymatium pfeifferianus 


1(10,41,56,64,64,102,111, 


Synthecium spp. 


O(F,I.KH{41,97,l01) 




115)IV(5,6, 12, 16)VI(4,6) 




V(3) 


Distorsio reticulata 


1(9,11,22,26,48,49,96,97, 


Telesiidae 






112)IV(9,12)V(1)VI(5,6) 


Teles to rubra 


0(1) 


Cyrineum sp. 


IV(8) 


Telesto sp. 


O(I) 


ILinatella sp. 


1(H5) 


?7Wt>5/0Sp. 


1(31) 


Ranularia caudata 


1(2,11,28) 


Traehyphylliidae 




Cypraeidae 




Trachyphyllia geoffroyi 


1(58,61,63,64,101)11(7, 

15,16) 


Cypraea labrolineata 
C. Imiliaris 


1V(8) 
IV(12J 


Vereiillidae 


C. piriformis 


1V(6) 


Liluaria australasiae 


O(B) 


Denial iidae 




Virgulariidae 




Dentalium Ijavanum 


1(42, 94) 


Scytalium spp. 


1(44,48,116) 


Dorididae 




Xeniidae 




Dorididae sp. 


V(9) 


Xenia spp. 


V(9) 


Enoploteuthidae 




Zoanthidae 




Abralia sp. 


111(2. 14) 


Sphenopus marsupialis 


0(B,F,J)I(1 T 2,4,6, 10, 11. 


Enopioteuthis galaxius 


111(1,6,26) 




22.32,42,45,56,58,63, 


Enoploteuthis sp. 


Ul(l) 




112,118,119) V(12, 13) 


Fasciolar iidae 




Undetermined 




Fusinus colus 


IV(5, 16) Vl(-) 


Aciinaria spp. 


1(101)111(6,7,15,17,22, 


Fttsinus sp. 
Fieidae 


0(1)11(15) 




25,26) 


Fieus subintermedia 
Fissurellidae 


1(9,86,96) IV(6) 






Scut us sp. 


1(50,97) 






Glycymeridae 




MOLLUSCA 




Melax'tnaea labyrintha 
Haminoeidae 


1(49,90, 101, 107) V(4) 


Anoiniidae 




A tys naucum 


1(64) 


IPatro australts 


1(5,49) 


Isognomontidae 




".'Anomiidae sp, 


1(101) 


Isognomon isognomon 


1(97,119) 


Aplysiidae 




Limopsidae 




Aplysiidae sp. 


K35) 


Circlimopa woodwardi 


1(94) 


? Aplysiidae sp. 


111(1) 


Loliginidae 




Arcidae 




Loligo chtnensis 


111(11, 15,22) Vl(l, 2,3,5, 


Area subnavicularis 


1(93,96,97,101,102,113, 




6,7) 




118,119)11(8) 


Loliga sp. 


0(B,J)V(1, 2,3,5,6, 11, 


Area up. 
Cueuflaea tabiala 


IV(I6) 

1(96) 


Malleidae 


12) 


Opuiurca lennella 
Trisidos semitorta 


1(59,92,93,97,110,119, 

121) 1V(8) 

1(93,119) 


Malleus a I bus 


1(1,2,19,85,93,94,100, 
101,103,104,110,113,115, 

119) 11(14,15, 17) IV(2) 

Vl(4) 

1(121) 


Argonautidae 




Vulsella vulsella 


Argonauta sp. 


111(25) 


Muricidae 




Arminidae 




Bedeva paivae 


1(121) 


lArminasp. 


111(1) 


Ch'tcoreus axicornus 


1(61,98)11(7) 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



6! 



C. cervicornis 


1(119) 




53,66,69,72,79,83,85, 


Haustellum sp. 


11(7) 




87,88,90,102,106,119) 


Murex nigrospinous 


VI(ll) 




V(5) VI(2,3) 


M. tribulus 


1(2,4,7,8,9,13,29,42,50) 


S. Inovaehollandiae 


11(8,11,13,16) 




IV(8) V(4,6) VI(4) 


S. papuensis 


V(9, 12) 


MytiHdae 




S. Ipapuensis 


I(58,102)IV(1,2) 


Modiolus letongatus 


1(96) 


S. pfefferi 


1(2,5,47, 103) 11(13) IV(6, 


Musculus sp. 


1(5,96) 




12)V(13)VI(4) 


Septifer bilocularis 


1(97) 


S. pharaonis 


V(3,12, 13,14)VI(2,3,4) 


Stavelia horrida 


1(97,98) 


S. Ipharaonis 


V(41,47,91,102, 119)VI(1, 


Nassariidae 






3) 


Nassarius dorsatus 


IV(12) 


S. plangon 


1(9,47,61) V(2, 9, 12) 


Naticidae 




S. rex 


111(3,11,14,15,18) 


IPolinices melanostomus 


1(61) 


S. stnithi 


1(7) V(12) 


Octopodidae 




S. whitleyana 


(2,7,18,19,24,30,41,53) 


Eledone sp. 


111(4,14,15) 




V(13,14)VI(3) 


Haplochlaena lunulata 


1(62) 


Sepia spp. 


O(B) 1(46) 111(1, 2, 5, 18) 


Octopus spp. 


1(86,92,97)11(10,12)111(3, 


Sepiolidae 






7,22,23,26,) V(5) 


Euprymna sp. 


111(14) 


Ommastrephidae 




lEuprymna sp. 


1(24) 


Nototodarus gouldi 


111(3,5,6,7,19,22,23) 


Rossia sp. 


111(6,7,23,25) 


Todaropsis eblanae 


111(5,15) 


Siliquariidae 




Ostreidae 




Siliquaria sp. 


1(14,26, 103) IV(6, 8) 


Ostrea trapezina 


1(34,44,52,55,89,93,101, 


Spondylidae 






113,115,121)V(12) 


Spondylus Ibarbaius 


1(115) 


? Pycnodonte hyotis 


H(8) 


S. ? ducal 'is 


1(119) 


Ovulidae 




S. tenellus 


IV(8) 


Volva volva 


1(11,29,64) VI(4) 


S. cf. tenellus 


VI(4) 


Pectinidae 




S. wrightianus 


11(10, 12)IV(1,7) V(3,4, 


Amusium balloti 


0(A,B,C,D) 1(2,4,6,7,8, 




12)VI(5,7) 




9,10,11,13, 


S. ? wrightianus 


1(4,6,14,34,66,96,101) 




18,19,22,25,29,34)11(4, 


Spondylus spp. 


1(34,93, 101) V(3) 




16)IV(12) VI(7) 


Spondylidae sp. 


O(I) 


A . pleuronectes 


1(5,9,10,17,18,19,22,23, 


Strombidae 






30,32,37,39,40,41,42,44, 


Strombus campbelli 


1(57) 




45,46,47,49,50,51,52,67, 


S. dilatatus 


1(29,41,42,43,48,51,56, 




68,70,71,72,74,76,77,79, 




59,61,63,64,85)11(11) 




80,82,84,85,86,92,94, 




IV(1,6, 16) 




95,96,97,101,102,104, 


S. erythrinus 


O(H) 




105,106,107,111,112,117, 


S. vittatus 


1(8,9,11,18,19,26,34,41, 




119, 120,122, 123,124) V(l, 




43,45,64,89,113,124) 




5, 6, 8, 11, 12,14) VI(2, 3, 4, 




IV(1,5,6,8,16)VI(3,4,5, 




5,6,7) 




6) 


Annachlamys leopardus 


1(86,101,119) 


Trochidae 




Chlamys gloriosa 


V(3) 


Angaria sp. 


VI(14) 


C. 1 gloriosa 


1(92,93,97,98,111) 


IClanculussp. 


1(51,110,121) 


Chlamys sp. 


IV(12) 


Vasidae 




Decatopecten 'Istrangei 


1(113) 


Tudicula armigera 


I(3,11)IV(12)VI(4) 


Pectinidae spp. 


1(64)11(7,8,12,14,17) 


Veneridae 






111(6,26) 


Antigona lamellaris 


1(96, 103) IV(16) Vl(4) 


Philinidae 




Callanaitis sp. 


1(94,104,107,112) 


Philine sp. 


1(110) 


Dosinia sp. 


1(28,49,67,101) V(4, 8) 


Pleurobranchidae 




Volutidae 




lEuselenops sp. 


V(9) 


Cymbiola sophia 


IV(6) 


Pleurobranchidae sp. 


1(8) 


Melo sp. 


IV(8) 


Pleurophyllidae 




Xenophoridae 




Pleurophyllidia sp. 


1(45) 


Xenophora faustratis 


1(11,29,35,42,48,94) IV(6 


Plicatulidae 






8, 12, 16)V(9, 14) 


Plicatula essingtonensis 


1(55,89,100,101,117) 


X. cf. australis 


11(11,15) VI(4, 3, 5, 7, 13) 


Pteriidae 




X. helvocea 


1(2) 


Pinctada panasesae 


1(115) 


Xenophora spp. 


0(H)II(2,7, 13, 15)111(25) 


Pinctada sp. 


1(1,93,98) 






Pteriidae spp. 


1(98) 1V(1) 






Sepiadariidae 








Sepioloidea lineolata 


111(14) V(4) 






ISepioloidea lineolata 


K7) 






Sepiidae 








Sepia cultrata 


111(2,5,14,19,23) 






S. elliptica 


1(11,22,25,36,44,45,46, 







MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



CRUSTACEA 

Alphddae 

Alpheus sp. 

Synalpheus sp. 
Aristaeidae 

A ristaeomorpha foliacea 
CaJappidae 

Calappa gal/us 

C, terraereginae 



Malum inermih 
Chirostylidae 

Eumunida sp. 
Cirolanidae 

Bathynomussp. 
Cymoihoidae 

Anilocra sp. 
Diogenidae 

Dardanus arrosor 

Trtzopagums cf. strtgimanus 
Dorippidae 

Dorippe frascone 

Dromiidac 

Crypiadromia sp. 

Dromia intermedia 

Dramidiopsis edwardsi 
Eryonidae 

Stereomastis phosphorus 
Galatheidae 

Galathea elegans 

Munida incerta 

M. japonica 

M. squamosa 
Glyphocrangonidae 

Glyphocrangon cf. regalis 
Goneplacidae 

Carcinoplaxsp. 

Rhizopa gracilipes 
Hippolytidac 

Hippolysmata sp. 
Homolidae 

Latriellopsis petterdi 
Leucosiidae 

Arcania undecimspiruxa 

fArcania sp. 

Iphiculus sp. 

Ixa inermis 

Lcucosia has well i 

L, ocellata 

Myra 'lafftnis 
Majidac 

Anacinetops stimpsoni 

Chlorinoides acufeatus 

Chlorinoides sp . 

Crywmaia ? macculhchi 

Hyastenus diacanthus 

Hyastenus sp. 
Lepiomilhrax waitei 
Leptomithrax sp. 
Micippa sp. 
Naxioides laurus 
Paranaxia serpulifera 
Phalangipus australiensis 



IV<6) 

IV(6)V(I2) 

m<2) 

1(118) 

1(4,18,49,57,64,67,77,97. 
104,105,106,107,120,122, 
123) 11(11,14) V(13> VIM, 
7> 

n<6) 

111(8,25} 

111(7,8,24) 

IH(6) 

111(14,15,21) 
111(23) 

1(58,97)11(9, 10) I\ (6) 
Vl(5) 

IV(8> 

11(8,10,11,14) 

1(51,59,63,92) 

111(9,26) 

IV(2,6) 

111(6,7.24) 
111(7,8,9) 

111(6,7,25) 

111(21) 
1(13,16) 

V(12) 

HI(1 > 

1(49,59,79)111(21) 

1(22) 
1(18) 

1(62,115,120) 
IV(6) 

1(96.103,104,112) 
1(42.107) 

1(113) 

1(97,118) 

1V(8, 121 

111(16,25,26) 

1(4.9,35.46,63,111.113) 

IVC1.7, 

11(17) 

111(2,7) 

Ul(3) 

1(57) 

VI(7) 

1(55,98,113,120) 

1(9.31.45,52,58,97)11(6. 

8) VI<6) 



P. Ihystrix 

P. longipes 

Picrocerus armaius 

Platymata wyvtllelhomsoni 

P. ftmbriata 

Tarinia sp. 

Majidae sp. 
Pachylasmidac 

Pachylasma cf. scu/istriata 
Paguridae 

Clibanarius spp. 



Pagurus 'Umbricatus 

Pytopagurus sp. 

Spiropagurus spiriger 

Troglopagurus jousseaumii 
Palinuridae 

Lmuparus trigonus 

Puerulus sp. 
Pandalidae 

Heterocarpus sibogae 

H. woodmasoni 

Heterocarpus sp. 

Parapandalus spinipes 

Parapandalus sp. 

Plesionika ensis 

P. tlongirostis 

P mania 

Parapaguridae 

Parapagurus diogenes 

P. pihsimanus 

Parapagurus sp. 
Part hen opidae 

Cryptopodia queenslandi 

Panhenope contrarius 

P, curvisptnus 
P. ?curvisp'mus 

P harpax 

P. tongtmumts 
P. longispinus 
Penaeidae 
? Macro pet asma sp. 
Metapenaeopsis lamellata 
M, ? rosea 



Metapenaeopsis spp. 
Metapenaeus endeavour! 



A/, ensis 
Metapenaeus sp. 
Penaeus esculent us 



P. latisulcatus 



1(7) 

1(28.49, 120) V(9) 

11(9) 

111(^.25,26) 

111(25,26) 

1(67) 

IV(4) 

111(25,26) 

1(9,10,13,18,36,41,42,43, 

49.51,52,63,89,97,101) 

IVll. 6, 7. 8, 9. 12,14.16) 

VI(5,6,7) 

1(3) 

1(19,20) 

1(4,19,28,35,42) 

1(10,22) 

111(2.7,23) 
111(23) 

Hill. 6.7, 9,25,26) 

111(6.24) 

HK7) 

111(8,15,19,22) 

111(21. 

111(6,7) 

1H(2) 

111(2,6,7,8,9,19,25,26) 

111(14) 

111(25,26) 

HI(21) 

O(B) 1(93, 101, 104, 109, 

119.120.122) 

1(29.45,51,64,105)11(1,6, 

7,11) 

1(45.100) 

V(2) 

1(61,63,67,92,113,118) 

IVU.12) 

1(1,9,41,45.49,64,98,113) 

1(45) IV(1) 

111(22) 

1(7, 7fi) 

1(1.7,9.10,13,16.18,19. 

22,28,30,31,32,35,36. 

38.39,42,44,45,51,56, 

58,65.67.71.76.94,95, 

97,99,102,103,104,105, 

106. 107, 113)IV(I,9)V(9. 

12. 14)V(6) 

1(1,7) 

1(18.37.38.39,40,69.75, 

76,77,78,79,80,82,83, 

84,85,86,100, 104,106, 

109,110) 

1(100, 104)V(1,5)VI(2) 

V(I0) 

1(36.44,48.58,69,75,76, 

77,78,79,80,82,83.84, 

85,86,93.97,104,106. 

108,115, 120, 124) VO0) 

VI(3) 

1(84) 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



63 



P. longistylus 


1(3,7,35,38,41,47,50,59, 


ThalamUa sexlobata 


IV(12) 




95,105,106)VI(4) 


T. sima 


1(92, 113,115) V(12) 


P. plebejus 


1(3,25,28,86)111(9,11,14, 


Thalamita sp. 


V(l,6) 




15) 


Processidae 




P. semisulcatus 


0(B,C) 1(36,37,65,66,68, 


Nikoides sp. 


1(18) 




73,75, 


Raninidae 






77,80,85,88,91,97,100, 


Ranina ranina 


II(I) 




102,103,104,105,106,108, 


Scalpellidae 






110, 120)V(6)VI(2,3) 


lAnandaleum sp. 


ni(6) 


Sicyonia Tlancifer 


1(7,63) 


Arcoscalpellum 




Trachypenaeopsis spp. 


111(7,25,26) 


pedunculatum 


111(6,7,8,24,25,26) 


Trachypenaeus anchoralis 


1(68,105,106,113) 


Arcoscalpellum sp. 


IH(6) 


T. curvirosths 


1(1,7,34) 


Scyllaridae 




T. granulosus 


1(7,19,22,25,28,31,34,35, 


Ibacus alticrenatus 


111(1,2,8,9,10,15,18,19, 




39,47,68,74,89,97,105, 




23) 




106,107,109,120) 


I. brucei 


111(2,4,5,14,15) 


Poeciiasmatidae 




Ibacus sp. 


IU(4) 


Poecilasmatidae sp. 


111(6) 


Scyllarus ?rubens 


IV(6) 


Porcellanidae 




S. tuberculatus 


1(41,61,67,76,77,80,83, 


Pachycheles sculptus 


1(92) V(12) 




84,86,93,102,104,105, 


Porcellana furcillata 


V(-) 




106)1V(6) V(12) 


P. suluensis 


V(12) 


Scyllarus spp. 


1(9,18,19,28,34,39,42) 


PorceUanidae sp. 


VI(4) 




VI(7) 


Portunidae 




Thenus orientalis 


0(A,B,E) 1(27,36,37,40, 


Benthochascon hemingi 


111(6,25,26) 




51,57,73,78,83,91,93,94 


Charybdis bimaculata 


111(11,22) 




100,102,103,104,106,110 


C. callianassa 


1(68,71,72,87,98,104) 




111,119,124)11(5,6) 


C. cruciata 


VI(2) 




IV(15) V(l,2,6,ll,12) 


C. Jeriatus 


1(72, 83) 




VI(2,3,5,7) 


C. jaubertensis 


1(74,79)11(5) 


Solenoceridae 




C. miles 


111(20) 


Haliporoides sp. 


111(7,8,24,25,26) 


C. truncata 


1(7,18,22,30,34,68,69,70, 


Hymenopenaeus sibogae 


IH(1) 




71,72,73,74,75,81,83, 


Solenoceridae sp. 


HI(6,7) 




84,85,86,87,88,90,96, 


Squillidae 






102, 104, 107, 112) IV(16) 


A lima laevis 


VI(2) 




V(5, 6,10,11, 12,14) VI(1, 


Carinosquilla multicarinata 


1(7,25,47) 




2,3,6) 


Chlorida Idepressa 


K7) 


Lupocyclus philippinensis 


1(7,9, 19,34) IV(6) 


C. grand 


IV(4, 6) 


L. rotundatus 


1(18,79,86,97,103,118) 


Gonodactylus falcatus 


IV(2) V(2) 




VI(6) 


G. graphurus 


1(52,61,67) 11(6) VI(5) 


Podophthalmus vigil 


1(72,76,85, 119) V(6, 10) 


Harpiosquilla raphidea 


1(83) V(5) Vl(2) 




via 3) 


Kempina cf. mikado 


111(2,9,11) 


Portunus argentatus 


O(E) 1(4,5,7, 8,9,10, 13, 


Lysiosquilla cf. maculata 


VI(7) 




18,19, 


Odontodactylus cultrifer 


VI(5) 




21,22,23,28,29,30,31, 


Oratosquilla Igonypetes 


1(22) 




34,38,42,45, 103) IV(6, 14) 


O. woodmasoni 


O(B) 1(7,71,72,74,76,81, 




V(9,13,14) 




82,83,85,86,87) 


P. gracilimanus 


1(47,64,69,72,76,77,80, 


Squilla perpensa 


VI(10) 




81,85,95,97,101,102, 


Stenopodidae 






105,106,107,111,112,120) 


Stenopus hispidus 


K31) 




V(5,6, 10)VI(3) 


Stylodactylidae 




P. hastatoides 


V(10) 


Stylodactylus sp. 


HI(24) 


P. orbitosinus 


IV(8,14)V(12) 


Xanthidae 




P. pelagicus 


O(K) 1(22,63,71,72,80, 


Actaea savignyi 


1(104,113, 121) IV(12) 




81,83,89,91,92,95,97, 


Actaea sp. 


IV(1,7,12) 




104, 113, 115) V(10) 


Actumnus pugilator 


V(12) 


P. rubromarginatus 


0(E)I(58, 106, 119)11(8, 


Liagore rubromaculata 


1(76,87,97) 




10, 11)1V(2)V(I2)VI(4,5) 


Liomera Ivenosa 


V(2) 


P. sanguinolentus 


V(10,ll,12) 


Lophozozymus pictor 


V(2) 


P. tenuipes 


0(B,E,G,H) 1(3,9, 18, 


Parapitumnust sp. 


IV(1) 




19,20,22,23,28,31,32, 


Pilumnopeus sp. 


V(12) 




35,36,38,39,41,42,46, 


Pilumnus semilanatus 


1(50,55,92,97, 121) IV(8) 




51,59,63,74,95,97,98, 


Pilumnus spp. 


1(4,50,63,89,92)11(1,3,6 




99,107,111,120)11(5) 




7,8,11) IV(5,M)V(12) 




IV(6, 14) V(3,9, 11,12, 




VI(4) 




13,14)VI(1,3,4, 


Zalasius dromiaeformis 


1(97) 




5,6,7) 


Xanthidae sp. 


I(92)V(2)V1(1) 


Portunus spp. 


1(16,18,42,45,91) 
IV(14) V(14) 







64 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



ECHINODERMATA 






Colobometridae 
Colobometra bella 


O(J) 


Acanthasteridae 






Iconometra anisa 


V(9) 


Acanthaster brevispinus 


11(14) 




Comasteridae 




A. planci 
Amphiuridae 


IV(2) VI(6) 




Capillaster multiradiatus 
C. sentosus 


VI(7) 
1(120) 


Amphiura sp. 
Antedonidae 
TEuantedon tahitiensis 


111(26) 




Comantheria cf . grandicalyx 


H(ll) 


1(113,118) 




C. rotula 


O(E.F) 11(5,7, 11, 13) IV(4, 

7) V(2) 

11(5,14) 


Toxometra paupera 


VI(3) 




C. cf. rotula 


Asteriidae 






Comantheria sp. 


1(11,56,58,60) 


Pedicellastersp. 


ni(-) 




Comanthina belli 


1(97,118) 


Asterinidae 






C. schlegeli 


11(3,7) IV(1) 


Anseropoda rosacea 


IV(4) 




Comanthus bennetti 


1(14) 


Nepanthia belcheri 


1(2) 




C. parvicirrus 


1(22) 11(3, 5, 11, 15) 


N. brevis 


VI(7) 




C. samoanus 


V(9) 


N. Ivariablis 


V(3) 




Comastersp. 


0(E,I) 


? Nepanthia sp. 


111(26) 




Comatella maculata 


1(27) 


? Parasterina sp. 


111(25) 




C. nigra 


1(56,58,60,61,63)11(7,14, 


Asteroschematidae 








17)IV(7)VI(5) 


Ophiocreas sibogae 


IH(20) 




C. pectinata 


11(4,5,7,11,12,14,15,17) 


Astrometridae 








V(2) VI(6) 


Pterometra venusta 


1(10,16,18,36,45,52,66, 


C. purpurea 


O(E.F) 1(14,35,51,60, 




90,97,100,113,118)11(15, 




85,86,94,102)11(4,5,7,11, 




17)VI(5,6,7) 






12, 13,14, 17) IV(4, 5,6) 


Astropectinidae 








V(2,9) VI(5,7) 


Astropecten monacanthus 


VI(8) 




C. cf . purpurea 


11(2,7, 12, 13,14, 17) V(3,4 


A. 1 phragmorus 


V(9) 






9) 


A, pulcherrimus 


1(51,107) 




C. rotalaria 


0(E,F) 1(2,4,5,7,9, 


A. cf. schayeri 


111(1,26) 






10,11,13,16,18,20,22, 


A. zebra 


0(B,H)I(4,6,7, 


8, 




24,25,28,29,32,34,42, 




18,26,29,31,32, 


35,43, 




44,45,46,52,54,66, 




44,45,46,51,52, 


89, 94, 




90,92,94, 118) IV(2, 3, 16) 




97,101,102,107, 


123) 11(2, 




V(12)VI(3,4,5,6,7) 




14)IV(1,6,7, 12, 


14) V(3,4, 


C. Solaris 


1(2,8,9,11,16,35,42,45, 




12) VI(4,6,7,4) 






52,53,60,85,118) VI(-) 


A.zi. zebra 


11(6) 




C. stelligera 


11(6,11,17) VI(5) 


Astropecten sp. 


111(25,26) 




C. Istelligera 


V(9) 


Psilaster acuminatus 


111(1,24) 




Comissia hartmeyeri 


11(7) 


Bathycrinidae 






Comissia sp. 


K5) 


Metacrinus cf . nobilis 


111(19) 




Cucumariidae 




Caudinidae 






Orbithyone megapodia 


IV(1,7, 12)VI(4,5) 


lAcaudina spp. 


V(l,10) 




Pentacta anceps 


1(46,56,58,61,63,92,97, 


Charitometridae 








101,104,105,106,107,113, 


Charitometridae sp. 


HK-) 






117, 118)IV(7,12) VI(5) 


Chiridotidae 






P. cf. anceps 


11(2, 11) 


Chiridotidae sp. 


aid) 




P. australis 


V(2) 


Cidaridae 






P. crassa 


11(2) 


Eucidaris Imetularia 


V(9) 




P. quadrangularis 


1(63,74,103,104,105,113) 


Goniocidaris mikado 


111(10) 




Pentacta sp. 


IV(1) 


Histocidaris australiae 


111(25) 




Pseudocolochirus axiologus 


1(25, 104, 106) IV(1) V(5) 


H. elegans 


111(26) 




Pseudocholochirus sp. 


VI(4, 5) 


Histocidaris sp. 


111(25,26) 




Stolus buccalis 


V(2) 


Prionocidaris baculosa 


V(9) 




S. cf. buccalis 


VI(5) 


P. bispinosa 


1(9,11,24,70,86 


89,94, 


Thyone okeni 


1(105) 




101,103,109,113 


,118)11(7, 


Thy one sp. 


IV(2) 




12, 14, 17) IV(1, 2,4, 5, 6, 7) 


Cucumariidae sp. 


11(13) 




V(2, 12,13) VI(5 


13) 


Diadematidae 




Stereocidaris cf . 






Astropyga radiata 


O(E) 


microtuberculata 


111(26) 




Chaetodiadema granulatum 


1(2,22,26,29,46,51,69,72 


Stylocidaris bracteata 


111(14,23,25,26) 






83)IV(14) V(4, 13) VI(3,5, 


S. conferta 


111(5,15,19) 






6,7,13) 


Stylocidaris sp. 


V(2) 




Echinothrix calamaris 


11(7) 


Clypeasteridae 






Echinasteridae 




Clypeaster cf . fervens 


HI(1) 




Echinaster acanthodes 


KD 


C. reticulatus 


I(2,43)V(9) 




E. luzonicus 


V(4) 


C. telurus 


11(3,6,11,12,13, 


14) 


E. cf. purpureus 


11(12,13) 


Clypeaster sp. 


11(6, 12) 




? Echinaster spp. 


111(10, 14) 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



65 



Eehinothuriidae 




Peronella ? orbicularis 


1(2,28,43,46,56,57,58,63. 


Arueusonw cf. owstoni 


111(5,14,26) 




89) 


Asthenosoma intermedium 


"OD 


Loveniidac 




A. varium 


U<5) V{3,9,123 


Lovenia doederleini 


V(9) 


Hygrosoma cf. hoplocantha 


01(23) 


L. elongata 


V(9) 


Phormosoma cf. rigidum 


111(14,25,26) 


Luidiidae 




huryalidae 




tuidla hardwicki 


1(45,52.89,99.102,119) 


Euryale aspera 


1(46,98) 11(4,5,7,11. 13. 


L. maculata 


1(9,43,57,107,122)11(8) 




14,15,17) 




1V(7) VI(5) 


Goniastendae 




Mariametridae 




Amheneacrassa 


• 1(51,61,120) 


Lamprometra klunzingeri 


V(9) 


A. hrassa 


V(2, 12) 


Liparometra articulata 


IV(J,3) 


A. cf* crasser 


(1(12,13) 


Oxymetra erinaceus 


11(3) 


A. cf, elegans 


11(7) 


Stephanometra indica 


V{9) 


A. merioni 


O(F) 
11(15) 


Mariametridae sp. 


Ul(8) 


lAnthenea sp. 


Meirodiridae 




GoniotJistaster uustraliae 


1(83) 


Metrodira subuiaia 


1(9,44,51.56,61,64.83,97, 


G. pleyadella 


I(9)IV(,1,12) 




98,101, 103, 105,111)IV(1, 


G. rugosus 


11(14,15,17) 




4,6,8)VI(5) 


konaster tongimanus 


1(6) 11(3,6, 11,12,13,14) 


Molpadiidae 






IV(I,2, 12)VI(5) 


Molpadiidae sp. 


111(23) 


Mediaster australiensis 


111(25) 


Ophiaetidae 




Mediaster spp. 


111(7,24,26) 


Ophiodaphne materno 


11(12) 


Nymphaster moebi 


111(26) 


Ophidiasieridae 




N. pentagonus 


111(7,26) 


Cerronardoa carinata 


K2) 


Nymphaster sp. 


111(24) 


Leiaster glaber 


IV(12)V(9) 


Pseudogoniodiscaster ward! 


11(2) 


cf Linkiasp, 


11(14) 


Stetlaster equestris 


O(B) 1(1,2.4.9.24,33,42, 


Nardoa gomophia 


1V(1) 




43.44,45.46,50,52.56,57, 


Nardoa sp. 


IV<4) V(9) 




58,63,71,74,81,85,86,92, 


Tamaria dubiosa 


H(6)1V(1) 




97,98,101.102.119,124) 


T. fusca 


1(2)11(7, 13, 14) IV(1, 12) 




11(11) IV(2.3,7, 14)V(2. 




VI(5,7) 




I3)V1(4,5,7) 


T. megahplax 


1(5I,II»)1V(1.|2) 


S. cf. incei 


11(2.6,14.15.16) 


'? Tamaria sp. 


111(11) 


S. cf. inspinosus 


111(8,10.25,26) 


Ophiodermaiidae 




Stellastersp. 


111(20,22) 


Crvptopelta granulifera 


IV(6) 


Goni3$ieridae spp. 


ino.io) 


Ophiarachnella gorgonia 


IV(5,6) 


Himerometridae 




O. in/ernalis 


V(9} 


Amphimelra ensifera 


IV(2) 


O. similis 


1(27) 


Heterometra cf. crenutata 


11(7.11) 


O. sphenisci 


1(74,96,97,105,110) 


H. quindupficava 


IV(2) 


Ophiochasma ste/latum 


1(10.24,46.51,85.92,94, 


H. variipinna 


0(E,F,G,K)I\(1.2,3,6) 




105. 118, 1I9)V1(4,5) 


Himerometra magn'tpinna 


V(9) 


Ophiopsammus yoldii 


1(101) 1V(6) 


Holoihuriidae 




Ophiotrichidae 




Actinopyga echinites 


1(56,62) V!(4) 


Macrophiothrix koelheri 


1(89,97) 


A. cf. echinites 


H(16) 


M. megapoma 


IV(7) 


A. cf. miliaris 


11(4,11,12) 


Macrophiothrix sp. 


0(1)1(97) 


Bohadschia cf. argus 


11(3) 


?Ophiocnemis marmorata 


1(31) 


B. cf. marmorata 


!1(5,15)IV(14) 


lOphiocnemis sp. 


ni(2i) 


Bohadschia sp. 


0(5) 


Ophiomaza cacaotica 


1(4,8,10,11,16,17,18,25, 


? Bohadschia sp. 


V(9) 




29,32,38,44,45,49,52, 


Hoiolhuha edulis 


1V(1)VI(5) 




72,91,94.100,118)11(4) 


H- cf, leucospiiota 


(1(12) 




IV(l, 2,3,6,7, 12,14. 16) 


H. martensi 


1(49,52,56,61,64,74,81, 




V(12)V1(3, 4.6,7) 




82.83.84,101,107,109) 


Ophioptcron elegans 


tl(5)IV(5,]2) 




1VU.3.12) 


Ophiolhrix ciliaris 


1(89) 


H. oceliara 


1(7,13,24,28,36,49,84.85, 


O./oveolata 


IV(1,I2) 




91,97, 107. MO, 113) IV(14) 


O. melanostica 


O(F) 




Vl(4.5.7,2,3,8) 


O. martensi 


O(J) 1(64.89,92) 11(15) 


Holothuria cf. penicax 


1(2, 101) 11(1 1.12) VI(5) 




IV(12, 16)V(2) 


Holothuria spp. 


11(13) 111(15) V(3,9) 


O. miles 


O(J) 


Lagan idae 




O. nereidina 


Od)IV(l) 


Laganum depressum 


1(85) 11(15) Vl( 14) 


O. Inereidina 


1(102) 


Peronella lesueuri 


O(D) 1(2,4.9,24,46, 


O, propinqua 


1V(4) 




51,56.57,62.84.90,94, 


O. cf . proteus 


U(12) 




I13,I24)IV(1,4,14) V(3) 


O. purpurea 


1(45) VI(10) 




VIO.4) 


O, cf. scotiosa 


U(12) 


P. orbicularis 


IV(I.6,7,8.14,I6) V(4.I3) 


O. Ivigetandi 


1(44,113) 




Vl(4,Il) 


Placophioihrix melanosticata 


O(F) 



66 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Ophiotrichidae sp. 


IV(3) 


Zygometridae 




Ophiuridae 




Zygometra comata 


O(B) n( 16. 17) 


Ophiomusium spp. 


111(24, 26) 


Z. elegans 


11(4,7.15) 


Orcasteridae 




Z. microdiscus 


O(E.F) 1(4,6,7.11, 


Asterodiscus elegans 


11(1) 




29,32,45,49,52,72,89, 


A, helonotus 


V(9) 




97.103.113,120)11(3,7,13, 


Culcita schmidetiana 


IV(1> 




14.16)IV(1,3)V(I.5,6,12, 


Pentaceraster gracilis 


0<C.D)IV(2,3) 




13)VI(4,5,6,7) 


P. cf. mammiUatus 


11(7,11,16) 


Z. punctata 


1(5)11(15) 


P. regulus 


1(56,60,62,63)11(2,13) 
V(9)VI(4,5) 






P. tuberculatus 


!V(1) 






IPentaster sp. 


11(6) 






Poraster superbus 


1(6,46) 


PISCES 




Paleopneustidae 








Linapneustes cf. fragilis 


111(6,7,8,19,25,26) 


Aluteridae 




L. cf. murrayi 


111(7) 


Aiutera monoceros 


Vl(3) 


Phyllophoridae 




Paramonacanthus obtongus 


Vl(4,7) 


Actinocucumis ttypicus 


1(56,119,120) 


Scobinichthys granutatus 


O(E) 


A . cf. typiciis 


11(5) 


Anacanthidae 




Cladolabes sp. 


1(107) 


Anacanthus barbatus 


1(40) 


Mensamaria intercedens 


1(101. 110) 


Antennariidae 




Phyllophorus holuthurioides 


O(F) 


Phrynelox cunninghami 


1(81.92) 


Phytlophorus sp. 


1(79,101) 


Tathicarpus butleri 


1(3,63,93,102)11(2,13) 


Phyllophoridae sp. 


1(94, 109) 




IV(-) 


Pterasteridae 




T, muscosus 


O(E) VI(7) 


Euretaster cribrosus 


1V(1,2, 12) 


Tetrabranchium ocellatum 


1(16) 


E. cf. cribrosus 


11(2,11) 


Apogonidae 




E. insignis 


1(2,9,25,51,52,61,81,83, 


Apogon atbimaculosus 


1(40, 105) 




89.92,94, 105, 113) W 1,2, 


A. a tripes 


1(51) IV(-) 




11,12,13.14,16)IV(I.4, 


A. brevicaudata 


1(61) 




12)VI(5, 12) 


A. ellioti 


1(1,19,25,30,35,39,62,75, 


Schizasteridac 






78)V(9, 10) VI(2,3,6> 


IProtenaster rostratus 


1(34.66,87,90,95) 


A.fasciata 


0(D. C.I) 1(6,9, 10. 15, 


Spatangidae 
Maretia carinata 
M. pianutata 


n(14)VI(14) 

1(24.35.91,100,104.105, 

110,111,113.117,124)11(1, 




16,19,22,23,25,29,30, 
32,44,45.46.47,49,51. 
52,56,67.68,75.78.84. 
88,90,100,102.105,107, 




3.4,I5)V(4.9) 




112,113,115.124)11(3,5) 
IV(-)V(1. 3. 4,5.6.8,9, 


Slichopodidae 






10,11,12,13,14) Vl(l, 2,3, 


Stichopus horrens 


1(4, 58,60,61,64) n(l, 11, 




4.5) 

1(112) IV(-) 

IV(-) 

1(14.22.25,30,32,34,39, 

42,45,71,77,78,79,80, 


S. cf. naso 
S. variegatus 
S. cf. variegatus 


13,15)V(12,I3)VI(4,6) 
VU5) 

V(12) 

IV(I,I4) 


A.frenatus 
Apogon sp. 
Apogonichihys poecitopterus 


Thelenota anax 


V(9) 




85,88. 106) I!{2. !2)V<3,5) 


Synapiidae 






Vl(2,3) 


Synaptula sp. 


VI(3) 


Apogonivhthys sp. 


V(9) 


Temnopleuridae 




Apogonops anomalus 


111(1,2,4) 


Saimaciella dussumieri 


1(11.101,104,110)11(4) 


Malakicluhys sp. 


111(2,23) 




1V(I,5,7,8)V1(4,5) 


Siphamia sp. 


nil ) 


Satmacis belli 


11(3, 1I)IV(2.7)V<9) 


Synagrops sp. 


111(1,6,7,8,9,10,19.23, 


S. Ibelli 


1(92,103,109) 




25) 


S, loligopora 


1(2) 


Apogonidae sp. 


111(2.23) 


S. sphaeroides 


M(7,1I)V(12)VI(5) 


Aracanidae 




S. Ivirgulata 


1(113,118) 


Kenlrocapros fJuvofasciatus 


111(5,14,15) 


Salmacis sp. 


1(61) 


Argentidae 




Temnopleurus alexandh 


V(9) 


Glossandott sp. 


111(10,19) 


T. reevesi 


1(2.57,60) 


Astronesthidae 




Temnotrema bothryoides 


1(56,62.63) H<15) IV(1, 2, 


Astronesthes tucij'er 


111(6) 




4,5,6,7) V(7,9, 12) 


Aleleopodidae 




Temnotrema spp. 


II(5.7)IV(1,4,6,8,I2) 


Ateleopus sp. 


111(21) 




V(9) 


Aulopidae 




Toxopneustidae 




Aulopus sp. 


Ul(3,4,7,10.11.26) 


Gymnechtnus epistichus 


1(57, 118) 11(7) IV(1, 2, 3) 


Berycidae 






V(9, 12) 


Centroberyx a/finis 


111(3,4) 


Nudechinus inconspicuus 


1V(1) 


Blenniidae 




Tripneustes gratilla 


O(K) 


Meiaeanthus grammistes 


1(104) IV(~) 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



67 



Bothidae 




C. humerosus 


1(81,83) V(6, 10) 


Arnoglossus intermedius 


0(B,E,G,I)I(29,32, 


Megalaspis cordyla 


VI(1) 




35,46,58,59„60, 114) 


Scomberoides tala 


V(9) 




IV(-)V(9,12)VI(1,5,7) 


S. tol 


VI(1,2) 


A. tapeinosoma 


1(9, 18, 19,22,29) V(4, 13) 


Selar crumenophthalmus 


VI(5) 


A. waitei 


1(88,99) 


Selaroides leptolepis 


1(83,100,123) V(5, 10) 


Arnoglossus spp. 


1(10,18) 


Seriolina nigrofasciata 


VI(7) 


Chascanopsetta lugubris 


111(6,8,23,24) 


Carapidae 




Citharoides sp. 


ni(ii) 


Pyramodon ventralis 


IIK8) 


Engyprosopon 


1(1,3,6,7,8,10,11,17, 


Carcharinidae 




grandisquama 


29,32,41,53,56,57,58, 


Mustelus antarcticus 


111(10,14) 




60,62,64,67,92,94,112) 


Centriscidae 






11(3,5, 12, 13) IV(-)V(9, 


Centriscus scutatus 


1(58,83,89,96, 113) V(5, 




12, 13) VI(3,4,5) 




10)VI(5) 


Gram mat obothus pennatus 


0(B, I) 11(1, 2,5,11, 


Chaetodontidae 






12)VI(5) 


Parachaetodon ocellatus 


VI(3) 


G. polyophthalmus 


1(2,11,17,18,19,29,30,32, 


Chauliodontidae 






35,41,42,44,46,50,54, 


Chauliodus sp. 


HI(25) 




67,92,94, 101, 109) IV(-) 


Chaunacidae 






V(12)VI(3,5) 


Chaunax sp. 


111(6,7,8,9,19,23,26) 


Poecilopsetta sp. 


111(10) 


Chimaeridae 




Pseudorhombus argus 


1(60,113,114) 


Hydrolagus sp. 


111(1,2,6,19,25,26) 


P. diplospilus 


1(4,10,11,14,17,18,19,30, 


Chirocentridae 






32,41,42,46,47,49,50, 


Chirocentrus dorab 


1(40, 72) 




67,92)IV(-)V(3,6,12,13, 


Chlorophthalmidae 






14)VI(2,3,5) 


Chlorophthalmus spp. 


111(1,2,6,7,8,9,10,15, 


P. duplicioceilatus 


1(5,20)11(5,12,16,17) 




19,23,25,26) 




111(21,22) VI(7) 


Congridae 




P. elevatus 


0(B,E,F,G,I)I(4,9, 


Ariosoma sp. 


111(10) 




10,11,13,17,18,19,20, 


Cynoglossidae 






22,23,29,30,31,32,35, 


Cynoglossus sp. 


1(16,71,72,75,87,88) 




36,41,42,44,46,47,49, 


Dactylopteridae 






50,52,62,65,67,72,73, 


Dactyloptena orientalis 


II(1I)IV(-)VI(5,7) 




78,87,94,95,99,100, 


D. papilo 


1(1,17,36,42,92)11(7,13) 




104, 106, 115, 122, 124) V(l, 




111(11) VI(3, 4) 




5,8, 10, 13, 14) VI(1, 2,3, 5, 


Dasyatidae 






6,7) 


Gymnura australis 


VI(2) 


P. spinosus 


1(4,9,10,11,18,67,69,78, 


Urolophus sp. 


111(2,14,15) 




86,89,94,113,123,124) 


Diodontidae 






IV(-)V(5,13)VI(3,5) 


Tragulichthys jaculiferus 


1(22,50,72,74,77)11(10) 


Pseudorhombus sp. 


1(57,60,89,113) 


Dussumieriidae 




Branchiostegidae 




Dussumieria hasselti 


1(40) 


Branchiostegus serratus 


111(3,11) 


Fistulariidae 




Callionymidae 




Fistularia commersonii 


1(40,72,78,81) 111(14) V(l 


Bathycallionym us 






6, 11,12, 13, 14)VI(2,4) 


mortonensis 


HI(ll) 


F. petimba 


0(A,B) 


Calliurichthys grossi 


1(32,67,72,92,104,107, 


Gerridae 






115,117,123)V(12)VI(3,4) 


Gerres filamentosus 


1(40) 


Chascanopsetta sp. 


111(6,8,23,24) 


G. macracanthus 


1(40) 


Citharoides Imacrolepis 


111(11, -) 


Pentaprion longimanus 


V(l,3,5, 10,11,13, 14) 


Dactylopus dactylopus 


1(41,67,92) V(4, 12,14) 




VI(1, 2,3,4) 




VI(3) 


Gobiidae 




Orbonnymus rameus 


1(57)11(10,17) 


Acentrogobius ornatus 


1(35) 


Repomucenus belcheri 


1(98, 105) 


Ctenogobius criniger 


1(76) 


R. ca lea rat us 


1(45, 120) 


Oxyurichthys sp. 


1(66,87,88,116,120) 


Caproidae 




Grammicolepidae 




Antigonia rubicunda 


111(2,3,4,5,10,22) 


Xenolepidichthys dalgleishi 


111(6,7,9,25) 


Antigonia sp. 


111(8, 10) 


Hemiramphidae 




Carangidae 




Hemiramphus sp. 


1(83) 


Alepes apercna 


VI(3) 


Hexanchidae 




A. mate 


VI(-) 


Heptranchias per/o 


111(5,6,7,8,10) 


Carangoides armatus 


1(83) 


Holocentridae 




C. chrysophrys 


1(40) V(6) 


Ostichthys cf . japonicus 


UK) 


C. di versa 


V(10) VI(2) 


Hoplichthyidae 




C. equula 


111(3,11) 


Hoplichthys citrinus 


111(6,7,8,10,11,25,26) 


C. hedlandensis 


VI(1) 


Labridae 




C. malabaricus 


V(5,10)VI(1,2) 


Choerodon cephalotes 


1(67,81,89,96,98,123) 


Carangoides sp. 


VI(2) 


C. vitta 


1(113) 


Caranx bucculentus 


K68) 


Choerodon spp. 


1(1,7,8,10,18,20,21,23, 



6K 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 





29,51,67,89,110)11(1,4,5) 


Nemipteridae 






IV(-)V(1, 3, 4,8,9,12,13, 


Nemipterus laurifilum 


1(104) 




14)VI(3,4,6) 


N. hexodon 


Vl(3) 


Pseudolabrus gracilis 


1(6) 


N. peronii 


O(B) 


Leiognathidae 




Nemipterus spp. 


1(7,18,19,22,36,39,40,68 


Leiognathus bindus 


1(40, 104) V(3, 5, 6, 10, 




69,72,73,74,75,77,78, 




12, 13)VI(1,2,3,4) 




80,83,86,87, 104, 105) V(l 


L. leuciscus 


1(40,72,104) 




3,4,5,6,10,12,11,13,14) 


L. cf. leuciscus 


V(1,I2) 




VI(1,3) 


L. splendens 


1(69,70,71,72,73,74,76, 


Pentapodus paradiseus 


I(57,89)IV(-) 




77,78,79,80,81,82,87, 


Scolopsis taeniopterus 


1(36,84, 104, 120) V(4, 12) 




88) 




VI(2,3) 


Leiognathus sp. 


0(A,B,C)V(14) 


Ogcocephalidae 




Lethrinidae 




Halicmetus reticulatus 


111(25) 


Lethrinella nematacantha 


O(B) 1(14,61, 112) 11(13) 


Halieutaea sp. 


111(2,4,5,6,7,14,23) 




V(12) 


Malthopsis sp. 


111(1,22) 


Lophiidae 




Ophidiidae 




Lophiodes cf. mutilus 


111(6,7,8,9,26) 


Glyptophidium sp. 


111(6,8) 


Lophiomus setigerus 


111(5,15) 


Hopiobrotula sp. 


111(1,8,23) 


Lutjanidae 




Ostraciontidae 




Lutjanus sanguineus 


V<1,5) 


Lactoria cornuta 


1(83,86) 


L. sebae 


VI(-) 


Rhinesomus gibbosus 


1(3) VI(-) 


Macrorhamphosidae 




Rhynchostracion nasus 


1(78,81,83,84,105,106) 


Macrorhamphosus mol/eri 
Macrouridae 


111(3,4,10) 




11(10) VI(3, 4) 


Coelorhynchus cf. mints 
Coelorhynchus sp. 


111(1,2,8,19) 
111(6,7,8,19,23,25) 


Pegasidae 
Za/ises draconis 

PI atupiHai 3 


11(14) 


Coryphaenoides sp. 
Hymenocephalus cf. 

longiceps 
Malacocephalus laevis 
Neuzumia sp. 
Monocanthidae 


111(10) 
111(6,7,26) 

111(6, 26) 

111(6,7, 9, 25, 2fl 


Plat ax sp. 
Platycephalidae 
Bambradon laevis 
Bembras Ijaponicus 
Elates thompsoni 


VI(3,4,6) 

HI(8) 

111(15,23) 

1(40,72,88,90) V(6, 10) 


Brachaleuteres sp. 


IV(-)V(12) 




Vl(2) 


Chaetoderma penicilligera 
Paramonocanthus oblongus 


11(14) 
1(3,41,68,89,100,104, 


Onigocia sp. 
Platycephalus indicus 


IV(-)V1(7) 
0(C, E) 




117, 120) V(12, 13) 


Rogadius asper 


IV(-) V(12) VI{7) 


Paramonocanthus sp. 


1(2,6,7,28,59,67,82, 


Rogadius sp. 


1(7,8,9,18,19,22,29) 




83,86,89,92,94,104, 


Suggrundus diversidens 


111(1,2,3,5,10,15) 




117,120,122,123,124)11(1, 


S. isacanthus 


1(22,29,32,45,58,70,71, 




3,11,14,15,16) V(5, 8,9, 




78,79, 105, 112) IV(-) 




10) 




V(12) VI(7) 


Pseudomonocanihus peroni 


K5I) 


S. macracanthus 


1(1,4,16,19,25,36,67,70, 


Thamnoconus hypargyreus 


111(5, 14) 




78,80,94)V(1,3,5,6,8, 10, 


T. tessellatus 


111(11) 




13, 14) VI(3) 


Monocentridae 




S. tubercuiatus 


1(7,18,25,30,32,34,39,45 


Cleidopus gloriamaris 


1(7) 




61,62, 112) 11(16) IV(-) 


Moridae 






V(9, 12) VI(-) 


Euclichthys polynemus 


111(19) 


Suggrundus sp. 


O(E) 1(36) 111(8, 11, 


Physiculus cf . nigrescens 


111(8,23) 




15, 19,22,23) IV(-)V(9, 


Mugiloididae 






12)VI(7) 


Parapercis emeryana 


IV(-)V(9,12)VI(7) 


Plectorhynchidae 




Mullidae 




Diagramma pictum 


V(ll,13) 


Upeneus filifer 


IV(-) 


Plesiopidae 




U. sulphureus 


I(40)V(1,5,6, 10) VI(1,2) 


Plesiops sp. 


11(5,12,16,17) 


V. sundiacus 


1(74,76,78,80,83,85,87, 


Pleuronectidae 






92,104) V(l, 6) VI(3) 


IParalichthys sp. 


111(6,7,8,25,26) 


V. tragula 


1(78, 92) 


Samaris cacatuae 


1(7,9) 11(11) V(8, 12) VI(5) 


U. vittatus 


0(A,B,C,D,E) 


Plotosidae 




Upeneus spp. 


1(46,57,61,84,89) IV(-) 


Euristhmus elongatus 


1(18,19,22,70,71,72,82, 




VI(4)V(9, 12,13) 




106, 107) 


Muraenesocidae 




Polymixidae 




Muraenesox bagio 


IH(-) 


Potymixia cf . japonicus 


111(10) 


M. cinereus 


1(80,83) V(10) 


Polynemidae 




Muraenidae 




Polynemus multiradiatus 


1(72) 


Lycodontis undulatus 


1(81,92) 


Pomacanthidae 




Myctophidae 




Chaetodontoplus personifer 


IV(-) 


Diaphus sp. 


111(6,8) 


Pomacentridae 




Myrideae 




Pristotis jerdoni 


1(22,89)11(3,7,11,12,13, 


Muraenichthys sp. 


1(72) 




I5)V(3,4,9, 12. 13) VI(-) 



COMMUNITY PATTERNS 



6$ 



Pomadasyidae 




Sphyraenidae 




Pomadasys arg\>reus 


1(68,72,83) V(l, 5, 10) 


Sphyraena forsteri 


Vl(3) 




\i(2) 


Squalidac 




P. maculatus 


1(71,74,82) 


Centrophorus scalpratus 


HU1.2) 


Priacamhidae 




Etmopterus lucifer 


HK2) 


Priacanihus inversus 


O(B) 1(40, 76,79,81.83) 


Squalus mega/ops 


an-) 




V(l,5, 10, 11,13) VK2.3.4) 


Squat us sp. 


111(7,10.19.23.26) 


Pristiophoridae 




Squaunidae 




Pristiophorus nudipinnis 


W-) 


Squatina australis 


111(3, 19) 


Pseuodidae 




S. tergocellata 


UK) 


Psettodes emmet 


0<B> 1(13,36.40,70,72. 


Syngnaihidac 






73,77,81,87) V(5, 10) Vl(2, 


Hatteampus grayi 


1(59.61,63,113) 




3,5) 


Hippocampus wh'tlei 


1(28) 11(10) VI(-) 


Pseudoehromidae 




Synodontidae 




Pscudochrotnh 




Saurida filamentosus 


ni(ii) 


quinquedentatus 


1(40,58,64,89) 


S. micropectora/is 


V<10> 


P->eudochromis sp. 


1115} 


S. tumbit 


O(B) 1(2, 17,18.20,47,50. 


Rajidae 






51,68,69,70,71.72,78,87, 


Raja sp. 


111(1,3,5,7,9,11, 14, 15, 




104,106) V(l,5. 6, 8, 10,11, 




19,25.26) 




12, 13,14) Vl(l) 


Psammobatis waitii 


111(7.25) 


S. undosquamis 


0(A,B.C, 1)1(2,4,5, 10, 


Rhinobatidae 






11,13,14.17,20,22,23,25, 


Rhino ancylostomus 


VK- ) 




36,37,41,47,50.51.53,54. 


Seiaenidae 






64,67,68,72,75,80.87, 


A ustronibea oedogenys 


1(73) 




100,104,110,115,117,118, 


Johnius vogteri 


1(68) 




124)V(4,5.6,8. 10,12, 13, 


Scorpaenfdac 






14)VI(I.2.3,4,5) 


Advenlor elongatus 
Apisiops caloundra 
Brachirus mites 

Brachitvs sp. 


1(74) 
VI(3) 
[(IS, 60) 
V(9) 


Synodus houlli 
S, similis 


V(9) 

1(5,6,10,17,23,54,55,89) 

11(13, 16) IV(-)V(4)VI(3. 

4.5) 

1(92) V(9, 12, 13, I4)VI(3) 

1(7) V(9. 12,13,14) 


Dendwckirus brachypierus 

D. zebra 
Erosa erosa 


11(3) VI(5l 

IV(-) 

11(10,13,14) 


5, variegatus 
Trachinocephalus myops 


Helicoienus pupiliosus 


Ul(2) 


Tetraodontidae 




Hypndytes carinalus 


1(25,69,70,74,75,80,83, 


A mblyrhynchotes 






85,92, 106) IV(-)VI(3) 


spinosissimus 


111(10,11) 


fnimicus caledonicus 


I(I)II(7,|0)IV<-) 


Anchisomus multistriatus 


U(12,13)VI(4) 


Liocranium scorpio 


1(124) 


A. pachygaster 


111(2.3,4.5,14,15) 


IJoscorpius spp. 


111(10.19) 


Canihigaster bennetti 


1(112) 


Mmous trachycephalus 


1(7,18,19.22,30,81) 


C. rivulata 


11(2) 


M. versicolor 


1(25,68.76,79, 105) VI(5) 


C. vaientini 


IVf ) 


Neosebastes incisipinnis 


HI|4,7) 


Canihigaster spp. 


1(7) V(4) VI(7) 


N. cf. nigropunaaius 


111(8.11,14,15) 


Casirophysus sceleralus 


1(7,39, 112) V(5. 10) Vl(2, 


Paraceniropogon vespa 


1(68,72,76,78,80.85,92. 




3,4) 




118) 


G. spadiceus 


O(A)l(83)V(10)VI(l) 


Paraploaais sp. 


rv<-) 


Lagocephalus sp. 


111(15) 


Pterois voliians 


1(18) 


Torquigener pallimacutatus 


IV(-) 


Scorpuena ergastulorum 


HKl.3,8) 


7*. tuberculifents 


IV(-)VI(4) 


Scorpaenopsis spp. 


1(64,66,84,92) tV(-) 


T. whitieyi 


1(2,50,74,82,83,102, 


Setorches guentheri 


111(6.7/.', 




106, 110) 111(5) VI(2) 


Scoipaenidae sp. 


111(10) 


Teiaponidae 




Scyliorhinidae 




Pelates quadrilineatus 


H78.81) 


Hatoelurus analts 


111(10) 


Terapon theraps 


1(40,71,72,83,87,104) 


Cephahscylltum Isabella 


III*-) 




Vil.6.10, 12)VI(1,2) 


Galeus hvanfmani 


111(8, 10,19,23) 


Torpcdinidae 




Serranidae 




Narcine tasmaniensis 


01(8,23) 


Cephalophotis pachycewron 


IV( -) 


Narcine sp. 


111(8,11) 


Cheluloperca sp. 


1(2) 


Torpedo mactteUli 


111(1.2,7) 


Eptnephelus sexfascialus 


1(47,67,81.88,89,104, 


Triancanthidac 






117,118)V(1) VI(-) 


Tripodichthys angustifrons 


1(72,78,81,83,86,87) 


Sillaginidae 






V(10)VU2.3,4> 


Sillago macuiata 


VI(2,3,4| 


Triaeanihodidae 




Soleidae 




Bathyphyiax bombifrons 


111(18,19) 


\seraggwfes sp, 


111(19, -) 


B. omen 


fU(7,8) 


Synaplura muelleri 


1(49.74,75.90,107) 


Haiimochimrgus alcocki 


111(6,8,9,25.26) 


S. quagga 


1(72) 


Macrorhamphosodes uradoi 


111(6,7.8.10.25,26) 


Solenichihyidae 




Paratriacanlhodes cf, herrei 


111(10, 19) 


Solenostomus sp. 


IVf 1 


P. cf. retrospinis 


111(6) 



70 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Thacanthodes sp. 


111(11,15,22) 


Pterygotrigla picta 


111(1,3,10,25) 


Triglidae 




Pterygotrigla sp. 


111(5,7) 


Chelidonkhthys kumu 


111(5) 


Uranoscopidae 




Lepidotrigla calodactyla 


1(11,17,19,25,36,41,4; 


Uranoscopus cognatus 


11(12) 




47,54,58,92,94) V(12) 


Zeidae 




L. cf. calodactyla 


11(3,4,11) 


Cyttopsis roseus 


111(10 


Lepidotrigla sp. 


111(3,4,6,11,14,15,23) 


Zenion cf . japonicus 


111(5,24,25) 


Peristedion sp. 


111(1,2,3,7,8,9,10,11, 


Zenopsis nebulosus 


111(3,5) 




14,23,25,26,19) 


Zeusfaber 


111(5) 



Mem. QdMm. 25(1): 71 — 105. [1987] 

NEW RECORDS OF A CARNUS GRAY (PORrFERA : DEMOSPONGIAE : 
POECILOSCLERIDA) FROM AUSTRALIA, WITH A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS 



John N.A. Hooper 

Division of Natural Science, 

Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences, 

PO Box 4646 Darwin, NT, 5794 Australia 



ABSTRACT 

Five species of Acarnus are now known for Australian waters. Acarnus rhielei, A . innominatus. 
A. tor/Ms, and A, ternaius are redescribed from recent northern Australian material, three of 
which represent new locality records tor (Ins region. Acarnus (emus from 50 Qt Kern <W.rralia is 
poorly known, and apparently the type-specimens no longer exist. A redescription of A. ternatus 
and .4. topsenti based on type-material, and a synopsis of other species is given, including diagnoses 
from (he literature, TweUe species are recognised. A ciadisuc analysis of Actirnus species supports 
the abandonment of a generic subdivision based mainly on the presence ot absence of acamhosrylcs 
(subgenus Acanthacarnus), in favour of a taxonomy based mainly on dadotvlote morphology. 
Four specie- groups Or? recognized on that basis: ternatus, torfitis, S0l4riej$f\Q mnorntnaius groups. 
The zoogeography of species is discussed. 



INTRODUCTION 

The marine sponge genus Acarnus is easily 
diagnosed on account of the unique cladotylote 
megascleres, but specilic identifications based on 
morphological characters are less easily made 

The present study redescribes material collected 
recently from northern Australian waters, 
including three new records for the region, and 
provides a synopsis from the literature of all 
species currently placed in the genus. 

The genus is cosmopolitan, with records from 
most oceans and seas, although species of the 
nominal subgenus Acanthacarnus have been 
recorded mainly from the norlhern hemisphere. 
Species are found predominantly in shallow-water, 
but one species from California has an extensive 
bathymetric distribution extending from the 
intertidal zone to a depth of 700 metres (de 
Laubenfels 1932). Previous records of the genus 
from Australia are restricted to A- tenuis Dendy 
From Port Phillip, Victoria and A. Iernatus Ridley 
from Torres Strait, northern Queensland 

METHODS 

Methods of collection, preservation and 
preparation of specimens for light microscopy are 
described elsewhere (Hooper 1984). 

The following abbreviations are used in the text, 
and refer to specimen holding institutions: AM — 
Australian Museum, Sydney; BM — British 
Museum (Natural History), London; NMV — 
Museum of Victoria, Melbourne; NTM — 



Northern Territory Museum, Darwin; QM 
Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 



SYSTEMATICS 



Order POECILOSCLERIDA Topsent, 1928 

Family MYXILLIDAE Topsent, I92S 

Genus Acarnus dray, J 867 



Acarnus Gray, 1867, p. 544. ftype-species; Acarnus 
innominatus Gray by rnonotypyj. 

Fonteia Gray, 1867, p. 544. [type-species; Fonteiu 
unomaUi Gray by monotypy. Gray (1867, p. 544) 
established this genus Tor 8 sponge figured by 
Bowerbank 0864, fig.s 73-76), and lie attributed the 
specific name to Bowerbank also. No record of that 
name was found in any of Bowerbank 's 
monographs on British Sponges, and furthermore 
the figures referred tO by Gray (viz. T3-76) are those 
V^ Acarnus innominatus (which has page priority)]. 

? Trefortia Dezso, 1880. [according to de Laubenfels 
(1936, p. 92); neither the genus nor the type-species 
were gazetted by the Zoological Record]. 

Acanthacarnus Levi, 1952, p. 54. [type species: 
Acanthacarnus tOWriti I 6V1 by monoiypy. The 
genus was placed into synonymy with Acarnus by 
Van Soest ( 198-1), on the basis thai the acanilm-ayles 
ot Acanthucurnus represent the retention of an 
ancestral character, which therefore cannot be used 
as a character to separate genera. Van Soesi retains 
the taxon ai the subgenerie level]. 



7J 



72 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Diagnosis 

The most recent definition of Acarnus (Van 
Soest 1984, p. 60) is here expanded. 

Ectosomal skeleton with a tangential layer of 
amphitylotes, and with a more-or-less hispid 
surface produced by styles from ascending fibres 
and cladotylotes poking through the surface. 
Choanosomal skeleton with a renieroid 
reticulation of spongin fibres cored by styles, or 
with a reduced plumo-reticulate skeleton, or 
further reduced to a plumose-halichondroid 
skeleton in encrusting forms. Fibres composed of 
moderate to very light spongin, and echinated by 
smooth and/or spined cladotylotes, and 
sometimes by small acanthostyles. Light spongin 
with or without auxiliary styles strewn between 
fibres. Microscleres palmate isochelae and diverse 
forms of toxas. 

Remarks 

The genus Acarnus was established by Gray 
(1867, p. 544) for Acarnus innominatus, based on 
figures of an unidentified sponge of Bowerbank 
(1864). These figures were also used to erect 
Fonteia anomala Gray (1867, p. 544), which 
becomes nomina nuda. 

Originally included with the Tethyadae by Gray 
(1867) on the basis that cladotylotes were related 
to tetraxonid spicules, Ridley (1884) placed the 
genus in the family Ectyonidae, because he 
considered that the cladotylotes of Acarnus 
resemble acanthostyles of Clathria Schmidt and 
Echinodictyum Ridley. Various minor 
reorganizations occurred in the taxonomic 
placement of Acarnus, such as with the old family 
Desmacidonidae, subfamily Ectyoninae (e.g. 
Dendy 1905; Hentschel 1912), but Thiele (1903) 
adopted Topsent's (1894) system of classification 
in placing the genus with the family 
Poeciloscleridae, later to become the order 
Poecilosclerida. 

Several more recent schemes have been 
proposed for the placement of Acarnus. 

(1) Dendy (1922) established the section 
Acarneae for this genus as distinct from his 
subdivisions Clathreae and Myxilleae, to include 
species having echinating cladotylotes (which he 
suggested were merely modified acanthostyles), 
ectosomal amphitylotes, palmate isochelae and 
toxas. In his opinion, Acarnus did not fit with 
either the Myxilleae (which have arcuate 
isochelae), or the Clathreae (which have 
monactinal ectosomal megascleres). Topsent 
(1928) raised Dendy's groups to family level, and 
several other authors have since used that system 



(de Laubenfels 1932; Levi 1952, 1963; Sara 1960; 
Ruetzler 1965). Boury-Esnault (1971, 1973)placed 
Acarnus in the Acarnidae also, but attributed the 
family to de Laubenfels (1936). The family 
Acarniidae de Laubenfels was erected for Gray's 
genus Acarnia, and several other small or poorly 
known genera (de Laubenfels 1936, p. 79), and is 
characterized by the presence of spiny megascleres 
only, which may be entirely diactinal, or a 
combination of diactinal and monactinal. 
Acarniidae de Laubenfels is neither a valid taxon 
(containing some freshwater Spongillidae together 
with marine axinellids) nor closely related to 
Acarnidae Topsent. 

(2) Burton (1959) placed Acarnus with genera 
such as Clathria, Plocamilla Topsent, and 
Echinodictyum in a subfamily Clathriinae. Levi 
(1973) and Vacelet el al. (1976) follow this system, 
and include the genus with the Family Clathriidae 
Hentschel (= Microcionidae Carter) on the basis 
that the microsclere complement of Acarnus, and 
the acanthostyles of Acanthacarnus are similar to 
those of clathriid genera. 

(3) de Laubenfels (1936) included Acarnus with 
the family Tedaniidae Ridley and Dendy, placing 
emphasis on the presence of ectosomal diactinal 
megascleres, and he was followed by Tanita 
(1963), Hechtel (1965), Thomas (1970, 1973) and 
Hoshino (1981). De Laubenfels (1936) notes also 
that the Tedaniidae are closely related to the 
Myxillidae Hentschel, both of which have 
ectosomal diactinal megascleres, but he retains the 
families as separate. He suggests that the 
Tedaniidae have mainly smooth choanosomal 
megascleres and a higher degree of skeletal and 
fibre organization than the Myxillidae. 

(4) Bakus (1966) and Van Soest (1984) consider 
that the ectosomal characteristics are of greater 
systematic importance than the megasclere or 
microsclere complement at the familial level of 
classification, and accordingly adopt de 
Laubenfels (1935) scheme. Both authors place 
Acarnus with the family Myxillidae, which 
includes the Tedaniidae as a subfamily only (after 
Topsent 1928). In support of this scheme, Van 
Soest (1984) notes that apart from the ectosomal 
characters shown by Acarnus, the reticulate 
skeletal architecture is close to other myxillids such 
as Lissodendoryx Topsent. He suggests further 
that the presence of acanthostyles does not 
necessarily confer a close affinity between taxa 
which possess them, because they are probably an 
unstable taxonomic character, and moreover they 
occur (independently) in several other families 
also. The use of ectosomal characters in sponge 



ACARNUS FROM AUSTRALIA 



n 



taxonomy is consistent with the current 

differentiation of a large number of genera, 

particularly poecilosclerids, and even within the 

family Microcionidae (e.g. Clathria, Dendrocia 
and Rhaphidophlus). 

AUSTRALIAN SPECIES 

Acarnus thielei Levi, 1958 
(Figs 1-9, 40-43, Table 1) 

Acarnus thielei Levi, 1958, p. 35, text-fig. 33. Thomas, 

1970, p. 43-6, text-figs 3a-g, 4. 
Acarnus ternatus (in part): Thiele, 1903, pp. 960-61, fig. 

27. Hentschel, 1912, pp. 372-73. 

Material Examined 

NTM Z855, Z876: Channel Island, Middle Arm, 
Darwin, NT, 12°32.7'S, 130°52.5'E, 12-13 m depth, 20 
August 1982, P. Alderslade, SCUBA. 

Description (2 specimens) 

Shape: Semi-vasiform to fan-shaped, 100-130 
mm high, 110-200 mm wide (edge-to-edge), 3-20 
mm thick. Basal attachment discoid, 45 mm in 
diameter, 10 mm thick. 

Colour: Light yellow-brown alive (Munsell 
2.5Y 8/4). A similar colour is maintained upon 
preservation. 

Surface Details: The external surface 
(exterior of 'vase') is roughened, with 
corrugations, ridges and semi-papillate 
projections, 4-10 mm high, pointed apically, 
usually bifurcate, occasionally rejoined 
(reticulated) and forming a more-or-less 
longitudinal array of raised ridges (appearing net- 
like). The entire external surface is optically hispid. 
The apical edge has a serrated appearance. The 
inner surface (interior of 'vase') is relatively 
optically smooth, with occasional folding, and 
bearing numerous oscula, 0.8-4.0 mm in diameter. 
Overall external appearance of these sponges is 
relatively thin but cavernous. 

Ectosome: Microscopically the surface is 
moderately hispid, with cladotylotes extending 
beyond the surface (with clads pointing outwards), 
and with styles from the ascending fibres poking 
through the surface (mainly on the apices of ridges 
and corrugations). Occasionally smaller 
cladotylotes appear on the ectosome, at right 
angles to the surface, but these are confined mainly 
to the choanosome. 

Lying on or just below the surface are 
amphitylotes, occurring in bundles or singly, 
sometimes absent from areas of the ectosome. 
Ectosomal spongin is moderate to light, slightly 



granular and containing numerous microscleres 
interdispersed with the amphitylotes. 

Ectosomal layer varies from 25 to 90 ^m in 
thickness. 

Choanosome: Skeletal architecture is clearly 
reticulate, consisting of ascending plumose 
multispicular tracts, ending blindly at the surface, 
and interconnected by a sub-renieroid reticulation 
of uni- or paucispicular tracts. Occasionally large 
multispicular tracts run parallel to the surface in 
some sections. Fibres are lightly invested with 
spongin, but heavily cored by styles (2-10 spicule 
widths in major tracts, 1 -4 spicule widths in minor 
tracts). The sub-renieroid reticulation forms ovoid 
chambers, 80-550 fim in diameter; containing 
abundant interfibril spongin, and heavily invested 
with microscleres, smaller cladotylotes and 
auxiliary (smaller, thinner) styles. The fibres are 
echinated by cladotylotes in moderate numbers, 
with their clads projecting into the chambers. The 
smaller category of cladotylote is more abundant 
within the choanosome than is the larger variety. 

Megascleres: Principal styles — moderately 
long, thick, hastate, sharply pointed, with rounded 
bases. Styles are often slightly bent near the base, 
but sometimes straight. Dimensions (N = 50): 
407.1 jim long (mean) (range 319-464 /im), 21.6 
fim wide (14-30 Mm). 

Auxiliary styles — moderately long, thin hastate 
to very faintly subtylote, slightly bent near the 
base, or straight. Dimensions (N = 50): 321.3 fim 
long (mean) (range 178-401 /im), 7.5 pm wide (2- 
1 1 /mi). 

Amphitylotes — moderately short, thin, 
straight, tylote ends rounded, slightly swollen, 
with microspined tips. Dimensions (N = 50): 250. 1 
nm long (mean) (range 194-313 jon), 4.4 jum wide 
(3-9 /im). 

Cladotylotes I — moderately long, thick, 
straight, mostly smooth shaft, occasionally with 
few large spines on shaft; tylote base rounded, 
swollen; 3 clads on apical end. Dimensions 
(N = 50); 233.6 mhi shaft length (mean) (range 85- 
270 /im), 9.5 fj.m shaft width (3-15 Mm), 41.7 /xm 
clad chord length (5-70 /im), 47.9 fim wide at clad 
end (10-70 ^m). 

Cladotylotes II — small, thin, straight, 
moderately but consistently spined shaft; tylote 
bases rounded or obtuse, often bearing small 
spines (giving the appearance of double ended 
cladotylotes); 3 clads on apical end, occasionally 
4. Dimensions (N = 50); 86.3 fim shaft length 
(mean) (range 75-97 ftm), 3.4 ^m shaft width (2- 
4 ^m), 3.3 Mm clad chord length (2-5 Mm), 7.4 Mm 
wide at clad end (4-1 1 Mm). 



74 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



3 




Figs 1-8: Acarnus thielei; 1. smooth cladotylotes (I); 2. spined cladotylotes (II); 3. principal style (inset: enlarged 
view of extremities); 4. auxiliary choanosomal style (inset: enlarged view of extremities); 5. ectosomal 
amphitylote; 6. toxas (I); 7. toxas (II), 8. isochelae. 



ACARNUS FROM AUSTRALIA 



75 



9 



1000 pm 




Fig. 9: Acarnus thielei, perpendicular section of 
peripheral skeleton. 

Microscleres: Toxas I — relatively small and 
thick, generous central bend, tricurvate with 
reflexed tips. Dimensions (N = 50): 76.6 /xm chord 
length (mean) (range 33-151 /im), 4.9 /xm wide at 
centre (1-9 /xm). 

Toxas II — small to very large, always thin, 
slightly bowed to almost straight (oxeote), tips not 



reflexed. Dimensions (N = 50): 341.6 /xm chord 
length (mean) (range 34-960 /xm), 2.4 /xm wide at 
centre (0.5-7 /xm). 

Isochelae — small palmate. Dimensions 
(N = 50): 21.1 /xm long (mean) (range 18-25 /xm). 

Ecology 

Both specimens were found on a rock reef which 
was covered completely by mud and sand, and in 
an area of high turbidity, with currents of up to 6 
knots. There is some morphological variation 
between the two specimens described here. In 
particular, Z876 has a strikingly reticulated 
appearance due to the prominence of regular 
longitudinal striations on the surface (Fig. 41), 
whereas Z855 has an irregular raised surface (Fig. 
40), and closely resembles Echinodictyum 
mesentehnum (Lamarck) in external appearance. 
Specimen Z876 has fewer echinating cladotylotes 
of either variety than does Z855. From the present 
observations and published records, it appears that 
A. thielei is a shallow-water specks, with 
bathymetric distribution extending from the 
intertidal zone to 13 metres depth. 



TABLE 1. Comparison between published records of Acarnus thielei. All measurements are given in micrometres, 

and denoted as length x width. 



CHARACTER 






AUTHOR 






Levi (1958) 

type-specimen 


Thomas (1970) 


Thiele(1903) 


Hentschel(1912) 


Present study 


Colour alive: 


orange 


orange 


? 


light brown 


light yellow 
brown 


Shape: 


massive, 

volumous, 

irregular 


digitate on 
broad base 


7 


bulky, 

cylindrical or 
plate-like 


fan-like to 

semi-vasiform 


Skeleton: 


renieroid 
reticulation 


sub-renieroid 
reticulation 


? 


7 


sub-renieroid 
reticulation 


Styles: 


260-270x6 


301-452x13-24 


350x15 


300-384 x ? 


178-464x2-30 


Amphitylotes: 


230X1 


207-283 x 2-4 


230x4 


220-304 x? 


194-290x3-9 


Cladotylotes I: 

(smooth) 

Cladotylotes II: 

(spined) 


150x4 
90x2 


188-245x8-12 
75-96x3-4 


160x2 
90x? 


160-272 x? 
95 x? 


85-270x3-15 

75-97 x 2-4 


Toxas I: 
Toxas II: 


30-375 x ? 


25-155x8 
84-584x3 


125 x? 


72-176 x? 
658-948 x ? 


33-151x1-9 
34-960x0.5-7 


Isochelae: 


8-9 


8-10(scarse) 


20 


19-29 


18-25 


Locality: 


Abulat, Red 
Sea 


Palk Bay, Bay 
of Bengal, 
Indian Ocean 


Ternate, 
Banda Sea, 
'ndonesia 


Aru I., Arafura 
Sea, Indonesia 


Darwin, 
Australia 



~6 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Distribution 

This species is restricted to the Indian Ocean 
(Indo-Australian) region. Localities are: Darwin, 
Australia (present study), Aru Island and Ternate, 
Molluccas, Indonesia (Thiele 1903, Hentschel 
1912), Palk Bay, Bay of Bengal, India (Thomas 
1970), and Abulat, Red Sea (Levi 1958). 

Remarks 

This species is diagnosed as A. thielei in having 
2 different forms of cladotylote megascleres, the 
larger (mostly) smooth, the smaller invariably 
spined, at least two distinct forms of toxas, in 
specific details of spicule measurements, and in 
overall habit. 

There are certain details of spicule dimensions 
found in the present material which differ from 
published records of A. thielei (Table 1). In 
particular, the Darwin specimens have a smaller 
category of style, here denoted as the auxiliary 
styles, which is mainly found outside the fibres. 
These are probably young forms of the larger, or 
principal styles, and both forms are combined and 
considered together in the following Tables. 
Acarnus thielei sensu lato has a broad range of 
isochelae sizes. Specimens from the western Indian 
Ocean (Levi 1958; Thomas 1970) have small 
isochelae (8-10 /xm long), whereas eastern Indian 
Ocean specimens (Thiele 1903; Hentschel 1912; 
present study) have larger isochelae (19-29 fxm 
long). It is probable that this difference between 
the two populations is of little taxonomic 
significance, and indeed Levi (1958, p. 36) in 
synonymizing Thiele's (1903) and HentschePs 
(1912) specimens of A, ternatus with A. thielei 
considers that cladotylote morphology and size are 
more important diagnostic characters than the size 
of isochelae. 

Thomas (1970) notes that the smaller 
cladotylotes of the Indian specimen have smooth 
bases whereas those of the Darwin specimens are 
frequently spined, occasionally resembling double- 
ended cladotylotes. 

Acarnus thielei has close affinities with two 
other species, A. erithacus and A. innominatus in 
having both larger smooth and smaller spined 
varieties of cladotylotes. On that basis Levi (1963) 
assigned all 3 species to his group III Acarnus. It 
is difficult to separate these 3 species by their 
spicule dimensions alone. All show considerable 
intraspecific variability and consequently overlap 
in their ranges of spicule measurements (Table 5). 
Generally, A. thielei may be differentiated from 
the other 2 species by its habit (massive, flabellate, 
plate-like or digitate, versus encrusting, sometimes 



massively encrusting, respectively). Acarnus 
erithacus has predominantly acanthose 
cladotylotes, which differentiates it from A. 
innominatus (see below) (Van Soest 1984). 

Acarnus innominatus Gray, 1867 
(Figs 10-18,44, Table 2) 

unidentified sponge, Bowerbank, 1864, pp. 23, 33, 122, 
239, pi. 3, figs 73-76, pi. 18, fig. 292. 

Acarnus innominatus Gray , 1867, p. 544. Carter, 1871, 
pp. 269, 273-4. Arndt, 1927, pp. 133-53, pi. 3, fig. 
5. de Laubenfels, 1936, pp. 92-93, pi. 12, fig. 2. 
Levi, 1963, pp. 48-49, text-fig. 55, pi. 7G. Alcolado, 
1976, p. 5. Randall and Hartman, 1968, pp. 218, 
219, 223. Van Soest, 1984, pp. 61-3, text-fig. 22, 
pi. 5, figs 6-9. 

? Fonteia anomala Gray, 1867, p. 544. 

Acarnus carteri Ridley, 1884, pp. 453-4 (footnote). 

Material Examined 

NTM Z2234: Dudley Point Reef, East Point Fish 
Reserve, Darwin, NT, 12°25.0*S, 130°49.PE, intertidal, 
8 March 1985, J.N.A. Hooper. 

Description 

Shape: Thickly encrusting, sprawling across 
dead coral substrate, covering an area of 
approximately 45 cm . 

Colour: Bright orange-red alive (Munsell 5R 
5/12), yellow-brown in ethanol (5YR 7/10). 

Surface Details: Surface is of variable 
thickness, shaggy, with irregular papillose 
projections up to 3 mm high and 3 mm in diameter, 
which are optically hispid. Longitudinal grooves 
meander across the surface, often with a 
membraneous ectosomal covering, approximately 
1.6 mm wide and of variable depth. Oscula are 
abundant, scattered, slightly raised above the 
surface, 1.1-3.4 mm in diameter, sometimes with 
a trace of silt around the margins of the lip. 

Ectosome: Microscopically the surface is 
microconulose and hispid, with the clad-ends of 
the large cladotylotes extending beyond the 
surface. Few principal styles poke through the 
ectosome. The ectosome has a prominent but often 
confused tangential layer of amphitylotes lying 
mainly parallel with the surface, occasionally at 
right angles to it. Amphitylotes predominantly 
occur in bundles of up to 5 spicules abreast, 
sometimes lying singly. Ectosomal spongin is light, 
yellow-brown, granular and contains numerous 
microscleres, often arranged in tracts just below 
the surface. Small particles of detritus (silt, sand 
grains) are included in parts of the ectosome, but 
generally the area is clear of inorganic debris. 
Ectosomal layer varies from 15 to 40/*m in 
thickness. 



ACARNUS FROM AUSTRALIA 



77 




^V^ 



10 






Figs 10-17. Acarnus innominatus. 10. smooth cladotylotes (I); 11. spined cladotylotes (II); 12. choanosomal styles 
(inset: enlarged view of extremities); 13. ecotosomal amphitylote (inset: enlarged view of extremity); 14. thick 
toxas (I); 15. short, thin toxa (II); 16. long, thin toxa (III); 17. isochelae. 



:,s 



MEMOIRS Oh THE: QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



ioanosomf: Skeletal architecture consists QJ 
a confused rcnicroid reticulation of spicule tracts 
• I single spicules. No spongin fibres are visible. 
but it is possible they are extremely light and 
cannot he differentiated from the abundant type 
B mesohyl spongin. Tracts containing I 
principal styles abreaaf are bound together by 
abundant, loose interfibril spongin at their nodes, 
and surrounded by relatively Iteavj deposits of 
type B spongin. Smooth (I) and spined (II) 
cladotylotes echinate tracts, particularly at the 
nodes. Choanosomal renieroid reticulniion 
becomes semi-plumose in the subet-tosomal regnm. 
willi single spicule tracts ascending lo the surface, 
ending blindly in microconules, and producing 
radiating tufts of cladotylotcs protruding through 
the eciosome. Choanosomal spongin is mainly 
clear of detritus, and meandering tracts of 
granular spongin, collagenous spongin and 
microsclcres form chambers and canals of variable 
size (range 70-150 jum in diameter) 

Mec.ascleres; Principal styles — moderately 
long, thick, mostly hastate, occasionally slightly 
fusiform or even subtylote, usually slightly curved 
near the basal end, sometimes straight; bases 
smooth. Dimensions (N = 25)* 391 .5 /jm fi 
(mean) (range 267-453 pin), 16,8 ^01 wide (6- 
21/uni). 

Amphitylotes — moderately short, thin, 
straight, tylote ends swollen, frith inicrnspined 
tips. Dimensions (N*— 2S):265.5jttTO long (mean) 
(range 247-283Mm), 3.7^ru wide |3-Vn). 

Cladotyloies I — moderately long, thick, 
straight shaft, always smooth; tylote ends with 
rounded or slightly asymmetrical bases; 3 4 dads 
00 apical end. Dimensions (N -25): 258. 9fim shaft 
length (mean) (range 222-283^m), il.tVm shall 
width (6~14^m), 41.0^m clad chord length (18- 
49ftm), 38.3^m wide at clad end (l9-46/*m). 

Cladotylotes II— ^mall, thin, straight, with 
lightly spined shafts and large spines, rounded or 
asymmetrical bases: 4 dads on apical end. Not 
common, rare or absent In areas of very thm 
encrustation. Dimensions (N = 25): 99.6/ifli shaft 
length (mean) (range 72-141^m), 3.9/*m shaft 
width (3-5^m), 13/fym dad chord length (9- 
22ntn) f 14.3^m wide at clad end (11-lfynn). 

Microscler£s: Toxas I — relatively small, 
(hick, generously rounded at centre, sometimes 
almost straight, with reflexed tips. Moderately 
common. Dimensions (N = 25$! 90.6pin chord 
length (mean) (range 45~249^.m), 3.2/m» wide at 
centre (2~5^m). 

Toxas 11 — small, thin, o\' similar morphology 
as previous category; possibly a developmental 




i i< i8: Acarnus mnominatus, transverse section of 

peripheral skeleton. 



stage of that category. Very common. Dimensions 
(N = 2S): 19 7 /4 m chord length (mean) (range 21- 
79^m), L3/an wide at centre U-2/an). 

Toxas 111 — long, moderately thick, mostly 
-sliaighr with small-angled central curvature, and 
with reflexed tips. Moderately common. 
Dimensions fN— 25)1 430. 3^m chord length 
(mean) (range 192-586/aiti), 2.2/im wide at centre 

lsochelae — very small, palmate. Abundant. 
Dimensions (N = 25): 8.6^m long (mean) Oange 6- 

Ecology 

Found on the undersurfaee of a dead coral 
boulder, on an inferfidal coral platform, close to 

the- i , and in an area of hllgfa sedimentation 
(mud, sill). Associated with (growing next to) 
sponges (Rhaphidophlus and Huttclonu spp.), an 
encrusting coralline algae, and colonial ascidians 
(possibly Pycnodavetlu). Previous records of A, 
irwominutus suggest that the species is probably 
restricted to dead '.-orals, with a bathymetrie 
distribution extending from the intertidal zone to 
29 metres depth (de Laubeniets 1936; Levi 1963; 
Van Suest 1984). 

Distribution 

The present record considerably extends the 
known distribution of A. innominatus. Further 
studies may Show that the species is cosmopolitan, 
but current records indicate a patchy distribution: 
Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea (Curacao, 



ACARNUS FROM AUSTRALIA 



79 



TABLE 2. Comparison between published records of Acarnus innominatus. All measurements are given in 

micrometres, and denoted as length x width. 



CHARACTER 


AUTHOR 


Carter 
(1871) 


Ridley 
(1884) 


deLaubenfels 

(1936) 


Levi 
(1963) 


Van Soest 
(1984) 


Present study 


Colour alive: 


? 


? 


bright orange to 
red 


scarlet and 
reddish 


red 


bright orange- 
red 


Shape: 


encrusting, 

flat, 

spiculous 


? 


massive, 

amorphous, 

encrusting 


massive 
encrusting 


thinly to 

massively 

encrusting 


thickly 
encrusting 


Skeleton: 


polyhedral 
(renieroid) 


7 


ascending 
plumose, rarely 
anastomosing 


anastomosing 
paucispicular 
fibres 


renieroid 
reticulation, 
plumose tracts 


confused 
renieroid 
reticulation and 
semi-plumose 

tracts 


Styles: 


340.3 x? 


present 


280-300x12-13 


175-340x6-20 


340-459x11-22 


267-453x6-21 


Amphitylotes: 


? 


280x4.5 


180x2 


130-230x3-4 


217-262x2.5-4 


247-283x3-4 


Cladotylotes I: 
(smooth) 

Cladotylotes II: 
(spined) 


244.9x? 
95.3x? 


present 
absent? 


200x6 

80x2 


180-230x8 
85-90x2 


217-294x7-12 

110-115x3 
not common 


222-283x6-14 

72-141x3-5 
not common 


Toxas I: 
Toxas II: 
Toxas III: 


81.7x7 


130x4.2 


40-400x1-3 


70-80x3-5 
present 


57-158x2-4 
38-68 x ? 
200-402x7 


45-249x2-5 
21-79x1-2 

192-586x1.5-3 


Isochelae: 


13.6 


16-24 


12-15 


11 


9-18 


6-10 


Locality: 


West Indies 


West Indies 


Tortugas, 
Florida 


South Africa 


Curacao 


Darwin 



Cuba, Florida, West Indies) (Gray 1867; Carter 
1871; Ridley 1884; Arndt 1927; de Laubenfels 
1936; Alcolado 1976; Randall and Hartman 1968; 
Van Soest 1984), South Atlantic-Indian Oceans 
(Cape Town and Mossel Bay, South Africa) (Levi 
1963), and Arafura Sea, Indo-Pacific (Darwin, 
Northern Territory). 

Remarks 

This specimen is easily placed in Levi's group 
III Acarnus in having both smooth and spined 
cladotylotes, and on the basis of published 
descriptions the specimen is diagnosed as A. 
innominatus (refer to Table 2). The species is 
closest to A. erithacus, which has predominately 
acanthose cladotylotes, but which are rare in A. 
innominatus (Van Soest 1984). Records of A. 
erithacus show a large size range for all spicule 
categories, and on that basis alone the two species 
cannot be separated reliably. Details such as the 



proportion of smooth and spined cladotylotes, and 
the form of the longer variety of toxa offer a 
tentative basis for differentiating these closely 
related species. Similarly, A. innominatus is 
difficult to distinguish from A. thielei on the sole 
basis of spicule size, and a tentative character used 
for the separation of those two species is growth 
form (see above). On that basis I have little 
hesitation in separating the Darwin specimens of 
A. innominatus and A. thielei, which have quite 
distinct gross morphologies. However, a study on 
the ecophenotypic variability of all three species 
(A, innominatus, A. erithacus, and^4. thielei) may 
show them to be conspecific. 

Acarnus tortilis Topsent, 1892 
(Figs 19-27, 45, Table 3) 

Acarnus tortilis Topsent, 1892, pp. 24-5. Topsent, 1897, 
p. 450. Topsent, 1904, p. 171, pi. 14, fig. 8. Dendy, 



so 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



3 



19 



V 



O 

o 

t 

3 



23 



/^ 



n 







20 



21 

O 
O 



£ 

o 
o 



22 




100 um 





E 

a 

o 



Figs 19-26: Acarnus tortilis. 19. spined cladotylotes (I); 20. spined cladotylotes (II); 21. principal choanosomal 
styles; 22. auxiliary choanosomal styles; 23. ectosomal amphitylote; 24. toxas (I); 25. toxas (II); 26. isochelae. 



1916, pp. 130-31. Topsent, 1925, pp. 661-2. 
Topsent, 1929, pp. 19-20, text-figs 1-2. Topsent, 
1934, p. 72. Topsent and Olivier, 1943, p. 2. Sara, 
1960, p. 461. Ruetzler, 1965, p. 32. Boury-Esnault, 
1971, p. 323. Vacelet et at., 1976, pp. 74-5, text-fig. 
50. Desqueyroux-Faundez, 1981, p. 758, Table 2. 

Material Examined 

QM GL706 (fragment NTM Z1538): Outer Barrier, 
East of Lizard Island, Northeast Queensland, 14°42.0*S, 



145°45.0'E, 10 m depth, September 1979, Queensland 
Fisheries Service, trawl. 

Description 

Shape: Flat, thick, sprawling, plate-like 
encrustation; fragmented; rounded smooth 
margins, 43 x 75 mm, approximately 4 mm thick. 

Colour: Grey-brown in ethanol (Munsell 
7.5YR 6/2). 



\ RNVS FROM AUSTRALIA 



M 



Su«*\ce Details. Suitaee is tough, where 
intact, and mostly Ob&CUred by detritus 
incorporated into sponge. The teXtUfe is easily 
crumbled in the preserved state. 

Ectosome: Microscopically fhe sui lace is 
rough, slightly hispid due to the presence of large 
cladotylotes projecting oui wards, and mainly 
encrusted with detritus. Amphitylotes are found 
in loose bundles lying parallel to the surface, lying 
on or just below the ectosorne and in no apparent 
order, occuring haphazardly throughout the 
choanosome also- Hctosomal spongm is light 
brown, non-fibrous, granular, and mostly 
encrusted with debris, 

Choanosome; Skeletal architecture is loosely 
reticulate, verging on halichondioid due to the 
reduced, encrusting habit of the sponge. The 
distinctive feature of the choanosome is the 
presence of large quantities of detritus 
incorporated into the skeleton. The size of 
inorganic particles varies considerably, and 
particles are bonded together by light spongin. 
Where visible, spongin fibres are light, forming a 
loose reticulation containing ovoid chambers, 100- 
180>m in diameter. Spongin fibres are 50-80j*m 
thick, clearly lameUated, yellow-beige in eoloui, 
and cored with principal styles in paucispicular 
tracts, lying 1-4 spicules abreast. Spongin between 
the fibres is light, slightly granular, abundant in 
places, and contains microscleres and smaller 
(auxiliary) styles, lsochclac ate found scattered 
throughout the choanosome, in association with 
intcrfibril spongin, but occur in extremely heavy 
concentrations in places, particularly lying just 
below the ectosome. Spongin fibres are echinated 
by cladotylotes of both varieties. Cladotylotes are 
seen in interfibril spongin, and adhering to ibe 
surface of detrital particles also. 

Mfgascleres: Principal styles — moderately 
long and thin, mostly straight or very slightly 
curved near the apical end, hastate, sharply 
pointed, with evenly rounded bases. Bases are 
smooth or have numerous nncrospines on basal 
extremities. Dimensions (N = 25): 293.8/im lung 
(mean) (range 214-334/tmj, ll,4jim wide (9- 
l6/4rn). 

Auxiliary styles — moderately long. I bin, 
hastate, sharply pointed, svith evenly rounded 
smooth bases. Dimensions (N = 25); 248.6/xm long 
(mean) (range 215-279/*m). 5.2fim wide (3~7pm)< 

Amphitylotes — long, thin straight, slightly 
swollen tyiote ends, with numerous microspines 
covering extremities, or occasionally smooth. 
Dimensions (N=2S>: 288.4^.m long (mean) <tangc 
222- 36311m), S.'ifim wide (4-Tptn) 



Cladotylotes 1 — moderately small, thin with 
straight shaft*. Shalt is invariably echinated by 
moderately large spines (3-10>m in length). Gads 
occur on one or both ends. Principal dads are 
variable in size and 4 in number. The basal end 
has small dads (l-4//m long if present), or has a 
rounded bulbous smooth tyiote base. Dimensions 
(N = 25): 175.9/im shaft length (mean) (range 151- 
212/j.rn). 6.2/xm shaft width (4-8/im), 16.0>m dad 
chord length (I2-22M01), I8.2juni wide at clad end 

Cladotylotes II — straight, short, thin, mostly 
heavily echinated with small spines along the shaft, 
Spines 1-3/nnlong. Clads occur on I or both ends, 
and are similar in morphology to those of the 
larger variety. Main clads are variable in length, 
and 4 in number. Dimensions (N-25): 80.7/im 
shaft length (mean) (range 5S-IOV/*m), 3.8/*m 
shaft width (3-5/mi). 8.2/i.m clad chord length (4- 
l2^Tn)i 1 1 -2/jm wide a? clad end (S-17/im).- 

MlCHOSCUSRfis: Toxas I — relatively thick, 
generously curved. IricUrvate, wan ieflexed tips: 
moderately uncommon. Dimensions (N=35): 
68.4^m chord length (mean) (range 44-H0>m), 
2.4^m wide at centre (l-4/*m"i. 

Toxas II - thin, long, almost oxeote or only 
slightly curved, with B slight central bend; tips not 
re Hexed. Very rare. Dimensions (N = 5): lfi2,,5jMB 




f io 1 ttiift perpendicular section through 

choanotntne. D: Deposits of heavy loose spongin, 
cored by iiiierosdcres; f. foreign put i i 
incorporated inlo skeleku 



82 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



chord length (mean) (range 150-265^m), 1,5/an 
wide at centre (l-2^m). 

Isochelae — small, palmate, very abundant. 
Dimensions (N = 25): 11.1/un long (mean) (range 
7-13/im), 

Ecology 

This specimen was apparently associated with a 
dead coral and sand substrate. From published 
records and present observations, the bathymetric 
distribution of A. tortilis extends from the 
intertidal zone to 54 metres depth. 

Distribution 

Acarnus tortilis is a widely distributed, almost 
cosmopolitan species, recorded from the North 
Atlantic and Indian Oceans (Topsent 1904, 1929; 
Vacelet et al. 1976), Mediterranean, Adriatic, 
Arabian, Banda, Biban and Oman Seas (Boury- 
Esnault 1971; Dendy 1916; Ruetzler 1965; Sara 
1960; Topsent 1892, 1897, 1925, 1929, 1934; 
Topsent and Olivier 1943). The specimen described 



above is the first record for the species in the 
Pacific Ocean. 

Remarks 

This species is easily diagnosed as A. tortilis in 
having two varieties of cladotylotes, both of which 
have profusely spined shafts, an encrusting habit 
incorporating foreign particles into the skeleton, 
and in specific details of spicule dimensions (Table 
3). 

Levi (1963) placed A. tortilis in his group II 
Acarnus on the basis of having spined cladotylotes 
only. Acarnus tortilis is closest to A. topsenti in 
this respect, and differs from that species mainly 
by its habit (encrusting versus flabellate-digitate, 
respectively), in having two categories of 
cladotylotes, and by the specific dimensions of 
spicules (Table 4). The stability of those diagnostic 
characters is presently unknown, particularly with 
regard to known intraspecific geographic variation 
in spicule dimensions, with some spicule categories 
overlapping between the species (Table 5). 



TABLE 3. Comparison between published records of Acarnus tortilis. All measurements are given in 
micrometres, and denoted as length X width. 



CHARACTER 


AUTHOR 


Topsent (1892) 
type-specimen 


Topsent (1904) 


Topsent (1925) 


Vacelet et al, 

(1976) 


Present Study 


Colour alive: 


brown 


blackish 


reddish 


red 


(grey-brown in 
ethanaol) 


Shape: 


thinly 
encrusting 


encrusting 


encrusting 


encrusting 


encrusting 


Skeleton: 


loosely 

reticulate 


7 


7 


? 


loosely reticulate 
to halichondroid 


Styles: 


500x10 


400-450x8-10 


515-550x? 


300-450x5-10 


214-334x3-16 


Amphitylotes: 


400x? 


370-440x4-5 


307-360x7 


250-350x3.5-6 


222-363x4-7 


Cladotylotes I: 
(spined) 

Cladotylotes II: 

(spined) 


up to 220 x 5 


125-170x4-5 


75-160x7 


65-225x2.5-5 


151-212x4-8 
58-109x3-5 


Toxas I: 
Toxas II: 


present 
present 


100x4 
220x1 


130x7 
210x7 


60-80x4-5 
15-160x7 


44-110x1-4 
150-265x1-2 


Isochelae: 


15 


15 


22 


8-10 


7-13 . 


Locality: 


Cape Abeille, 
Gulf of Lyon 
Mediterranean 


Terceira L, 
Azores, North 
Atlantic 


Nisida, Gulf 
of Naples, 
Mediterranean 


Tulear, 
Mozambique 
Channel, Indian 
Ocean 


East of Lizard L, 
GBR, NE 
Queensland 



It lA'.Vi -STRUM AUSTRALIA 



M 



Another character which differentiates these allied 
species is the degree of development of the fibrous 
skeleton. Acarwts iopsentihas strong];, developed 
horny fibres, whereas those of A. tortilis are 
reduced and are invested with light spongin only. 
The taxonomic value and stability of that character 
remains to be detentifned, as !i \% possible that the 
reduction o\' horny fibre* in A. tonilis is related to 
its reduction m g/OWtll form. 

As an indication of their close affinities, 
supporting a possible combination of tin two 
species* is the fact ihat the bases of the principal 
55 in both species frequently have a light 
covering of microspines. This character is 
,t throughout the entire geographic range 
uf A. :ortilis (Topsent 1892, 1897, 1904, 1925, 
Dcndv 1916; Vacelet el aL 1976; present study), 
and Dendy (1922) record* LI for A. topstnti also. 
No other species of Acarnus (Acarrtusf have (hta 
characteristic, although i: is prcfcnt in A ramus 
(Acanthacarnus) species, tt Is eteai that the 
relationship between .4. tvttUis and A, topsei 
closely analogous to that of A. ihktei and A. 
innominatusy as diseased above. Unfortunately 
the type-specimen of A. tortilis is presently 
Unavailable for re-examination, requiring a visit 
'he Paris Museum (Levi pers, comm.). 
Consoquenlly it in not possible to make a firm 
decision on whether or not the two species are 
CWSStecjfte, Vaeelet el al. (1976) recommended 
dial the two species should be maintained 
separate, and his decision is Mipporied hetc on a 
basis through comparison between the 
Queensland specimen ot\4 (ortilisnm\ the syniype 
nsenfi {see below). 

Dc Laubcnfels (1927) and Bakus (1966) suggest 
that A. erifhacus is closely related to A. tortilis in 
skeletal MCbiteCtUye, but this affinity may be a 
result of a reduced skeletal architecture of both 
species, owing to Iheir encrusting habits. Acarnus 
ertthacus is easily differentiated from A. tortilh 
by the presence of a larger category of smooth 
cladotylote megaselere, and in having a heavier 
■ keleion. 

Acarnus toxeatus should be included in Levi's 
(1963) group )1 Arurrtus also, in having spined 
.;■ lotCS only, but differs from A. tortilis in 
having larger spicules of most categories (except 
i ..•- fa-lael, and :hrcc distinct Categories of toxas 
[Table 5). 

Acarnus meatus Ridley. 1 884 

: :>^r.. 46-48, Table 4) 

Acvmx trntatus Ridley, l«K4. pp. 453,615. pi. 42. ftgS 
b.b T . Ridley mm- ! I 159. Dtendy, (905, 



p- 177, pi. 8. fig. A. Levi. 1^58 t*»-figi 3Z. 

Bruce, 1976, p. 128. 
nun Acarnus ternatuy. Tliieie. 1903, pp. 960-61, Tig. 27. 

Hemsehcl, 1912, pp. J7$4. 
ACamus wolffgangi Keller, 1889, pp. 399-41)0, pi. 24, 

figs 5$-W. Kiesduuck, !8%, p. 533. Thiele, 1903, 
■ l' 26 

Maii-riai Evamimu 

Svmtvpf: BM [«82.2.23.248 West Island, Torres 
Strait, North Queensland. I0°22'5, 14TWE, 14 in 
depth, 1 April-October, 1881. H.M.S. 'Alert', dredge. 

Other Matodali QM 015773 (fragmeni ntm 
ZI584), OM GL2777 (fragment NTM Z1590): 20 
kilometres QOnhcasi of Green Island, off Cairns, Great 
Barrier Reel, northeast Queensland. 16 C 43.0'S, 
(3 m depth, 21 February 1979, L. Cannon 
and B. OOedeil (ftri. W5 Cairns preliminary inter-reef 
survey), dredge. QM GL715 (fragment NTM ZI532): 
Hall-Thompson Reef Fh-i ol Innlsfail, Great Barrier 
Reef, Northeast Queensland. 17 C 34.0'S, I46°27.5'lf, 66 
m depth, date bf collection unknown, Queensland 
fisheries Service. dredge 0) tSSfVA 

REDF.5CRIPTION OF TYPt-SPfcClMLN 

Details Of Extlknai MORPHOLOOYi refer to 
Ridley (18S4 ? p. 453) 
Ectosome : The ectosomal region has a 

multispicular, sometimes confused, but mostly 
tangential layer of amphitylotes lying on or just 
below the surface. The surface is laised Into 
conules in places, and is lightly hispid from the 
lips of dndoiyloies and occasionally styles poking 
through the cctosome. 

Chosnosomk The skeletal architecture is a 
heavy renieroid xo sub-renieroid reticulation of 
thick fibres (35- 1 20 jun in diameter), cored by uni- 
te rnuJii-spicular tracts which do not occupy the 
entire diameter of fibres. Major tracts appear to 
run longitudinally, cored by 5-10 spicules abreast, 
and are interconnected by smaller ascending tracts, 
containing 1 -5 spicules abreast . There is only slight 
plumose divergence of fibres in the subectosomal 
region, and fibres are predominantly 
anastomosing. Chambers formed by the fibre 
reticulation arc subrectangular to ovoid, 1 12-435 
jiin in diameter. Cladotylotes are not abundant, 
variable in si2e, and echinate fibres at right angles 
to spicule tracts. The mesohyl matrix has heavy 
deposits of debris scattered between the fibres, but 
: are also many large cavernous chambers 
termed by fibre anastomoses clear of debris and 
spicules. Loose, granular spongin between the 
fibres is mostly paucispicular. 

Mlgascleres (N=25). Principal styles — 
robust, hastate, slightly curved at rhe centre, 
entirely smooth shafted, and with evenly rounded 
bases having little or no tylote swelling; tips taper 



S4 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



^x 



28 





<J 



/< 



< 



> 




(J 



29 



o 



x 



o 
o 

3 



30 




O 

o 

3 



31 



I00|im 
i 1 



\J 



u 



o 

o 

3 





^=^> 34 C> 



Figs 28-34: Acarnus ternatus. 28. smooth and occasionally-spined cladotylotes (I); 29. principal choanosomal style 
(inset: enlarged view of extremities); 30. auxiliary choanosomal style (inset: enlarged view of extremities); 31. 
ectosomal amphitylote (inset: enlarged view of spined and smooth ends); 32. toxas (I); 33. toxas (II): 34. isochelae. 



iA.',v/,SPKOM AUSTRALIA 






to sharp points, or are sometimes blunt or 
rounded. 325 S /<m long (mean) (range 265-419 
^m), 1 1.8 /xm wide (7-14 /im). 

Auxiliary styles — not abundant ; o\" thinner and 
shorter dimensions than the previous category, 
and probably young forms of those spicules 201 4 
//m long (mean) (range 128-285 /xm), 2.4 xxm wide 
{2-4 ixm). 

Amphitylor.es — thin, moderately long, straight, 
with only slightly tyloie bases, and with very few 
or no microspines on apices. 248.4 ^m long (mean) 
(range 224-268 tim). 1.5 txm wide (3-4.5 t<m). 

Cladotylotes — variable in size, and not 
abundant; straight or slightly curved shaft, mostly 
smooth, but some spicules have occasional 
isolated spines on the shaft; bases are prominently 
tylote, mostly smooth and evenly rounded, or 
sometimes with apical spines or tuberculate; 3 
dads on apical end, which are of variable length; 
the apex of the clad end is mostly smooth and 
evenly rounded. 182.2 ixm shaft length (mean) 
(range 63-233 /im), 7.0 ^m shaft width (2-1 1 /xm|, 
21.8 i<mclad chord length (2-34 / t m), 23.7 itm wide 
at clad end (5-36 xxm). 

MiCROSCiEKFs (N = 25): Texas 1 — short to 
moderately long, variable in thickness, mostly 
generously curved at the centre, and reflexed at 
the tips. 1 12.9 xxm long (mean) (range 12-233 xtm), 
3.5 /x m wide (0.8-6 ^m). 

Toxas II — short to very long, moderately thin. 
only slightly curved at the centre, and only slightly 
reflexed, sometimes oxeote. 262.2 x<m long (mean) 
(range 19-708 ^ra), 2.0 ^m wide (0.5-5 fan}. 

lsocheiae — palmate, variable in size. 16.4 xxm 
long (mean) (range 8-22/xm). 




36 




ir% 



Fics 35-36: Acarnus Jernuius. 35. perpendicular section 
of peripheral skeleton; 36. enlarged view of 

choanosomal fibres. 



DESCRJPTP ' I A I OHtR SPECIML OS 

Shape; plate-like, thickly flabellatc, probably 
semi-vasiform, fragmented, basal attachment not 
collected. 50-110 mm wide edge-to-edge, 55-83 
mm high, 3.5-5 mm thick. One smaller atypical 
specimen (QM GL7I5) has solid tubulo-digitate 
projections arising from a semi-encrusting, 
bulbous base, and is growing on a bivalve shell 
and pebbles. Base }5 mm wide, 54 mm high at 
highest point; digits short, twisted, 10-18 mm 
high, 4-13 mm in diameter. 

Colour: light brown (Munsell 2.5Y 8/4) to 
brown-grey in ethane! 1 10R 6/2). 

SuitfACE DETAILS: External surface of sponge 

(exterior of b vase r or Opiate') is roughened, with 

numerous surface projections, which are mostly 

low and rounded, extending not more than 20 mm 

l the sponge Jtttface, and forming irregular 



meandering tracts. The internal surface (interior 
oT 'vase' ot *platc*) is optically smooth, and 
contains many oscula of 1-6 mm in diameter. The 
entire surface is optically hispid, and the overall 
flabellate / vasiform habit resembles closely that of 
Acarnus thielei from Darwin. The smaller 
specimen has a dusty appearance due to sand 
debris embedded in the ectosome. 

EcTOSOMt; The ecotosome is mostly even 
microscopically, with few eonules formed by fibre 
endings from the choanosomal skeleton poking 
through the surface, and with the tips of styles 
rendering the surface hispid. Few eJadotylotes were 
observed poking through the ectosome. The 
ectosome has a thin tangential layer of 
amphitylotes lying on or just below the surface. 
The ectosome also has a thin layer of detritus 



SA 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



TABLE 4. Comparison between published records of A carnus ternatus. All measurements are given in 
micrometres, and denoted as length x width. 



CHARACTER 


AUTHOR 


Ridley (1884)* 

type-specimen 


Keller (1889) 


Thiele(1903) 


Dendy(1905) 


Levi (1958) 


Present Study 


Colour alive: 


reddish-brown 
(preserved) 


matt blue 


? 


brown (dry) 


red 


light brown- 
grey brown 
(preserved) 


Shape: 


clathrous, 
rounded, 
anastomosing 
tubes 


massive, 

rounded 
rough 
exterior 
surface 


? 


thickly 

flabellate, 
lobed 

margins, to 
irregularly 
branched 


massive 
irregular, 
folded 
surface 


flabellate- 
vasiform to 
tubulo-digitate 
semi- 
encrusting 
rough surface 


Skeleton: 


heavy renieroid 
to sub- 
renieroid 
reticulation 


reticulate, 
strongly 
developed 
fibres 


? 


strongly 

developed 

fibres 


reticulate 


renieroid to 

sub-renieroid 

reticulation 


Styles: 


128-419x2-14 


305-320x15 


450x25 


300x16.4 


275-310x6 


139-281x2-14 


Amphitylotes: 


224-268x3-4.5 


approx. 
220x? 


260x4 


220x3.5 


240x1.5 


200-280x2-5 


Cladotylotes I: 

(smooth) 


63-233x2-11 


200-220x10 


275x12 


210x12 


180-200x5 


85-205 x 2-6 


Toxas I: 
Toxas II: 


12-233x0.8-6 
19-708x0.5-5 


up to 600 x 3 


60-250 x? 

900x? 


up to 152x8 
740x4 


35-130x1-3 
375-600 X? 


41-266x1-6 
80-770x0.5-5 


Isochelae: 


8-22 


15 


22 


20 


18 


9-22 


Locality: 


Torres Strait, 
Australia. 
(Also 
?Bombay, 
India, and 
Amirante Is.) 


Sudan, Red 
Sea 


Ternate, 
Banda Sea, 
Indonesia 


Gulf of 
Manaar, 

Indian 
Ocean 


Abulat, Red 
Sea 


Great Barrier 

Reef, 

Queensland 



*Morphology cited by Ridley (1884, p. 453) as close to A. innominatus. 
Values given here are from the redescription of the syntype B.M. 1882.2.23.248. 



overlaying the skeleton, consisting of non-contort 
spined spiraster-Iike spicules, large quantities of 
sand and shell debris. 

Choanosome: The overall skeletal architecture 
is a renieroid to sub-renieroid reticulation of 
relatively heavy, pale yellow spongin fibres, 20- 
130 fxm in diameter, moderately cored by bi- or 
multispicular tracts of principal styles. Major 
spicule tracts run longitudinally through sections, 
are cored with 3-8 spicules abreast, and are 
connected by vertical, ascending spicule-spongin 
tracts, with 1-3 spicules abreast. The reticulation 
in deeper parts of the choanosome is regular, 
renieroid, whereas closer to the surface the 



ascending (secondary) spicule tracts become 
plumose. The fibre reticulation forms ovoid to 
subrectangular chambers, 120-450 jim in 
diameter. Fibres are echinated by cladotylotes of 
1 variety only, which vary in abundance between 
specimens (few in larger specimens, common in 
the smaller specimen). Spongin between the fibres 
is scarce, and where present, is cored with auxiliary 
styles and microscleres. Amphitylotes also occur 
in loose bundles in the choanosome, lying mainly 
at right angles to the surface. Moderate quantities 
of detritus, mostly sand grains occur in the 
choanosome also, particularly in the smaller 
specimen. 



ACARNVS FROM AUSTRALIA 



r 



Megascleres: Principal styles — moderately 
stout, straight or slightly curved at midsection, 
hastate, tapering to a sharp point; smooth rounded 
base with very little or no tylote swelling. 
Dimensions (N = 75): 248.2 /im long (mean) (range 
203-281 jum), 10.3 ^m wide (mean) (7-14 /un). 

Auxiliary styles — abundant, relatively short, 
thin, hastate, tapering to a sharp point, smooth 
rounded base, some slightly subtylote. Dimensions 
(N=75): 218.1 fim long (mean) (range 139-252 
jun), 4.9 jan wide (2-7 ^m). 

Amphitylotes — moderately long, thin, straight, 
evenly rounded (only slightly swollen) tylote ends; 
few microspines on apical ends, occasionally 
smooth. Dimensions (N = 75): 235.2 /an long 
(mean) (range 200-280 /im), 3.6 nm wide (2-5 fxm). 

Cladotylotes I — relatively short, thin, straight, 
mostly with smooth shafts, some with occasional 
(isolated) spines along stem ( 1 -4 /tm long); 3 clads, 
occasionally 4 on the apex; clads recurved or only 
slightly curved, variable in length, and sometimes 
bearing 1 or more spines on apex. Bases tylote, 
smooth, sometimes tuberculate or with small 
clads. Dimensions (N = 100): 133.3 /im shaft length 
(mean) (range 85-205 j/m), 4.5 fxm shaft width (2- 
6 /mi), 12.1 /an clad chord length (4-22 /an), 15.4 
/an wide at clad end (5-23 /tm). 

Microscleres: Toxas I — short, relatively 
thick, tricurvate, generously curved at midsection 
and with reflexed tips. Dimensions (N = 75): 79.3 
/an chord length (mean) (range 41-266 /an), 2.9 
/an wide at centre (1-6 /tm). 

Toxas II — long, thin, only slightly curved at 
midsection, some entirely oxeote, tips not reflexed. 
Dimensions (N = 75): 359.7 /tm chord length 
(mean) (range 80-770 /tm), 2.5 /tm wide at centre 
(0.5-5 /tm). 

Isochelae — palmate. Dimensions (N=100): 
17.0 /tm long (mean) (range 9-22 /tm). 

Ecology 

The present specimens were collected from a 
sand-gravel substrate. Previous records indicate 
that A. ternatus is generally found associated with 
sand and coral (Ridley 1884; Ridley and Dendy 
1887; Keller 1889). The bathymetric distribution 
of this species extends from the intertidal zone 
(Levi 1958) to a maximum depth of 80 metres 
(present study). 

Distribution 

Acarnus ternatus appears to be widespread 
throughout the Indo-Pacific region, extending 
from the Red Sea (Keller 1889; Levi 1958), 
Amirante Islands (Ridley 1884) and Kenya (Bruce 



1 976), to India and Sri Lanka (Ridley 1 884; Dendy 
1905), Indonesia and northeastern Australia 
(Ridley 1884; Kieschnick 1896; Thiele 1903; 
present study), to Tahiti (Ridley and Dendy 1887). 

Remarks 

The specimens from Queensland are identified 
as Acarnus ternatus on the basis of having smooth 
cladotylotes of one category only. There is a close 
correspondence between that material and Ridley's 
syntype. Although several cladotylotes were 
observed with occasional scattered or single large 
spines on the shaft, this character was certainly 
unusual, and the majority of these spicules had 
smooth shafts. That condition was observed in the 
syntype also, although not recorded by Ridley 
(1884). Cladotylotes of the Queensland specimens 
were also unusual in sometimes having one or 
more small spines on the apex of clads, resembling 
multiple-clad spicules, and many having small 
clads only. These atypical characters were most 
evident in the smaller specimen (QM GL715), 
which also differed from the larger examples in 
shape (Fig. 47) (tubulo-digitate on a semi- 
encrusting base, versus flabellate semi-vasiform 
respectively), in having larger quantities of detritus 
on the ectosome and in the choanosome, and in 
the relative abundance of cladotylotes. The 
peculiar characteristics of the cladotylotes, the 
incorporation of numerous foreign particles into 
the skeleton and the atypical habit of specimen 
QM GL7 1 5 is probably of small consequence only, 
and on the basis of comparison with the type- 
specimen does not justify the separation of these 
2 forms into distinct taxa. The details of skeletal 
architecture and fibre development, and the 
dimensions of spicules in all 3 specimens from the 
Great Barrier Reef correspond with details of the 
type-specimen and other records of A. ternatus 
within a reasonable range of variation (Table 4). 

In having only one category of cladotylote, 
which is predominantly unspined, A. ternatus is 
placed in Levi's (1963) group I Acarnus, to which 
may be added A. tenuis (see below), 

Acarnus tenuis Dendy, 1896 
(Table 5) 

Acarnus tenuis Dendy, 1896, pp. 50-51. 

Material Examined 

NMV G2456 (Dendy's RN 974), G2457 (RN 991): 
vicinity of Port Phillip Heads, Melbourne, Victoria, 
38°2(TS, 144°42'E; date of collection unknown, J.B. 
Wilson, dredge, (NMV G2456, encrusting on 
Ptumohalichondha arenacea; G2457, encrusting on 



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MFMOIRS OF THE QUE'* NS1 AND mi isbl.lM 



Tedania digitate), These specimens were noted as 
Syntypes by \yling ?/ <//. t 1982) (see below). 

Missiriig from coll ■ i itirtg on 

Claihna lypica (Aylinj? r/ al. 1982, p- 106; personal 
observation), 

Ei en i ii i 
Unknown, 

i t-MBUTION 

This species has been recorded only once, from 
Port Phillip Bay, Victoria 

Remarks 

Extensive examination ot (he two Sp0 i 
held at the Museum of Victoria failed to discover 
any trace Of the encrusting type specimens of 
Acarnus tenuis Dendy ( 1 896) notes that A. tenuis 
occurs as a small, ilun, pale yellow crust on the 
surface of three sponges. Crusts do exist, in quite 
extensive patches on the surface of G2456 and 
02457 (Crelta incrustam and Tedania digitata, 
respectively), but in all cases these encrustations 
consist of usual ectosomal spicules for these 
species (viz. oxeas, aeanthoxeas and arcuale 
isoehclac, and erect amphitylotes, respectively), It 
is apparent therefore thai ihe lypc-specimens of 
A tenuis no longer exist, at the Museum of 
Victoria. 

AyUng etal. (1982) note that the British Museum 
(Natural History) holds three microscope slide 
preparations of each syntype (J 902: 10:18:62, J23, 
375). Until these spicule mounts are re-examined, 
a definition o\' A. tenuis can be drawn frotii 
Dendy 's (1896) description only (Table 5). This 
species may be differentiated from other Acarnus 
in having no microscleres, no fibres, a very loose 
irregular reticulation of styles or subtylostyles ( 1 89 
-. 2 /mi), and scattered OT loose bundles of 
cladotylotes (160 x 2 /tm), bearing 5 dads 
(approximately 4 /im in length) with unspined 
shafts. Amphitylotes ate apparently absent also. 

[ evi (1963) omits A. tenuis from his subdivision 
of the genus, but on the basis of the cladotylote 
morphology it would Fit with his group I Acarnus. 
i her with A ternaius. Dendy (1922) suggests 
that the absence of chelate microscleres in this 
species may be cause to erect a separate genus for 
A. tenuis, but such a move could not be justified 
for such a poorly known spt 

SYNOPSIS OF OTHER SPECIES 

Brief diagnoses are given below of other species 
Ol -Acarnus no\ found in the Australian region. 
Table 5 provides a summary of the main diagnostic 
cters for each. 



Acarnus erithacus de Laubenfeis, 1927 
(Table 5) 

[CiirnUi ehihucus de Laubenfeis, 1927, pp. 258-60, 262, 
I -i figs 1,2,9,10.11. de Laubenfeis, 1930, p. 104. 
de Laubenfeis, J932, pp. 104-7, text-fig. 63. 
Dlekinsorj, 1945, p. 30, Bakus, 1966, pp. 468-71, 
- iigs 14a-j. Schwab and Shore. 1971, pp. 125- 
36. Shore, 1972, pp. 689-98 Latter and Rinehart, 
[978, pp. 4302-4, Hofkneeht. 1978. pp. 53-4. 

Diagnosis 

Brilliant red to bronze, thinly to massively 
encrusling Sponge with an irregular, 
microconulose, hispid surface and an irregular, 
loosely reticulate skeleton of ascending spicule 
tracts. Spongin fibres are light, cored by styles 
(200-790 x 7-43 t im), and echinated by 
cladotylotes of 2 varieties; I— (180-472 x 8-36 
;un) have 3-4 dads and smooth shafts, II— (80- 
182 y 3-7 ftm) have spincd shafts. Tangential 
ectosomal amphitylotes (170-434 x 3-8 ^m) with 
mierospined tips. Toxasof 2 sizes: I — small, thick 
and reflexed; II — long, thin and mostly straight 
or only slightly curved (both 40-645 x 2-7 ^m). 
Palmate isochelae (12-26 ^m) core light spongin 
between the fibres. 

Source: de Laubenfeis (1927, 1932), Bakus 
(1966). 

Ecoli 

Associated with rock, dead corals, and living or 
dead barnacles, extensive bathymctric range from 
the intcrtidai zone to 700 metres depth. 

Disikihi r* i 

Pacific coast to North America (California 
Washington). 

I R K S 

ACarnus enfhacus was placed in group [II 

humus, together with A. thielei and A. 

innowinatus on i lie basis of its smooth and spined 

cladotylotes (Levi 1963). It is close to A. tortiiis in 

skeletal architecture, but differs from that species 

in cladotylote morphology and spongin content 

(Bakus 1966) (Table 5). The affinities of this 

leS, and arguments for a possible combination 

o( Levi's group III species have been presented 

earlier. 

Acarnus lopsenti Dendy, 1922 
(Fig. 37, Table 5) 

\i arnus topsomi Dendy. 1922, pp. 98-9. pL 4, fig. 3a- 
b, pi 15. fig. 8a-* Burton 1959, p. 253. 



ACARNUS FROM AUSTRALIA 



91 



Material Examined 

Syntype: BM 1921.11.7.84: Cargados Carajos, north 
of Mauritius, Indian Ocean, 16°25'S, 59 D 36'E, 60 m 
depth, 29 August 1905, H.M.S. 'Sealark', dredge. 

Redescription of Type-Specimen 

Details of External Morphology: Digitate 
to flabellate sponge with digitiform processes and 
microconules on the surface. Surface is roughened 
and microscopically hispid. Ectosome has a thin, 
translucent membraneous covering, and small 
oscula on the margins of branches. Texture is 
compressible, fibrous and fairly tough. Colour in 
ethanol ranges from dull grey to reddish or 
purplish (Dendy 1922, p. 98). 

Ectosome: Choanosomal fibres ascend to the 
ectosomal region and form erect microconulose 
projections. Ascending fibres are cored by 
plumose tracts of styles, with the ultimate brushes 
poking through the surface and forming an 
irregular, erect palisade of spicules. In addition to 
a hispid ectosomal layer of styles, there is a fine 
tangential ectosomal layer of amphitylotes, in 
bundles of up to 10 spicules abreast or scattered 
singly. The tangential ectosomal layer is 
conspicuous in some areas, but difficult to observe? 
in other areas due to the presence of relatively 
heavy deposits of detritus on the ectosome. 
Amphitylotes are scattered throughout the 
mesohyl of the choanosome also. 

Choanosome: The overall choanosomal 
skeletal architecture is plumo-reticulate, with 
distinctive ascending fibre tracts (30-50 /im in 
diameter), which diverge in plumose fashion 
towards the subectosomal region (Fig. 37). Fibres 
consist of relatively heavy spongin, resembling 
those of the Spongiidae. Ascending fibres are 
c6red by plumose tracts of principal styles, 4-10 
spicules abreast, occasionally singly, which 
ultimately protrude through the ectosome, and are 
echinated by cladotylotes in moderate 
concentrations. Ascending (cored) fibres are 
connected in a loose reticulation by transverse 
uncored fibres of similar diameter. Transverse 
fibres are only lightly echinated by cladotylotes or 
not at all. The mesohyl matrix contains relatively 
heavy deposits of granular spongin bearing 
microscleres and scattered amphitylotes. No styles 
were observed outside spongin fibres. Meshes 
formed by anastomosing fibres are variable in 
diameter, 90-290 //m. Detritus is moderately 
abundant between fibres, and consists mainly of 
sand grains. 

Megascleres (N = 25): Principal styles — 
hastate, tapering to a sharp point, relatively 
straight or only slightly curved at the centre, with 




Fig. 37: Acarnus topsenti, syntype; perpendicular section 
of peripheral skeleton. 



evenly rounded or only slightly subtylote bases; 
bases smooth or very lightly microspined. 223.7 
/im long (mean) (range 204-287 /un), 7.8 //m wide 
(3-12 /an). 

Amphitylotes — relatively long, thin, straight, 
with slightly swollen tylote bases bearing 
microspines on their tips. 227.4 /im long (mean) 
(range 205-262 /on), 2.5 /xm wide (2-3.5 fxm). 

Cladotylotes — relatively small, thin, straight, 
thicker near base than on clad end, with profusely 
microspined shafts and a bare anterior area 
immediately below clads; clads are relatively short, 
and number 4 to 5; bases are slightly subtylote, 
with 3-4 large recurved spines. 76.7 /aiti shaft 
length (mean) (range 53-97 ptm), 5.1 fim shaft 
width (3-8 /mi), 6.3 /xm clad chord length (3-11 
/on), 8.9 /mi wide at clad end (5-14 /mi). 

Microscleres (N = 25): Toxas 1 — short to 
long and thick, generously curved at the centre, 
with recurved tips, 112.2 fxm long (mean) (range 
32-191 j*m), 2.3 ^m wide (1-4 /xm). 

Isochelae — small, thin, palmate, 10.7 tim long 
(mean) (range 9-12 /mi). 

Ecology 

A moderately deeper-water species, with a 
bathymetrie distribution of 38-165 metres; 
apparently associated with a red algae 
(Uthothamnion) (Burton 1959). 

Distribution 

Western Indian Ocean (Coast of Oman, 
Arabian Sea; Cargados Carajos, north of 
Maurilius, Indian Ocean). 



92 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Remarks 

Dendy (1922, p. 15, fig. 8) provides adequate 
drawings of the spicule morphology of A. topsenti y 
and those do not need to be repeated here. Fig. 37 
shows the skeletal architecture of this species, 
which has not been illustrated previously. The 
supposed absence of a tangential ectosomal 
skeleton of amphitylotes, reported by Dendy 
(1922) was not supported by the re-examination of 
the type-specimen, and in that respect A. topsenti 
does not differ from other Acarnus species. 

Acarnus topsenti is placed in Levi's (1963) group 
II Acarnus by the presence of spined cladotylotes 
only, and in this respect the species has affinities 
with A. tortilis and A. toxeatus. Arguments have 
been presented above in support of maintaining 
A. topsenti and A. tortilis as distinct species, 
despite their very close similarities. 

Acarnus toxeatus Boury-Esnault, 1973 
(Table 5) 

Acarnus toxeata Boury-Esnault, 1973, p. 285, text-fig. 

44. 
Diagnosis 

Maroon, thinly encrusting sponge with a 
delicate detachable ectosomal crust. Surface is 
hispid. Choanosomal skeletal architecture is 
unknown, but presumably greatly reduced as a 
result of its thin habit. Styles have slightly swollen, 
smooth bases (378-727 x 12-16 ^m). Ectosomal 
amphitylotes (213-472 x 3-9 fim) with spined 
extremities. Cladotylotes of 2 varieties: I — (250- 
395 x 3-9 /*m) have 6 clads and a lightly spined 
shaft; II— (56-162 x 3 /xm) have a heavily spined 
shaft. Toxas of 3 varieties: I — (28-75 y,m) short, 
relatively thick, with reflexed tips and generously 
curved centrally; II — (218-265 jim) moderately 
long, slightly reflexed and curved at centre; III — 
(500-945 pm) relatively thin, long, straight, not 
reflexed at tips. Palmate isochelae 12-14 fxm long. 

Source: Boury-Esnault (1973). 

Ecology 
Habitat unknown. Collected from 50 depth. 

Distribution 

Single locality, off Governador Valadares, 
Brazil, South Atlantic. 

Remarks 

Acarnus toxeatus is placed in Levi's (1963) 
group II Acarnus in having spined cladotylotes 
only. The species is distinctive in the extreme size 
of toxas (Table 5), but the division of toxas into 
three varieties may be artificial. Toxa II probably 



represents an intermediate between the smaller, 
curved form and the long, straight form. 



Acarnus bicladotylotus Hoshino, 
(Table 5) 



1981 



Acarnus bicladotylota Hoshino, 1981, pp. 142-3, text- 
fig. 60, pi. 6, fig. 4. 
Diagnosis 

Thinly encrusting, red-orange sponge, with a 
smooth surface containing foreign particles. 
Ectosome with a confused tangential layer of 
amphitylotes (205-310 x 3-6 fim) bearing spines 
on extremities. Choanosomal skeletal architecture 
irregularly reticulate with ascending spicule tracts 
cored by styles (195-394 x 6-12 ^tm), and 
echinated by cladotylotes of 2 varieties: I — (140- 
180 x 3-7 /^m); II— (80-110 x 2-6 ^m), both 
with spined shafts. Acanthostyles (80-95 x 3-5 
fxm) erect on basal membrane of sponge. Toxas of 
2 varieties, both thin and reflexed: I — (60-100 x 
1-2 M m); II— (130-210 x 2-3 /mi). 

Arcuate (?) isochelae (15 /xm) coring abundant 
spongin between the fibres. 

Source: Hoshino (1981). 

Ecology 

Associated with barnacles (Acasta); located in 
the intertidal zone to shallow subtidal regions. 

Distribution 

East China Sea (Matsushima Maeshima, Ariake 
Sea, Kyushu, Japan). 

Remarks 

In habit and skeletal structure (ascending 
plumose tracts), A. bicladotylotus resembles A. 
erithacus, but differs from that species and other 
Acarnus by the dimensions and composition of the 
skeletal components (Table 5). 

This species is a member of the nominal 
subgenus Acanthacarnus by virtue of a basal layer 
of acanthostyles in the skeleton, acanthose 
cladotylotes only, and thin styles. Although 
Hoshino (1981) records the isochelae as arcuate, 
his figure (600 suggests that they are probably 
palmate, which is consistent with other species of 
Acarnus. 

Acarnus souriei (Levi, 1952) 
(Table 5) 

Acanthacarnus souriei Levi, 1952, p. 54, text-figs 18-19. 
Levi, 1959, pp. 132-3, text-fig. 25. Vacelet, 1961, 
p. 42. Hechtel, 1965, p. 40. Thomas, 1970, pp. 46- 
50, text-figs !-2a-h. Thomas, 1973, p. 30, pi. 2, fig. 
2. 



n V S r -ROM AUSTRALIA 






Acanthaiaruus leva Vacelei, 1960, pp. 2o7 9, icxl-fig 
Acarnus souriei: Van Soest, 1984, pp. 63-5, «exi-fiK 

Diagnosis 

Bright orange to red, thinly encrusting I -j 
with an optically smooth, microscopically hispid 
surface. Ectosome with an irregular tangential 
layer of amphitylotes (119-357 ;■- 2-7 ^m) bearing 
terminal spines. Choanosome skeletal architecture 
lightly reticulate only and more markedly 
halichondroid, with ascending plumose spieulo- 
spongin fibres. Spongin fibres are light, cored by 
styles (170-381 x 3-10 ^m) and echinated by 
acanthostyles (60-145 x 2-5 *im) and cladotylotes 
of I variety only, with 4 clads and spined shafts 
(54-236 x 2-6 /j.rn). Toxas of at least 2 varieties 
I — with reflexed tips, generously curved, and of 
variable thickness; II— thin, angular central 
curvature, long (both: 45-330 x 2-4 u.\\\). Palmate 
isochelae (12-21 /jjn). 

tourw Levi (1952, 1959;, Hedud (1965). 
I faunas (1970, 1973), Van Soest (1984). 

Ecology 

Apparently restricted to dead coral and rock 
substrate; bathymetric distribution from the 
intertidal zone to 10 metres depth. 

Distribution 

Predominantly northern hemisphere, 
widespread; Mediterrean (Corsica), North Atlantic 
Ocean, West Africa (Senegal, Gulf of Guinea), 
Indian Ocean (Seychelles, Palk Bay, Gulf of 
Manaar), Caribbean {Curasao, Barbados, Puerto 
Rico, Jamaica). 

Remarks 

Acarnus souriei si. has a wide range ol Spicule 
measurements, particularly for the cladotylotes 
Vaedet (I960) and Thomas (1970, 1973) divide 
cladotylotes of specimens from the Mediterranean 
and Indian Ocean (respectively) into two si/e 
categories, both ofwhich are spined (1 — 80-210 X 
4,5-6 //m; II— 54-140 k 2-4 t itn) r but other 
authors group these spicules into a single (albeit 
variable) caicgory (Vaceiet 1961, Hechtel 1965; 
Van Soest 1984) Van Soest (1984) notes other 
differences to skeletal components between the 
various populations of A , souriei. It is evident that 
the species is highly variable over its large 
geographical range, and consequently it is difficult 
LO isolate any jingle character which separates this 
species from others (Table 5). Van Soest (1984) 
suggests that -4. biclodotylotus may be 
distinguished from A, souriei in having 2 sizes of 
cladotylotes (see Table 5). but both forms fall well 
within the rauge of those of A. souriei. The same 



argument applies foi all iptcttle components Of A* 
wrier, Acarnus radovani is maintained here &> a 
separate species, with question, in having larger 
atnphitylotes with only slightly swollen ends, 
although Van Soesl (1984) .suggests that it is close 
to, and probably synonymous with .4. souriei. 
Thai distinction is tenuous, and probably 
artificial, but the combination ol ,4. radovani and 
A. souriei would provide Sufficient reason to 
synonymizc all Acarnus (Acanthucamus) species 
on the basis of similarities in spicule morphology 
and size. This problem of clearly and objectively 
differentiating Acarnus species has been 
encountered earlier (A mnominuius and A. 
thietei, A. topsenii and ,4. iortilis). and on the 
basis ol morphological characters alone no easy 
solution is presently available- Combinations of 
specific characters, such as habit, architecture and 
spicule morphology must be used together in 
distingushing species, taking into account known 
ccophenotypk differences between populations, 
and in some cases subjective cnteria are as equally 
important (e.g. colour, texture, gross morphology 
and the appearance of the ectosome). 

Acarnus radovani (Bourv-Esnaull, 1973) 
(Table 5) 

A<:anthQi.arnus radovani Boury-Esnault. W3, p. 284. 

text-fig 43. 
Diagnosis 

Deep violet (m preserved state), encrusting 
sponge, with hispid surface. Ectosomal and 
choanosomal skeletal structure is unknown. 
Ectosomal amphitylotes with only slightly swollen 
ends which arc terminally spined (350-473 X 3-4 
^m). Styles with spined bases, slightly subtylote 
acanihosivlcs abundant with numerous small 
spines on shaft (both styles and acanthostyles: 80- 
il3 x 3-9 /ini). Cladotylotes ot i variety, with 
spined shads (210-218 > 4.5-6 pmi). Toxas of at 
least 2 varieties: I— with reflexed tips, a generous 
central curvature and relatively thick (78-104 x 
3-6 ^m); II— thin, oxeote. with slight central arch 
(230-309 x 1.5 fim). A third variety of toxa. 
probably an intermediate stage is recorded (143- 
204 x 1.5-3 um). Palmate isochelae abundant in 
heavy deposits of spongin (19-22 uift), 

Source; Boury-Esnault (1973) 

Hi Ol OO V 

Habitat unknown- collected from 51 metres 
depth. 

I mo HON 

Tropical Atlantic Ocean (off Recife, Brazil, 
South Atlantic). 



94 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Remarks 

Boury-Esnault (1973) differentiates this species 
from other Acarnus (Acanthacarnus) by the large 
size of the spicules and by the presence of 3 sizes 
of toxas. A comparison with other species (Table 
5) shows that most spicule forms fall within the 
upper size range of most other species, particularly 
the widespread A. souriei. Van Soest (1984) 
records A. souriei with similar categories of toxas 
as A. radovani, which supports his suggestion that 
the two may be synonymous, but they are presently 
maintained as distinct species for reasons discussed 
above. In general, A. radovani has larger 
amphitylotes and cladotylotes than does A. 
souriei. 



Acarnus tener Tanita. 

(Table 5) 



1963 



Acarnus tenerus Tanila, 1963, pp. 123-4, pi. 4, fig. 2, 
text-fig. 2. Hoshino, 1981, p. 144. 

Diagnosis 

Dull reddish-brown (in preserved state), oval 
sponge, more-or-less 'dorso-ventrally' 

compressed, with a lightly hispid surface. Surface 
is rough; ectosome with a tangential layer of 
amphitylotes, with terminal swellings and spines 
on apices (180-320 x 2.5-5 fxm). Choanosomal 
skeletal architecture is plumo-reticulate, and 
slender fibres are cored by styles with basal 
spination (260-340 x 8-10 jum). Fibres echinated 
by numerous acanthostyles (80-130 x 4-6 jim) 
and cladotylotes of 1 variety, with spined shafts 
and4clads(130-190 x 5-6 /xm). Toxas generously 
curved at cente with reflexed tips (70-1 10x2 ^m). 
Palmate isochelae 12-14 /xm long. 

Source: Tanita (1963). 

Ecology 

Growing amongst seaweed {Laurencia); depth 
recorded as shallow to moderately shallow water. 

Distribution 
Japan (Noto Peninsula, Sea of Japan). 

Remarks 

Tanita (1963) erected this species on the basis of 
its shape and the presence of echinating 
acanthostyles. Those characters are now of little 
value in separating species, but A. tener can be 
differentiated from A. bicladotylotus in having 
only a single category of cladotylote and toxa 
(Table 5). It is close to A. souriei s.l. but differs 
from that species in skeletal architecture. 



DISCUSSION 

The intraspecific variability in morphological 
characters shown by some Acarnus makes the 
specific taxonomy of this group difficult and 
unreliable. Limited studies have shown that some 
characters in some species are unstable. Most 
significantly, de Laubenfels (1932), Thomas (1970) 
and Van Soest (1984) found that cladotylotes were 
sometimes absent from specimens of A erithacus 
and A. souriei. Furthermore, Van Soest (1984) 
noted that acanthostyles were absent from one 
Caribbean specimen of A. souriei. Those authors 
were able to assign aberrant specimens to a specific 
taxon through morphological comparisions with 
other material from the same localities. Although 
atypical specimens are reportedly not abundant, 
there exists the possibility that records of single 
specimens from isolated localities, such as A. 
innominatus from Darwin, represent specimens 
with reduced characteristics. Unfortunately there 
is no solution to this problem on the basis of 
known material, and in using a limited number of 
morphological characters of undetermined 
stability. Populations of Acarnus species are not 
abundant in any locality, with the possible 
exception of A. erithacus from the Pacific coast 
of North America, so it is unlikely that a study of 
intraspecific variability, would be successful for 
this group. 

Nevertheless, accepting the limitations of the 
data, it is possible to speculate further on species 
relationships and the zoogeography of Acarnus. 
Conclusions derived from these analyses cannot 
be fully corroborated because conspecificity has 
been assumed from the literature, and not in 
comparison with type-specimens (e.g. 
Wiedenmayer 1977). That material was not 
available to the author. 

In following with current taxonomic 
procedures, the important diagnostic characters 
for the genus are the size, morphology and 
distribution of the echinating cladotylotes, toxas, 
and ectosomal amphitylotes, the basal feature of 
choanosomal styles, the presence or absence of 
echinating acanthostyles, the overall skeletal 
architecture, and the gross morphology of the 
sponge. Other more subjective criteria, such as the 
colour alive, the macroscopic appearance of the 
ectosome, and the degree of infiltration of detritus 
into the choanosome are also important in 
distinguishing allied species. On this basis, it is 
possible to separate 12 species. However, many of 
those species are encrusting in habit, with a 
concomitant reduction in skeletal architecture, and 
consequently the value of some diagnostic 



1< \R\US FROM AUSTRALIA 



J* 



characters is diminished. As a result, the 
morphology of the dadotylote megasclere remains 
the principal characteristic for differentiating 

species, Levi's (1963) proposal for subdividing 
Aiurtius on the basis of ciadotyioie form offers a 
convenient and practical method to fadliate 
identifications. He omits A. tenuis ft i W 
scheme, possibly with good reason due to the 
poorly known charade i I > oies. but 

it is included here on a provisional basis, as it 
resents the only record of the group from 
temperate Australian waters. 

OroUP 1 : with only smooth shafts on cladotylotes 
A. tenia t us Ridley 
A . tenuis Dendy 

Group II: with only spined '-hart:., on cladotylotes 
I IA— without eefunaiing acaiilbostyjcs 
,4. tartilfs Topsent 
*l - tupsetui Dendy 
A iaxeafus Boury-Esnault 
MB — with echinatiflg teaiuhostytefl (sal 

Acanihacamus) 
A. bicladatytotm Hoshino 
.4. souriei (Levi) 

,4. radovemi i Boury-Esnault) 

A tener lanila 

i III: with both smooth and spined 
cladotyl- 

A. erithacUS de Laubcnfcls 
A- inrwminatus Gray 
A. tktelei 1 evi 

1 1 is clear that some species arc more closely 
related than others. Using a restricted set of 
morphological characters (Tabic 6), it is possible 
to construct a cladograni to illustrate these 
relationships (fig. 38). Each number on the 
cladogram indicates an evolutionary change of the 
corresponding character from 5 relatively 
plesiomorphic tO a relatively a] 
The apomorphie characier stales were judged on 
a number of criteria (Table (>, mainly after Van 
Soest 1984. pp. 65, 151 1, the most Mgnificam of 
which arc the reduction of dadotylote ind 
acanthostyle megascleres. 

From Fig. 38. the basic separation of the three 
groups i ated (characters 1,2), which 

corresponds to Levi's (1963) subdivision oi 
genus. From this particular analysis, it is suggested 
that species formerly included in the genus 
Acanthacarnus are more closely related to Atarnus 
group 11 A species than previously recognized * 



: the presence or absence of acanthostyles as 
I he primary characteristic for subdividing The 
genus. Supporting evidence for this opinion is 
suggested t> nplesiomorphy of basal 

spi nation of choanosomal styles, and the 
synapomorphy through reduction of the smooth 
Ciadotyioie megascleres. 

Group 111 species arc subdivided on the basis of 

growth form (No 3; a character of undetermined 

stability and questionable importance), and the 

proportion of acanthose and smooth dadotylote 

megasi b (No. 4). Acarnus erithacus and .4. 

irwom'matus are more plesiomorphic than A. 

thtelei, Synplesiomorphic characters which unite 

Group UB species (viz the possession of 

acanthostyles, spined cladotylotes only, and the 

basal spination of Styles) are more obvious than 

morphie separation of that group. 

I iv for A. tener and A. radovani \$ the 

possession of one category of spined dadotylote 

i only (No. 6). No derived characters are 

presently known to separate those two species in 

analysis, because the ectosomal and 

choanosomal characteristics of A, radovani are 

unknown. Acarnus topsenri nnd A. ion Ms (Group 

IIA) are related to Group KB species by the 

ntioil of ancestral characters (Nos 2,8), which 

is not clear from this analysis, whereas A. t oxen t us 

seems to have lost the basal spination on styles. 

That condition may have arisen independently, as 

it is ivnapomorphi urnus Groups 1 and III. 



five Acarnus species are now known from 
Australian waters, three of which represent new 
locality records (.4. ihielei, A. innominufus, and 
A - iortiih ) U arnus ternaius is well known 
throughout the Indo-Pacifie region, but its 
distribution in Australia is restricted to the tropics. 
Acarnus tenuis was recorded from the Tasman 
Sea, but the species is poorly known. Until 
tedescriptions are made of the presently missing 
type-specimens, or more preferably, redeseriptions 
based on fresh material, .4 tenuis becomes a 
:, inquirenda. 

Several zoogeographical patterns are indicated 
for Acarnus species (Fig 39). Of Group I species, 
A. iernattts shows a separation into iwo disjunct 
populations; Western Indian Ocean, and Indo- 
Paufic, but conspecificity of the two populations 
seems to be dear on the basis of morphological 
characteristics. In following with standard 
taxonomic procedures. Group 1 species should be 
referred to afi the ternaius species group. 

The major component of Group IIA species. 4. 
torfiUs has three discontinuous populations. 



96 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



TABLE 6. Characters used in the construction of Fig 


.38. 


Criteria for judging apomorphy are listed below. 


PLESIOMORPHIC STATE 


APOMORPHIC STATE 


I. At least one category of cladotylote megascleres 
with spined shafts 


1. 


A single category of cladotylote megascleres with 
smooth shafts only 


2. Two varieties of cladotylotes (spined and 
smooth) 


2. 


Smooth cladotylotes not present 


3. Growth from encrusting 


3. 


Digitate, flabellate, or vasiform habit 


4. Cladotylote megascleres are predominantly 
acanthose 


4. 


Acanthose cladotylotes are rare 


5. Acanthostyles present 


5. 


Acanthostyles absent 


6. Two size-categories of acanthose cladotylotes 


6. 


One size-category of acanthose cladotylotes 


7. Toxa microscleres are diverse in form and size, 
with at least 3 categories 


7. 


Reduced complement of toxas, and relatively 
thin 


8. Choanosomal styles or subtylostyles with 
microspined bases 


8. 


Styles or subtylostyles with smooth bases 


9. Strongly developed (horny) spongin fibres 


9. 


Fibres reduced, lightly invested with spongin 
only 

Amphitylotes absent 


10. Ectosomal amphitylotes form a more-or-less 
tangential layer 


10. 



Cladotylotes: In the plesiomorphic state, cladotylotes have both smooth and spined shafts, representing 2 separate 
categories of megascleres, and in the apomorphic state one of the varieties is lost. A reduction in the proportion of 
spined versus smooth cladotylotes, and the number of varieties of spined cladotylotes is considered here as a further 
derived condition. 

Acanthostyles: The retention of acanthostyles echinating a layer of basal spongin and/or spiculo-spongin tracts is 
interpreted as an ancestral condition (Van Soest 1984). 

Styles: The presence of microspines on bases of choanosomal styles or subtylostyles is considered here as a 
plesiomorphic condition. 

Amphitylotes: The possession of a tangential ectosomal skeleton of tylote megascleres is shared with other myxillids, 
and at least one other family of Poecilosclerida (Van Soest 1984), and is probably an ancestral character. 
Synapomorphy is the secondary reduction or loss of amphitylotes. 

Habit: An encrusting growth form is considered here as plesiomorphic, and development of digitate, flabelliform 
or vasiform habit is probably a derived condition. This distinction may be illusory, as the stability of this character 
has not been determined in any study, and ecophenotypic factors and individual maturation must be considered (see 
text). 

Skeletal architecture and fibre development: Van Soest (1984, p. 151) suggests that a reticulate or plumo-reticulate 
skeletal architecture is probably an ancestral condition, shared with several outgroups of the Poecilosclerida. 
Similarly, skeletal fibres which are heavily invested with type B spongin is interpreted here as the plesiomorphic 
state. The importance of this character is debatable (see text), as ecophenotypic factors influencing growth form 
and the consequent skeletal development are probably critical. 

Microscleres: Synapomorphy for the Poecilosclerida s.s. are the chelate microscleres, but synplesiomorphy is probably 
a full and diverse complement of other microscleres, including toxas (Van Soest 1984, p. 151). A reduction in 
heterogeneity of non-chelate microscleres is considered here as an apomorphic condition. 



extending into both northern and southern 
hemispheres: North Atlantic-Mediterranean, 
Western Indian Ocean, and Indo-Pacific 
populations. It is difficult to determine any 
intraspecific variability corresponding to these 
zoogeographical populations, on the basis of 
known material, because only few published 
accounts of A. toriilis describe morphological 



characteristics (see Table 3). There appears to be 
a trend in size reduction of styles from the 
Mediterranean to Indo-Pacific populations (400- 
515, 300-450, 214-334 /xm long respectively for the 
three populations), but that pattern requires 
confirmation from additional data. 

The distribution of A. topsenti is sympatric with 
the Western Indian Ocean population of A. 



ACARNUS FROM AUSTRALIA 



V7 



r 



GROUP II 



"1 



GROUP I IB 



~i 



GROUP 1 1 A 



~i 



r 



GROUP I 




Fig. 38: Cladogram of the relationships between species of Acarnus. Each number on the cladogram indicates an 
evolutionary change of the corresponding character (Table 6) from a relatively plesiomorphic to a relatively 
apomorphic state. 



tortilis, which is further evidence in support of a 
possible combination of the two species (cf . above, 
and Vacelet et al. 1976). Acarnus toxeatus is 
known from a single locality only (tropical South 
Atlantic Ocean). Acarnus group 1IA species 
should be referred to as the tortilis species group. 
Group IIB species are found predominantly in 
the northern hemisphere. Acarnus souriei has a 
disjunct zoogeography, with the separation of 
three populations: Caribbean, Mediterranean- 
West African, and central Western Indian Ocean. 
Van Soest (1984, p. 64) suggests that the Caribbean 
and Mediterranean-West African populations are 
clearly conspecific, although he notes that the 
Mediterranean specimens have larger styles and 
amphitylotes than the tropical specimens. The 
Indian Ocean population is recorded as having a 
lower size range of cladotylote megasclere than the 



Atlantic region populations (54-187, 70-236 ixm 
respectively), but this is probably of minor 
taxonomic significance. Isochelae microscleres are 
relatively homogeneous in size throughout the 
entire geographical range of this species. Van Soest 
(1984) also supports a possible combination of A. 
radovani and A. souriei on the basis that spicule 
sizes for both species correspond closely. 
Populations of A. souriei which are geographically 
closest to A. radovani (viz. Caribbean and West 
African specimens) have significantly smaller 
amphitylotes (1 19-357, 350-473 /tm long 
respectively), and in that respect A. radovani is 
most similar to Mediterranean specimens of A. 
souriei (which have amphitylotes 280-408 ^m 
long). It is possible that the variability is 
taxonomically insignificant, and that the two 
species are conspecific, but for reasons discussed 



98 



MEMOIRS OF THt QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




I i', 39; Zoogeography of Acarnus species COftSpeciflciU i« turned !rom the literature. Refer to texi for sources 
information. 



earlier their specific separation is maintained here. 
Other species in Group HB, A. btcladotylotu.\ and 
.4. tener are known only from the Japan region. 
Group JIB species should he referred lo as the 
souriei species group in preference to subgenus 
Acanthacarnus, as the latter term implies a greater 
degree of taxonomic distance than recognized 
here. 

Group III is represented by one endemic species, 
A. erithacus from the Pacific Coast o( North 
America, and two other species with more 
widespread distributions. Acarnus innominatus is 
widely separated with three discontinuous 
populations: Carribean-Gulf of Mexico, 
temperate South Atlantic -Indian Ocean, and Indo- 
Pacifie. There is a relatively homogeneous 
distribution of morphological characteristics 
throughout the range of this species, although the 
specimen from the Arafura Sea region is more 
similar lo the Caribbean population than to the 
South African specimens in spicule sizes. More 
detailed studies on encrusting sponge faunas 
throughout the Indian Ocean region may show 
that this species has a more extensive distribution 
than is presently known. Acarnus thielei has a 
relatively contiguous distribution across the 
western Indian Ocean to the Indo-Pacific, but 
there seems to be two populations within that 
range. Indian Ocean specimens have small 



isochelae (8-10 ^m long), whereas isochelae of the 
Indo-Paeific specimens are larger (18-25 ^m long) 
(see also Levi 1958). Acarnus innominatus is most 
representative of Group III species, and that group 
should be known as the innominatus species 
group. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I would like to thank Dr L.R.G. Cannon, Dr 
I W.E.Rowe, DrC.C.Lu, and Miss S.M.Stone, 
of the Queensland Museum, Australian Museum, 
Museum of Victoria, and British Museum (Natural 
History), respectively, for providing access to their 
collections. I am grateful toDr R W.M. VanSoest 
for his comments on the manuscript. 

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A i col ado, P., 1976. Lista de rtuevos -egtMr.is Jt 

Poriferos para Cuba. Acad. Sci. Cuba, Ser. 

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Arndt, W. t 1927. Kaik- und Kieselschwamme von 

Curacao. Bijdr. Dierk. Amsterdam. 25: 133-sx, ? 

pls. ( 18 figs. 
Amis.-.. AL.. Stoni . S.. and Smith, B.J., 19H2. 

Catalogue of types of sponge species from southern 

Australia described by Arthur Dendy. Rep, National 

Mus. Victoria 1:97-109. 
Bakus, G.J., 1966. Marine poeciloscleridari ■-{■■ 

the San Juan Archipelago, Washington. Jour. Zooi 

London. 149:415-531, 24 fig! 



ACARNUS FROM AUSTRALIA 



99 



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29 Spongiaries. Ann. Inst, Oceanogr., Paris. 49 

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Western Bahamas.' (Birkhauser, Basel: Stuttgart). 

287 pp., 43 pis. 



ACARNVS FROM AUSTRALIA 



101 




102 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



41 



CXI 

O 

3 
3 




SHH8 






'Ml 




Fig. 41 : Acarnus thielei; exterior surface of specimen NTM Z876 ? showing raised longitudinal surface ridges. 









42 



I 




£ 

E 

O 



Fig. 42. Acarnus thielei; interior surface of specimen NTM Z876, showing relatively smooth, porous surface. 



ACARNUS FROM AUSTRALIA 



103 




43 



£ 

a. 

O 
O 

CM 



Fig 43. Acarnus thielei; photomicrograph of perpendicular section through choanosome of specimen 
NTM Z876. 




Fig. 44. Acarnus innominatus\ encrusting specimen NTM Z2234 in situ on dead coral substrate. 



KM 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



45 




Fig. 45. Acarnus tortiiis; encrusting specimen QM GL1538, 








Fig. 46. Acarnus ternatus; exterior surface of lamellate specimen QM GL2773, 



ACARNUS FROM AUSTRALIA 



105 




Fig. 47. Acarnus ternatus; atypical bulbous-digitate specimen QM GL715. 




Fig 48. Acarnus ternatus; photomicrograph of cross-section through choanosome (specimen QM GL715), showing 
isodictya! reticulation of spiculo-spongin fibres lightly echinated by cladotylotes, and the cavernous architecture. 



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Mem. QdMus. 25(1): 107— 133. [1987] 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES DISCOVERED IN AUSTRALIA: 

REGINATERREUMA, NEOCAMBRISOMA AND PETER JOHNSIA, NEW GENERA 

(MYRIAPODA: DIPLOPODA: CRASPEDOSOMIDA) 



Jean-Paul Mauries 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris 



ABSTRACT 

The order Craspedosomida has been discovered in Australia (Great Dividing Range) and three 
new genera are described. Both Reginaterreuma (from NE Queensland) and Neocambrisoma (from 
NE New South Wales) belong to the suborder Chordeumidea (known also in New Zealand and 
New Guinea) and the latter is the type genus of a new family. Peterjohnsia, also the type genus of 
a new family, was collected in the Bellenden Ker Range (NE Queensland) and is the first 
representative of the suborder Craspedosomoidea to be found in the southern Hemisphere. 



RESUME 

Pour la premiere fois, l'ordre des Craspedosomides est signale en Australie (Great Dividing 
Range) par trois genres nouveaux. Reginaterreuma (du N.E. du Queensland) et Neocambrisoma 
(du N.E. des Nouvelles Galles du Sud), ce dernier generotype d'une famille nouvelle, appartiennent 
au sous-ordre des Chordeumidea (connu de Nouvelle-Zelande et de Nouvelle-Guinee). Peterjohnsia, 
egalement generotype d'une nouvelle famille, a ete recolte dans les montagnes du Bellenden Ker 
(N.E. du Queensland); c'est le premier representant du sous-ordre des Craspedosomoidea dans 
l'Hemisphere Sud. 



INTRODUCTION 

Abundantly represented in all the temperate 
regions of the Northern Hemisphere, the order 
Craspedosomida (= Chordeumida auctorum) is 
rare south of the equator. Till now, it had only 
been reported in Chili (Eudigona and Apodigona), 
New Zealand (Schedothgona) and Indonesia and 
New Guinea (families Heterochordeumidae and 
Metopidiothricidae). Unknown in Africa and 
Madagascar, it was considered absent from 
Australia until Jeekel (1981) collected some 
specimens in New South Wales and Tasmania in 
1980. 

Material deposited in the Queensland Museum 
(QM) contains Craspedosomids collected in 1970 
by H. Williams in SE Queensland (Mt Glorious), 
and in 1975 by R. Monroe and V. Davies north of 
Cairns (NE Queensland). In 1980, at about the 
same time as Jeekel, R. Raven also collected 
specimens in the Coffs Harbour area (New South 
Wales) and a year later, Peter M. Johns of 
Christchurch, investigating soil fauna in the 
Bellenden Ker Range (NE Queensland), collected 
more abundant material. The whole of this 



material (except for Jeekel's, which has been 
treated by Golovatch (in press)) will be examined 
here. Three new genera have been observed, two 
belonging to the suborder Chordeumidea and the 
third to the Craspedosomidea. Some material has 
been deposited in the Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Paris (MNHN). 

Suborder CHORDEUMIDEA 

The existence of the suborder Chordeumidea 
(with the eighth pair of legs reduced and ninth 
gonopods), as distinct from Craspedosomidea 
(with the eighth pair of legs gonopods) (regrouping 
all the other Craspedosomids) is not acknowledged 
by contemporary authors. It is true that it is no 
longer possible to oppose Chordeumidea and 
Craspedosomidea in a Manichean fashion. The 
mode of sperm transfer and the respective role of 
the copulatory legs is not known in the base 
majority of cases and, concerning the relative 
degree of complexity of the eighth and ninth pairs 
of legs of males, examples of intermediate 
structures are numerous, even in the fauna of 
France, the country where this hypothesis of 



107 



108 



MEMOIRS OF THE Qt'LLNM WO MUSEUM 



I -somid dualism originated (Brolemann 
1935). 1 shall maintain this division here Howe i 

even if it has lost the dualistie character it 
originally possessed, since when only taken - i 
working hypothesis u emphasizes, in an obvious 
way, the homogeneity at" the category constituted 
by the European Chordeumidae, the Asian 
Diplomafagnidae, the Indo- Australian 

Heterochordeumidae and Metopidiothricidae, and 
the American Conotylidae (among others). 1 find 
it hard to deny this homogeneity by reducing it to 
convergence, for it is based on a set of gonopodal 
characters, thus making ii less vulnerable on this 
count than if it had been founded on aspects of 
external morphology 

The number of representatives of the 
Chordeumidca already known in the Indo- 
Australian zone, on the one hand by the genus 
Schedotrigona (New Zealand), and on the other 
by the genera Heterochordeuma, Sumaireumu, 
Meiopuiknhrixmd \1alayothn_\ \Uz\. Guinea and 
Indonesia), has been ed by three new 

genera, two Of which are described below 
(Re»muierreutmi of NE Queensland and 
Neocambhsoma of New South Wales t The third, 
Austrak'umu (from Tasmania) is described by 
Gulovateh (in press) Furthermore, ibis author has 
noted the presence of the genus Schedotrigona in 
Tasmania. These findings-, which fill in a i 
geographical ^ap, <-eem to establish a link between 
the forms already mentioned above, and so 
are grouped together in the same superfamily 
Hclcrochordeuinoidea. 

This new arrangement, that appears further in 
this text, marks an important change with respect 
to the system presented by Mauries. 1978 Thus, 
the family Sehedotrigonidae was placed in a 
distinct superfamily of the Diplomaragnoidea, 
with the family Diplomaragnidae. 

The aim o\ this work is to review current 
knowledge about this superfamily 3£ well as to 
describe new findings, 

Superfamily Hfterochorhelinioidea (Pocock. 
1894) 

Diagnosis 

Chordeumidca (eighth pair: reduced 
peltosonopods; ninth pair: differentiated coxo- 
prefemer and voluminous remains of lelopodite) 
with tenth pair modified to store sperm and 
produce spermatophores (broad sternite, 
transformed tracheal sacs, reduced telopodites). 

The other superfamilies of Chordeumidca can 
be broken down into two groups: one containing 
those in which the tenth pair of legs in males is not 



modified (Diplomat agnoidea, Conotyloidea, 
Acrochordoidca) and the other in which not only 
the tenth pair, buf also the eleventh and seventh 
pairs of legs in males are modified 
(Chordeumoidea) 

Kf V TO Hr.TFRCH HORDFAiMOIDA F.\MI| |ES 

(Based on male sexual characters) 

1. Tenth pair of legs, with reduced ielopodir.es 
but with nearly unmodified sternites and 

coxites 

- . Heterochordeumidae (Pocock. 1894). 

Tenth pair of legs, with highly modified 

coxites and sternites 2 

2. No flagelia on either the eighth or ninth pair 

Metopidiothricidae (Anems, 1907). 

One pair of flagelia on the caudal side of 
eighth pair of legs... Neocambrisoinidae now 

One paiT of tlagclla at the base of ninth pair 

of legs (oral side).. 

Sehedotrigonidae Mauries, 1 978 . 

I !. HETEKOCMORrjEUMJDAE (Pocock, 1894) 

Our most recent information concerning this 

family is due to Hoffman (1963), who revised the 

types. The two genera Heterovhordeuma Pocock, 

1894 and Sumatreuina Hoffman, 1963 have very 

pie gonopodal structures. This aspect makes 

them undoubtedly the mosi archaic of all the 

Chordeumoidea, and even the placement of this 

ily in the superfamily can be seriouslv 

questioned, sin«:e the tenth pair of legs in the male 

are far less specialized than in the following 

lies. 

Fam. Metopidiothricidae (Attems, 1907) 

Known for six species separated into two poorly 
defined genera, Metopidioihrix Atterns. 1907 and 
Malayothrix Verhoeff, 1929. This family had 
previously been found in Java, Sumatra, New 
Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago (see 
bibliography in Mauries, 1978) and Vietnam 
(Golovatch, pers. comm,). The new Australian 
genus described below obviously belongs to this 
family. 

Reginaterreuma n.g . 

Diagnosis 

Chordeumidea (eighth pair peltogonopods. 
ninth pair gonopods), Heterochordeumoidea 
(tenth pair paragonopods), Metopidiothricidae {no 
flagelia on eighth or ninth pairs), differing from 
i he other genera mainly in that Its peltogonopods 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



109 



(eighth pair of male) are reduced to a small 
unpaired sternal shield. On the gonopods (ninth 
pair), the coxal differentiations are at last bifid. 
Adults have 32 rings, preadults 30. 

Of interest is the frequency (undoubtedly due to 
the favourable collecting time) of spermatophores 
both in males (on the tenth pair of legs) and in 
females. These spermatophores seem to have been 
made by coagulation in sacs attached to the 
tracheal tracts of the male tenth pair of legs. The 
walls of these sacs are membranous, but certain 
parts are sclerotized, which gives to each species a 
characteristic shape of sphermatophore. 

Type Species 
Reginaterreuma monroei n.sp. 

Etymology 

Reginaterra, Latin for 'Queensland', and the 
suffix l euma\ which has no particular meaning, 
but is frequently used in the suborder for the sake 
of uniformity with the oldest name Chordeuma. 

Reginaterreuma monroei n.sp. 

Material Examined 

Holotype: Australia, NE. Queensland, Mount Finiay 
(15°50'S/145°13'E), Nov.29-Dec.4, 1975, R. Monroe 
and V. Davies, 18 (QM S.1460) 

Paratype: Same data as holotype, 1 ? (QM S. 1461 ). 

Other Material: Same area as types, Shiptons Flat 
(15°48'S/145°15'E), Nov. 16-21, 1975, R. Monroe and 
V. Davies, \ f 12 1 juvenile (QM S.1462). Same area, 
'12 miles Scrub', litter (J5°50'S/145 o 19'E), 1' 1 = 
juvenile (MNHN DB.33). 

Description 

Overall colour light brown, rather evenly 
speckled, ventrally lighter. 

Head: convex head capsule, covered with short, 
fine setae; prominent mandibular stipes. 
Gnathochilarium: mentum and promentum. 

Antennae with slightly clavate antennomeres, 
0.8 mm long on the & holotype (0.02+ 0.10 + 
0.24+ 0.16+ 0.18+ 0.12+ 0.02 mm.); the length 



of antennal 'club' (distal part, straight and clavate, 
of antenna, from the 5th antennomere on) is 6.5 
times their width. 

Eyes with few ocelli (9-13) arranged in five or 
six rows of 1-3 ocelli forming a small 
anteroposterior^ elongated, pigmented patch. 

Collum in half circle, with 3 + 3 thick 
macrosetae arranged in a circular arc, equidistant 
from each other on either side, the innermost being 
located midway between the middle one and the 
middorsal groove. 

Midbody rings: narrow middorsal groove; 
metatergal laterodorsal shoulders only slightly 
developed but very distinct, the posterior profile 
revealing two indentations inserted between the 
macrosetae; the latter (3 + 3) are long and thick, 
the outermost being longer than the middle one 
which is longer than the innermost; they are placed 
quite laterally, and each is equidistant from other 
on either side; but the distance between the 
innermost and the middorsal groove is three times 
that between it and the middle macrosetae; the 
three form a 160° angle. 

Epiproct with a pair of dorsal macrosetae; the 
caudal side is almost straight and bears the usual 
pair of spinnerets; lateral posterior edge with two 
setae on each side. 

Legs are slightly longer than the vertical 
diameter of the body (0.70 mm in the male 
holotype); 54 pairs in adults. 

Male Sexual Characters: Convex head. 44 
pairs of legs posterior to the transformed legs. 
Nothing particular about first to seventh pairs 
(neither gibbosities nor processes) except that they 
are a bit sturdier than the other legs. 

Eight pair (peltogonopods, Fig. 1) reduced to a 
simple unpaired shield of coxosternal origin; 
telopodites tiny stumps, no flagella. 

Ninth pair (gonopods, Figs 1-2) like those 
characteristic of most Heterochordeumoidea, 
having a voluminous telopodite forming an 
incrassate oval, carried by a simple stalk 
(prefemur). They can be distinguished by the part 



TABLE 1. Reg 


inaterreuma monroei: Measurements (mm 


, number of 


rings (N) and ocelli. 




N 


Length 


Vertical 
diameter 


Width 


Collum 
width 


Antenna 
length 


Ocelli 


Mt. Finiay ? holotype 
Mt. Finiay - paratype 
Shiptons Flat T 
Shiptons Flat -- 
12 mile Scrub S 
12 mile Scrub 
12 mile Scrub *j. 


32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
30 


7 

8 

7.5 

8.5 

9 

8.5 

5.7 


0.60 
0.70 
0.65 
0.75 
0.70 
0.80 
0.60 


0.80 

0.85 

0.85 

0.95 

0.85 

1 

0.70 


0.45 
0.50 
0.50 
0.55 
0.50 
0.60 
0.35 


0.80 

0.80 

0.85 

0.90 

0.90 

1 

0.75 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 
11(1.2.2.3.2.1) 
12(1.2.3.2.3.1) 
10(1.1.2.2.3.1) 
13(1.2.3.3.2.2) 
10(1.1.2.3.2.1) 
9(1.2.3.2.1) 



no 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Figs 1-4. Reginaterreuma monroei n.g., n.sp., J holotype: 1. eighih pair (peltogonopods, in foreground) and ninth 
pair (gonopods), oral view; 2. isolated 9th left leg, oral view; 3. tenth pair, oral view, with spermatophore in 
place; 4. caudal view of the same. 



CRASPEDQSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



II 



that is of coxal origin, which here is divided into 
two processes of unequal length; the anterior one 
(K) is long, with its extremity curving distad, and 
a posterior one (k) clearly much shorter. 

Tenth pair (paragonopods. Figs 3-4) spindly 
four-jointed telopodites (T 10), bent between the 
first and second article and again between the third 
and fourth; the coxosternum forms mediad, a pair 
of horns fused at the base and diverging distally, 
as long as the first tclopodite article. The tenth 
pair of legs are especially interesting because, on 
the caudal side, can be found a pair of ample and 
deep membranous sacs (sp), probably of tracheal 



origin and having walls supported by a vague 
framework of thick sclerotized material. These 
pockets undoubtedly serve as a sperm receptacle 
and also produce a pair of spermatophores, each 
made of an agglomeration of coagulable 
substances and spermatids or spermatozoids. 

Eleventh pair : no coxal glands nor any other 
special trait. 

Female Sexual Characters: The 
spermatophores mentioned above have also been 
found in female genital tracts. They have kept the 
shape they acquired in the receptacles on tenth pair 
of legs of the male (compare Figs 3 and 6). In the 



. i ■ i 





Figs 5-7. Reginaterreuma monroei n.g., n*sp., paratype: 5. base of second pair, vulvae, and spermatophores seen 
within the righi receptacle; 6. isolated spermatophore, removed from its receptacle (mesal view): 7. the same 
external lateral View. 



112 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



females, they have been observed placed 
posteriorly to the vulvae, on a level with the 
posterior edge of the fourth ring. Instead of being 
in a dilatation of the oviduct wall, they appear to 
be in a cul-de-sac opening between the sternite of 
second pair of legs and the vulvae (Fig. 5). The 
latter are characterized mainly by the internal 
valves being fused sagitally into a single posterior 
median unpaired plate. 

Etymology 
This species is named after one of the collectors. 

Reginaterreuma daviesae n.sp. 

Material Examined 

Holotype: Australia, NE. Queensland, Mount Bartle 
Frere, NW. Centre Peak Ridge, rainforest (sieved litter), 
alt. 1400-1500 m., Oct. 7 and 8, 1981, Berlese No. 358, 
U (QMS. 1464). 

Paratypes: QM S.1465, 2v, same data as holotype. 
QMS. 1466, 1 J, 2£, same locality, Nov. 7 and 8, 1981. 

Description 

Overall colour brown, with lines of whitish 
spots: one laterodorsal pair of lines (on the 
prozonite at the macrosetae levelO and one 
lateroventral pair. Especially the head but 
sometimes also the collum, epiproct and 
paraprocts are yellow-orange. Species larger than 
the precedent one. 

Metatergal shoulders as in R. monroei but with 
macrosetae almost in a row . The latter are 
equidistant from each other and distance between 
the innermost and the middorsal groove is 2.6 
times that between the setae. 

Male Sexual Characters: Third to seventh 
pairs of legs with telopodites barely thicker than 
the other legs, as in R, monroei^ but here coxal 
processes are found, pronounced on fifth and 
sixth, insignificant on seventh pairs. 

Eighth pair (peltogonopods, Fig. 9) shorter and 
narrower than in R. monroei with no trace of 
telopodital stumps, but with a wider base. The 
extremity, moderately bifid and bearing several 



short setae, is enlarged subdistad by an anterior 
transversal crest (a). 

Ninth pair (gonopods, Fig. 8) chiefly 
distinguished by the shape of the distal part of the 
large coxal process (K). Here, the bend followed 
by a seminal (?) groove, is ornamented on the 
exterior (therefore distad) by a languet (g). The 
small coxal process (k) has a mushroom-shaped 
extremity. 

Tenth pair (paragonopods, Figs 10-11) as in R. 
monroei but with a very elongated prefemur and 
the stumpy telopodal remains. Spermatophore 
receptacles much shorter than in R. monroei. 

Eleventh-thirteenth pairs of legs with ventral 
extensions on coxites, slight on eleventh pair, fairly 
long and wide on twelfth, fairly long and narrow 
on thirteenth. 

Female Sexual Characters: Vulvae (Fig. 13) 
fairly similar to those in R. monroei but with a 
broader unpaired median posterior plate formed 
by the fusion of the internal valves of each vulva. 
Here the coxites of the second pair of legs have 
slight dorsointernal extensions. Fig. 14 shows a 
spermatophore taken from the genital tract of a 
female : it differs from those observed in R. 
monroei in its general shape and the smaller 
surface of the granular zone where the sexual cells 
seem to be concentrated (compare with Fig. 3 and 
6). 

Etymology 

Species cordially dedicated to Valerie Davies, 
past Curator of Arachnids at the Queensland 
Museum. 

Reginaterreuma unicolor n.sp. 

Material Examined 

Holotype: Australia, NE. Queensland, Bellenden Ker 
Range, Westgid Creek (North Branch), alt. 100 m., 
Berlese No. 351 (sieved litter), Nov. 1, 1981, U (QM 
S.1467) 

Paratypes: Same data as holotype, IS 29 3^j. (QM 
S.1468), 1 M : paratypes (MNHNDB 33). Same locality, 
same data, Uj., 1 : . (QM S. 1470), Berlese No. 353. 



TABLE 2. Reginaterreuma daviesae: Measurements (mm), number of rings (N) and ocelli 





N 


Length 


Vertical 
diameter 


Width 


Ocelli 


J holotype 

1 paratype 
i paratype 
9 paratype 
S paratype 
i paratype 


32 

32 
32 
32 
32 
32 


8 

9 
10 
10.5 

10.5 
11.5 


1 

0.8 

1.2 

1.2 

1 

1.1 


1.2 
1 

1.4 
1.4 
1.2 
1.4 


18(1.2.3.4.4.4) 

18(1.2.3.4.4.4) 

19(2.3.4.5.5) 

22(1.2.3.3.4.4.5) 

19(1.2.3.4.4.5) 

19(1.2.3.4.5.4) 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



113 




Figs 8-10. Reginaierreuma daviesae n.g., n.sp., ' holotype: 8. isolated ninth left leg, oral view; 9. eighth pair, 
caudal view; 10. tenth pair, oral view (telopodites and sternite). 



114 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Other Material: Same area, Bellenden Ker Range, 
Cablewav Base Station, ah. 100 m., Oct. 17-24, 1981, 
2 ! 2 (QM S.I471). Same locality, Berlese No. 306, 1 i 
2j. (QM S.1472). Same area. Hilltop 5.5 km north of 
Mount Lewis, alt. 1200 m., Berlese No. 299, Sept. 13, 
1981, G. Monteith and D. Cook, 1 ' (QM S.1473). 

Description 

A more or less mottled brownish color all over, 
often with lighter laterodorsal and lateroventral 
spots as in R. daviesae, but here the head, 
epiprocts and paraprocts aTe brown. 



The two young females collected (Berlese No. 
306) have 15 rings 16 legpairs and 3(1,2) ocelli. 

Male Sexual Characters: First-seventh 
pairs of legs have no modifications, not even in 
the coxites. 

Eight pair (peltogonopods, Fig. 15) platelike, 
very similar to those of R. daviesae : anterior 
concavity bordered distad by two short divergent 
arms (a = homologous to the transversal crest of 
R. monroei); the extremity forms two elongated 
parasagittal lobes that fit in between the prefemurs 
of the ninth pair (gonopods). 




Figs 11-12. Reginaterreuma daviesae n.g., n.sp., ' holotype: II. tenth pair with spermatophore (right side) in its 
place in sac, oral view; 12. spermatophore removed from sac on the tenth pair, seen from internal side. 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



115 





Fios 13-14. Reginmerreuma daviesae n.g., n.sp., - paratype: 13. base of second pair and vulvae, caudal view; 14. 
spermatophore removed from extravulvar receptacle, seen from internal side. 



TABLE 3. Reginaterreuma unicohr: Measurements (mm), number of rings (N) and ocelli 





N 


Length 


Vertical 

diameter 


Width 


Ocelli 


Loc. tip. * holotype 
f paratype 
I paratype 
paratype 
paraiype 
paratype 
*j. paratype 
j. paratype 
Berl. 353 \i. paratype 


32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
30 
30 
30 


10 

7.5 

7 

9 
10.3 

9 

7 

7 

5.5 


0.80 

0.80 

0.70 

1 

1 

0.80 

0.70 

0.75 

0.70 


1.10 

1.10 
0.95 
1.30 

1.30 

1.10 

0.95 

1 

0.85 


17(1.2.3.4.4.3) 

16(1.2.3.4.3.3) 

14(1.2.3.4.3.1) 

17(1.2.3.3.4.4) 

17(1.2.3.4.4.3) 

17(1.2.3.4.4.3) 

14(1.2.3.4.4) 

14(1.2.3.4.4) 

12(1.2.3.3.2.1) 



Ninth pair (gonopods. Fig. 16): distal segment 
of the telopodite longer than in R. monroei. The 
coxal process (K) bears an accessory branch (k*) 
on its posterior side. 

Tenth pair (paragonopods. Figs 17-18) with 
telopodites reduced to a slender prefemur (which 
is slightly clavate distad) bearing a vestigial bud 
on its extremity. Coxal horns of slight length. No 
spermatophore has been observed in this species. 

Eleventh pair: coxites without coxal sacs and 
with a distal projection covered with a tuft of long. 



thick hairs. The coxites of the more posterior legs 
have large, siraight, unprotruding distal edges. 

Pke-adult Male Characters: Figs 19-21 
represent the eighth, ninth and tenth pairs of legs 
of the only preadult male collected. He has 30 rings 
and 48 leg pairs. The eighth pair is practically 
reduced to sternites; on the ninth, the coxites show 
no differentiation; on the tenth, the future adult 
paramedian horns appear like small internal coxal 
laminae (k). 



116 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Figs 15-18. Reginaterreuma unicolom.%., n.sp., T holotype: 15. isolated eighth pair, oral view; 16. ninth right leg, 
oral view; 17. 10th pair and spermatophore, caudal view; 18. tenth pair, oral view. 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



117 



Female Sexual Characters: Vulvae (Fig. 22) 
closely resemble those of the other species; but the 
sagittal welding of the internal valves is less 
obvious and the median posterior plate is narrower 
than that of R. daviesae, although the coxites of 
the second pair are similar to those of the latter 
species. 



Reginaterreuma major n.sp. 

Material Examined 

Holotype: Australia, NE. Queensland, Bellenden Ker 
Range, summit, TV Station, alt. 1560 m., Oct. 23-31, 
1981. 1' (QMS. 1474). 

Paratypes: Same data as holotype, 2* 109 (QM 
S.1475), U IS (MNHN, DB 33). Same locality, 




FiGS 19-22. Reginaterreuma unicolom.g., n.sp., preadult '■ and i paratype: 19. ninth pair of preadult ?; 20. eighth 
pair of the same; 21. tenth pair of the same; 22. base of second pair, vulvae (oral view) and right receptacle of 
a female paratype. 



118 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



rainforest, sieved litter, Nov. 1-7, 1981, BerleseNo. 338, 
2/ 22 lj. (QM S.1476). Same loc, same date, Berlese 
No. 335 (QM S.1477) 12. Same loc, same date, 
rainforest, stick brushings, Berlese No. 342, 1 2 (QM 

S.1478). 

Description 

As shown by the measurements (Table 4) this 
species is the largest of the four. Both its habitus 
and colouration are similar to those of the others. 
It is brownish, darker than the other species, with 
clearly distinct whitish lateroventral and 
laterodorsal stripes; the head is orange-yellow, like 
that of R. daviesae, but the epiproct is brown and 
the paraproct white. 

The position of macrosetae and the shape of the 
metatergal shoulders are like those of daviesae. 

Male Sexual Characters: Third-seventh 
pairs are a bit sturdier than the other leg pairs. 

Eighth pair (peltogonopods, Fig. 23), resemble 
those of monroeiy but are different in that they 
have a transverse ridge located just above the 
middle oral side (a). This ridge is also found in R. 
daviesae and R. unicolor, but its position and 
shape are different. 

Ninth pairs (gonopods, Fig. 23) almost identical 
to those of monroei. There is only a difference in 
the shape of the short posterior coxal branch (k), 
whose distal half narrows sharply. 

Tenth pair (paragonopods, Figs 24-25) with 
four-segmented weak telopodites, the first segment 
of which is longer than the other three. Slender 
paramedian coxosternal horns. Wide 
spermatophore receptacle sacs like those in R. 
daviesae. 

Eleventh-thirteenth pairs as in R. unicolor. 

Female Sexual Characters: In their general 
appearance, the vulvae (Fig. 26) are very similar 



to those in unicolor, but here there is not visible 
trace of the sagittal welding of the unpaired plate 
(formed by the union of both internal valves). 
Worth noting is the existence, under the cul-de-sac 
formed by the receptacle, of a glandular formation 
(g) that seems to be connected to the tracheal sacs 
of the second pair of legs by means of a sinuous 
groove on the oral side. Fig. 27 shows the 
spermatophore taken from the left side (exactly 
the same one that is seen in Fig. 26; here it is 
presented medially. 

Fam. Neocambrisomidae nov. 
Diagnosis 

Chordeumidea (eighth pair : peltogonopods, 
ninth pair gonopods), Heterochordeumoidea 
(tenth pair paragonopods) characterized by the 
presence of a pair of long flagella set on the caudal 
side of the base of the peltogonopods. 

Type-Genus 
Neocambrisoma n.g. 

Key to Genera 

Eighth pair (peltogonopods) marked mediad by a 
thick unpaired process. Metazonites with smooth 
teguments Neocambrisoma n.g. 

Eighth pair (peltogonopods) mediad lacking an 
unpaired process. Metazonites with rough 
teguments Australeuma Golovatch (in press). 

Neocambrisoma n.g. 

Diagnosis 

Heterochordeumoidea, Neocambrisomidae 
with the eighth pair of legs (peltogonopods) having 



TABLE 4. Reginaterreuma major: Measurements (mm), number of rings (N) and ocelli. 





N 


Length 


Vertical 

diameter 


Width 


Ocelli 


f holotype 


32 


13 


0.9 


1.3 


17(1.2.3.4.4.3) 


£ paratype 


32 


11 


0.8 


- 


16(1.2.2.3.4.4) 


? paratype 


32 


9.5 


0.8 


- 


19(1.2.3.4.5.4) 


& paratype 


32 


11 




1.25 


19(1.2.3.4.5.4) 


paratype 


32 


14 


1.1 


1.5 


19(1.2.3.4.5.4) 


I paratype 


32 


13.5 


1.2 


- 


17(1.2.3.4.4.3) 


s paratype 


32 


10.5 


1.1 


- 


18(1.2.3.4.4.4) 


2 paratype 


32 


11 


1.2 


- 


18(1.2.3.4.4.4) 


■ paratype 


32 


7 


1.1 


- 


15(1.2.3.3.3.3) 


paratype 


32 


13 


1.1 


- 


19(1.2.3.4.5.4) 


8 paratype 


32 


13.5 


1.1 


- 


18(1.2.3.4.4.4) 


l paratype 


32 


12 


1.1 


1.5 


17(1.2.3.4.3.2.2) 


9 paratype 


32 


14 


1.2 


- 


17(1.2.3.4.4.3) 


paratype 


32 


11 


1 2 


- 


18(1.2.3.4.4.4) 



CRASPEDOSOM1D MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRA1 IA 



119 



0.1 '«" 




Figs 23-25. Reuinaterreuma major n.g., n.sp., ! holoiype: 23. eighth and ninth pairs, oral view: 24. tenth pair, oral 
view; 25. tenth pair, with right spermatophore, caudal view. 



120 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



sturdy flagella and a pronounced unpaired median 
projection. The ninth pair of legs (gonopods) with 
coxal process forming a rectangular lamina. The 
10th pair with telopodites that are extended but 
have only two to four segments (stumps in 
Australeuma). Smooth metazonites, with 3 + 3 
thick macrosetae. 32 rings in both sexes. 



Neocambrisoma raveni n.sp. 

Material Examined 

Holotype: Australia, New South Wales, Coffs 
Harbour, Bruxner Forest Park, Nov. 12, 1980, R.J. 
Raven, \S (QMS. 1479). 

Paratypes: Same data as holotype, 33 l<?j. 82 1 j. 
(QMS. 1480); 1J 15 l£j. (MNHN DB 33). 



Type-Species 
Neocambrisoma raveni n.sp. 

Etymology 

Neocambria, Latin for New Wales, and the 
Greek latinized suffix soma : body. 



Description 

Colour: dark brown middorsal stripe between 
two lighter, narrow laterodorsal stripes, brown on 
the metazonites, whitish on the prozonites. The 
ventral part of the flanks is light brown on the 
prozonites, whitish on the metazonites. Legs are 





Figs 26-27. Reginaterreuma major n.g., n.sp., 2 paratype: 26. base of second pair, vulvae (oral view) and right 
receptacle with spermatophore; 27 '. spermatophore removed from receptacle, mesal view. 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



121 



light brown, growing darker distad. Epiproct is 
entirely dark brown (paraprocts are lighter). Head 
capsule and cheeks are light brown, clypeolabrum 
is whitish, with a yellow patch between the 
antennae. 

Convex head capsule, densely covered with 
short, fine setae; prominent mandibular stipes; 
trident labrum; gnathochilarium (Fig. 36) with 
trapezoidal mentum separated from the stipes by 
a small triangular area. Antennae whose 
antennomeres, especially the most distal ones, are 
slightly clavate and measure 1.2 mm on the male 
holotype (0.05 + 0.18 + 0.30 + 0.20 + 0.27 + 
0.17 + 0.13 mm) and 1.4 mm on the largest 
female. The length of the antennal 'club' is 5.5 
times its width. 

Eyes: few ocelli (14-17 in adults), arranged in 
an anteroposterior^ extended pigmented field, in 
six or seven (rarely eight) transversal rows of one 
to four ocelli (see above table). 

Collum in a half circle with rounded angles; the 
3 + 3 macrosetae are equidistant from each other 
on each side and the innermost is located exactly 
between the middle one and the middorsal groove. 

Midbody rings: narow, distinct middorsal 
groove; metatergal shoulders in a laterodorsal 
position, nearly forming keels and bearing three 
longTnacrosetae (0.3 mm on the male holotype), 
that are thick and curved slightly backwards. They 
are placed in a transverse line on the posterior rings 
but form an open angle (about 150°) on the 
midbody ones; on each side, they are nearly 
equidistant from each other and the distance 
separating them is half that between the innermost 
and the middorsal groove. 



Epiproct as in Reginaterreuma. 

The length of the legs equals the width of the 
body (1.1 mm in the 5 holotype); the adult has 54 
pairs (the thirtieth ring is hemiapodous, i.e. has 
only one pair of legs). 

Aduli Male Sexual Characters: Sixth and 
seventh pairs thicker than the others pairs. 
Deformed tarsus and prefemur (Fig. 28). 

Eighth pair (peltogonopods, Figs 29-30) 
reduced to a sternite projected by a large unpaired 
median process surrounded by two vestigal 
telopodites (T8), but noteworthy mainly for the 
existence of a pair of sturdy flagella (F) on the 
caudal side of its sternal band. Among millipedes, 
flagella, similar in structure and also located on 
the caudal side of the eighth pair, are frequent in 
Iulids and Blaniulids, and exist in Cambalids, 
certain Craspedosomids and, in Chordeumids only 
in the genus Lankasoma. 

Ninth pair (gonopods, Fig. 3) characteristic of 
those found in many Chordeumidea, in particular 
because their telopodite (T9) forms an incrassate, 
elongated mass attached to a simple prefemoral 
stem (pf). The coxal process (K) appears as a 
simple subrectangular lamina with its internal edge 
slightly thickened and without any trace of a 
groove or furrow as in Reginaterreuma. 

Tenth pair (paragonopods, Fig. 32) with 
reduced, three-segmented telopodites (T10), each 
flanked on its oral side by a slightly shorter 
falciform process (0; two enormous sacs (sp) are 
invaginated in the sternite (wide rectangular band); 
these sacs are surrounded and supported by 
tracheal tracts, and as in Reginaterreuma, they 



TABLE 5. Neocambhsoma raveni: Measurements (mm), number of rings (N) and ocelli, 





N 


Length 


Vertical 

diameter 


Width 


Ocelli 


£ holotype 


32 


12 


0.85 


1.1 


17(1.2.3.3.3.2.2.1) 


r paratype 


32 


13.5 


0.80 


- 


15(1.3.3.2.3.3) 


* paratype 


32 


11.5 


0.80 


- 


14(2.2.2.3.3.2) 


? paratype 


32 


10.5 


0.90 


- 


15(1.2.3.3.3.3) 


5 paratype 


32 


10.8 


0.80 


- 


17(1.3.3.3.3.4) 


■ f j. paratype 


30 


9.5 


0.75 


- 


12(1.2.2.2.2.3) 


Jj. paratype 


30 


9 


0.75 


0.95 


12(1.2.3.2.2.2) 


paratype 


32 


11 


0.90 


1.20 


16(1.2.3.3.3.2.2) 


paratype 


32 


11.5 


0.95 


1.40 


16(1.2.3.3.3.2.2) 


? paratype 


32 


11 


1 


- 


15(1.2.3.3.3.2.1) 


paratype 


32 


11.7 


0.80 


- 


15(1.2.3.3.3.2.1) 


. paratype 


32 


11.7 


0.80 


- 


14(2.3.3.3.3) 


. paratype 


32 


10.8 


0.90 


- 


16(1.2.1.3.3.3.3) 


i paratype 


32 


9.7 


0.75 


- 


15(1.2.2.2.3.3.2) 


:. paratype 


32 


11.5 


0.70 


- 


15(1.2.3.3.3.3) 


paratype 


32 


10.5 


0.95 


- 


15(1.2.3.3.3-3) 


j. paratype 


30 


8 


0.70 


- 


13(1.2.2.2.3.3) 



122 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Figs 28-32. Neocambrisoma raveni n.g., n.sp., * holotype: 28. telopodite and coxite of 7th pair; 29. 8th pair, oral 
view; 30. same, caudal view; 31. ninth right leg, oral view; 32. tenth pair, oral view. 



t R IS ■•■ 0A-//0 Mil 1 1 PEDES IN 



123 



obviously play a part in sperm storage prior to 
spermatophore production. 

Pre Ami r Mai l Sexual Cha* The 

young males with 30 rings have 48 leg pairs (38 
pairs posterior to the paragonopods). They 
therefore have 3 apodous rings (including the 
epiproct) and one hemiapodous ring. 

Eighth pair (Tig. 34) reduced to a low crescent- 
shaped band on which can be found buds of coxa! 
origin (f) that will grow into the adult's flagella. 
Telopodite traces it) can be recognized by the 
pigmentary spots, each with a tuft of setae. 

Ninth pair (Fig. 33) aJreadj showing adult 

structure, except that the last segment of the 

telopodite, is less voluminous and the prefemur is 

ler and sturdier. The coxite is split 

iLidinally along the caudal side. 

Tenth pair (Fig. .15) with an unmodified sternite, 

i cs without coxal glands and telopodites 

reduced to six segments, the three most distal being 

clearly regressive. 

Female Slxual CHAfcACTERs: Pig. 37 shows 

the vulvae, which have no special characteristics. 

a-vulvar structures similar to those found in 

Kc^irmterreuma females have not been observed 

here. 

Bl W.KU OGY 

Species cordially dedicated to its collector, the 
Curator of Arachnology at the Queensland 
Museum, Robert J. Raven. 

Ne»cambrisoina sp. 

; i m Examined 

Australia, st. Queensland, Mount Glorious; litter, 
Oct. 2A 1070, H. Williams, I ; i-n. (QM); ^me area, 
Nov. I*. 1970, H.W., I ! (QM>. 

K< M \Rk;s 

In all probability a new species, that will 

described when the adult male is discovered. 

Fam. ScHFnoTRk.oMDAF Mauries* 1978 

This monogeneric family was previously known 
only in New Zealand (cf. Maudes, 1978). A new 
species Schedottigona lastnantca Goiovatch (in 
press) has been discovered by Jeekel in Tasmania. 

Suborder CRASPEDOSOMIDEA 

The CraspeUo.sornidea are known in the 
temperate and certain subtropical zones o\ the 
Northern Hemisphere, hut have not been 
previously recorded in the Southern Hemisphere. 
The closest records to Australia are from southern 
India [Pygmeosoma) and Japan 



{Macrochueieuma). It was therefore a great 
surprise for the author to discover a 
^pedosomid in material collected from the 
mountains south of Cairns (Bellenden Ker Range. 
Bartle Frere) by Professor Peter M. Johns. It 
seems confine . area and is without doubt 

a new genus, Pt'itrjohn^iu. very warmly dedicated 
discoverer 
This new genus is easily placed in the 
superfamily Cleidogt moidea (a large group of both 
Palearctic and Nearctic tamilie | diagnosis 

and contents are still far from fixed and agreed on 
bv the specialists (see Shear 1979; Hoffman 1979; 
Mauris 19S2; Mauries $ Geoffroy 1983). In light 
of these difficulties and on the basis, taken 
arbitrarily, of Shear's diagnosis of the superfamily 
(1979) and those of Mauries for the family (1981), 
a new family was created for the new genus 
Pcferjohnsia. 

Superfamily Ct.tmoc.oNoiOFA (Cook, IS%) 
DlAON 

Eighth pair of legs of the male (gonopodsh 
forming a block that is generally more or less 
transversely divided into two parts: an anterior 
part (sternite and angiocoxke) and a posterior part 
(eolpocoxite and telopodite); the telopodite is 
always regressive (consisting of no more than a 
short stem or flagellum or small shield, or fused 
with the eolpocoxite. The ninth pair of legs of the 
male (paragonopods) regressive usually simple. 
Gnathochilarium : mentum and promenium. 
VJults have 26-32 ring--.. 

A list Of families accompanied by their 
diagnoses were given by Mauries (1982). These 
diagnoses are based essentially on gonopodal 
structures (eighth pair o\ legs o\ the male) and 
main the relative development oi three 

essential parts • a) telopodite, b) eolpocoxite, c) 
angiocoxke * sternite. and on the telopodites 
shape, position and degree ol autonomy. The aim 
oi' the SUCCint key below, which uses these 
characteristics. Is to place -v. family in 

relation to the Dttai 

Ktv ro Cl i I koi 10 

1. Eighth pairs of legs of the male ; telopodite more 
or less fused with the eolpocoxite making it 
difficult or impossible to distinguish 

Families Amliogomdae, Cleidogonidae, 

Rhiscosomididac, Tingupidae, Trichopetalidae. 

Eighth pair . telopodite forming a flagellum, short 
stem, small plate or stump 2 

2. Eighth pair : telopodite forming a flagellum or 
short stem, set laterally but inside the gonopodal 



124 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 





FIGS 33-37. Neocambrisoma raveni n.g., n.sp., preadult r and - , paratypes: 33. ninth pair of preaduh male, caudal 
view; 34. eighth pair of the same; 35. tenth pair of the same; 36. gnathoehilarium of a - paratype; 37. base of 
second pair and vulvae of the same 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



125 



block between the anterior and posterior parts and 

therefore often hidden 

Families Brachychaeteumidae, 

Macrochaeteumidae, ?Niponiosomidae. 

Eighth pair : telopodite a short stem, small shield 
or stump set outside the gonopodial block and 

therefore visible 3 

3. Eighth pair : telopodite forming a short stem.. 

Families Branneriidae, Chamaesomidae, 

Kashmireumidae. 

Eighth pair : telopodite forming a stump or small 
subrectangular shield, bearing several setae distad 

Family Peterjohnsiidae nov., for the 

single genus Peter johnsia. 



Peterjohnsia n.g. 
Diagnosis 

Eighth pair of legs of the male (gonopods) with 
telopodites quite distinct from the colpocoxites, 
forming a subrectangular lamella not as wide as it 
is long, setigerous distad; colpocoxites forming 
elongated laminae clearly separated from each 
other by a large unpaired median process of the 
sternite. Ninth pair of legs of the male 
(paragonopods) with sternites forming a wide 
concave rectangular plate anteriorly, bearing 
telopodites similar to those on the gonopods. 30 
rings in males, 32 in females. Rough teguments. 
Small soil forms (maximum length 6 mm). 



Type-Species 
Peterjohnsia basimontana n.sp. 

Peterjohnsia basimontana n.sp. 

Material Examined 

Holotype: Australia, NE. Queensland, Bellenden Ker 
Range, Cableway base, alt. 100 m., Oct. 17-24, 1981, 1 ' 
(QMS. 1481). 

Paratype: Same data as holotype, 1*1*] 9S and j. 
(QMS. 1482); 2' 22 (MNHN, DA 213). 

Other Material: Same area, Bellenden Ker Range, 
lkm. south of Cable Tower 6, Oct. 17-24, 1981, all. 500 
m., BerleseNo. 310, IS lj. (QMS. 1483); same locality, 
same date, Berlese No. 314, 1 ' 1 (QM S.1484); Berlese 
No. 317 l<?j. IS 1 ; (QM S.1485); BerleseNo. 319, 3; 
lj. (QM S.1486); Berlese No. 320, l'j. 2 :-j. (QM 
S.1487); same area, 1/2 km. south of Cable Tower 7, 
alt. 500 m., Nov. 3-5, 1981, 1 ' IS (QM S.1488). 

Description 

Overall colour brownish, more or less speckled, 
except for a white fusiform middorsal stripe that 
is fairly wide but narrows progressively anteriorly 
and posteriorly. 

It should be noted that the length of certain 
individuals (values in parentheses in the Table 6) 
is exaggerated because of poor fixation. 

The number of rings (32) and of leg pairs (54) 
indicate that adult females have two apodous rings 
(including the epiproct) and one hemiapodous. 
Males, like preadult females, have 48 leg pairs, of 
which three are apodous (including the epiproct) 



TABLE 6. Peterjohnsia basimontana: Measurements (mm), number of rings (N), teg pairs (lp) and ocelli. 





N 


lp 


Length 


Vertical 

diameter 


Width 


Ocelli 


S holotype 


30 


48 


3 


0.30 


0.34 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 


r paratype 


30 


48 


4.6 


0.33 


0.37 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 


f paratype 


30 


48 


4 


0.25 


0.28 


10(1.2.4.3) 


■ F paratype 


30 


48 


3 


0.29 


0.34 


9(1.2.3.3) 


f paratype 


30 


48 


3.7 


0.30 


0.34 


7 


$ paratype 


30 


48 


3.6 


0.36 


0.40 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 


J paratype 


30 


48 


3 


0.36 


0.40 


9(1.2.3.3) 


& paratype 


30 


48 


4.6 


0.36 


0.40 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 


'j.(A-l) 


27 


40 


2.25 


0.25 


0.28 


8(1.2.3.2) 


'j.(A-l) 


27 


40 


2.90 


0.30 


0.34 


9(1.2.3.3.2) 


f paratype 


32 


54 


(6.5) 


0.46 


0.52 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 


-' paratype 


32 


54 


4.8 


0.40 


0.45 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 


paratype 


32 


54 


(7.1) 


0.45 


0.51 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 


S paratype 


32 


54 


5.7 


0.40 


0.45 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 


- paratype 


32 


54 


(7.1) 


0.46 


0.52 


12(1.2.3.3.3) 


- paratype 


32 


54 


(6.1) 


0.38 


0.43 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 


- paratype 


32 


54 


4.6 


0.44 


0.50 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 


S paratype 


32 


54 


(7.3) 


0.46 


0.52 


12(1.2.3.3.3) 


• j- (A-l) 


30 


48 


3.4 


0.35 


0.40 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 


j.(A-2) 


27 


40 


(4.4) 


0.31 


0.35 


8(1.2.3.2) 


- : J. (A-3) 


23 


32 


3 


0.25 


0.28 


7(1.2.3.1) 



126 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




0.1 m 



Fics 38-41. Peterjohnsia basimontana n.g., n.sp., paratype: 38. oral view of the left half of the midbody ring; 
39. dorsal view of the same; 40. vulvae, caudal view; 41. the same, distal view. 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



127 




Figs 42-45. Peterjohnsia basimontana n.g., n.sp., J holotype: 42. eighth pair (gonopods), lateral view; 43. the 
same, oral view; 44. same, caudal view; 45. isolated ninth pair (paragonopods), caudal view. 



.:• 



MCMOlftSOF PHE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



and tme hemiapodous. Young female with 27 
rings, at stage A(adu!t)~2, tike preadult males (fit 
stage A-l), have 40 teg pairs, apodous I 
(including the epiproct) and on hemiapodous I 
was able to observe eight pairs ol podous buds on 
this young female, which dearly indicates that ii 
belongs to the stage preceding the preadult one (A- 
2) The only youna female with 23 rings had 32 leg 
palfs (and 8 pans of podous buds!) and therefore 
4 apodous rings (including the epiproct) and one 
hcniiapodous ring, thus putting her M the A-3 

Short head capsule, with convex hairy face. 
Short, sturdy antennae (their length is equal to the 
width of an average metazonitc); the length of the 
anteanal club is 3 to 3.5 times longer than us 
width. The eyes are made up of a small number of 
pigmented ocelli (9-12 in adults) arranged in a 
longitudinally elongated oval patch. 
Gnathochilarium with divided mentum (triangular 
promentum; trapezoids! mentum); external palpus 
he stipes is elongated (its length is 2.5 times its 
Width) and is oblique and bears five spinnerets; the 
internal palpus is sturdy and enlarged distad, not 
quite as long as wide, with 8-10 spinnerets in its 
apical region. 12-combed mandibles. 

Mid body rirtgS The surface of the metatergites 
is rough and granular. This aspect is not caused 
by small scales a8 m Chamaesowa, Xystrosoma or 
Tiny,upa 7 but is due to tiny hemispherical or 
truncated protuberances vaguely lined in ten or so 
transversal row : (I i- 39). Each row contains 
about 30 granules on each side of the middorsal 
groove. Here and there, about every three to five 
granules is inserted a rmnuie seta of the same 
length as the granules. The 3 + 3 macrosetae are 
lone nnd thick (their length reaches 2/5 the width 
of the metazonitcs); the two outermost stick far 
out to ihe side while the innermost is a bit nearer 
to |hc middle one than to the middorsal gro. 
The metatergal shoulder is poorly developed and 
located midway up the Hanks (fig. 38). 

hpiptoct common, with a dorsal macroseta and 
two setae on either side. 

ShOfl tegs, length less than the prozonite 
diameter. 

M.At t StxLAL CHARACTERS: Nothing special 
about the legs located before and after the gono- 
and paiagonopods, no coxal glands on 10th and 
I hh p.iirs. 

Eighth pair (gonopods, Figs 42-44) formed on 

eithec side and behind of a long median 

sprouting from the oral transversal sternal band. 

sialk gets progressively larger anil forms. 

subdisiad, a laierodistal angle on each side (s) and 



middistad, a club-like structure IS). Anjpocoxit«s 
(A) set posteriorly, not fused sayiiiallv. growing 
progressively thinner from the b.> I n^snmmii 
and becoming bifid halfway up ; a short branch 
(a) in the caudal position and a long one (b) further 
forward; the latter's ante] ioi pi ol ile is denticulated 
(v'i ColpoeoxUes(K) forming two plates sepnt 
both by The sternal projection and the 
angiocoxites; their distal profile is regularly 
rounded, their oral side scattered with several 
small setae, their caudal side marked by a heavy 
subdistal transversal crest bearing two thick setae 
and extended on the internal distal side by a small 
leaf (k) whose edge ? when viewed laterally (Fig. 
42). appears to be partially cut into spines. Finally 
the telopodites look exteriorly like subrectangular 
plates with rounded distal edges and three or four 
long and sturdy setae. 

Ninth pair (paragonopods, Fig. 45) reduced to 
j Im^e HrtrtrspezoidaJ sternite Hanked by stumps 
(telopodites, T9) like those on the gonopod 

FtM.M <■_ Srxi At Characters; The vulvae | i 
40-41) arc not fused sagittally by their internal 
valves. These ate much shorter than the external 
ones, which arc marked by voluminous refringent 
protuberances. Low opereule, bordered by 4-5 
long se:^e 

Peierjohnsia sum ma n.sp. 

I : I -i.xi Ey\mi 

Hod .ustralia, NE. Queensland, Bellentlen Kei 

Range, summit TV station, litter, Berlcse No. 336. all. 
1560m, Nov. 1-7, ts»8l, I ' <qm 5.1469). 

Par at. pi ! ; Same data as holcnvpe. 5 ' and 3 (QM 
S.1490). Same locality, same date. Berlese No. 857, J 
2- (QM S.1490: Same locality, same date, Beilcse No. 
338, \ i 3v (QM S.J492); Same loeality. same date, 
Ber!e>e No. H5, I ! (QM S.I493); Same Locality, wnw 
date, P'yrethrum, on rainforest foliage, 1 (S.I494); 

Same locality, Oci t5-31 t 198!, 2rfJ, 7/ 6 6 i. tQM 
S,l493)arot2*3 I j. (MNHN, DA 21 \) 

Other Material; Same are? Mourn Barti* Fi n 

NW Center I'cak Ridge, alt. 1400-1 500 m., Bcrlese No 
I 1921 [ " 7 (QM S-14%). M<hj I i i 
f'rerc. South Peak summit, all. 1620 m.. BferJete No. 369 

■ forest, Sieved li&wr), NO* 6-8. Wl, 3 ! 9 <QM 
S. 1496» r I r i MNHN, DA 213); BcUenden Ker Range, 

ite rowei h alt. L054 m H Nov. 25-31. iysi. i | i 
li.(QMS. 149K). 

DESCRIPTION 

Identical to the preceding species both in habitus 
and colour as well as in the relative dimensions of 
antennae, the gnathochilarium, the shape of the 
metatergal shoulders, the superficial texture of the 
teguments and the position of the macrosetae. 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



129 



Even the dimensions (slightly larger here) and the 
number of ocelli are comparable, as shown in 
Table 7. 

Male Sexual Characters: Quite similar to 
those of the type-species, they differ from it only 
in certain minute details and in two more 
important aspects (Figs 46-49): 

1 . There is no trace of any separation at the base 
of the telopodites of the eighth pair (gonopods); 

2. There is a third anterior branch (c), shorter 



than the two others, bearing spinules apically. 
These spinules are also found in the type-species 
but are not carried on a differentiated branch 
(compare Figs 42 and 47a). 

Female Sexual Characters: When Figs 40 
and 50 (oral view) and 41 and 51 (distal view) are 
compared, no significant difference between the 
two species is obvious, except for the absence of 
protuberances in P. summa, and perhaps in the 
distribution of setae. 



TABLE 7. 


Peterjohnsia summa: 


Measurements (mm), 


number of 


rings (N), 


leg pairs (lp) and ocelli. 




N 


lp 


Length 


Vertical 
diameter 


Width 


Length 
antenna 


Ocelli 


BKR, Berl. 336 


t holotype 


30 


48 


4.3 


0.38 


0.52 


0.40 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




T paratype 


30 


48 


4.2 


0.38 


- 


- 


9(1.2.3.3) 




3 paratype 


30 


48 


4.2 


0.40 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




& paratype 


30 


48 


4.2 


0.41 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




S paratype 


30 


48 


4.3 


0.40 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




S paratype 


30 


48 


4.1 


0.42 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




9 paratype 


32 


54 


5.2 


0.53 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




2 paratype 


32 


54 


5 


0.48 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




S paratype 


32 


54 


4.6 


0.48 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 


BKR, Bed. 338 


S paratype 


30 


48 


4.3 


- 


0.49 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




2 paratype 


32 


54 


4.7 


0.50 


0.62 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




£ paratype 


32 


54 


4.8 


- 


0.61 


- 


13(1.2.3.3.3.1) 




8 paratype 


32 


54 


4.7 


- 


0.59 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 


BKR, Oct. 25-31 S paratype 


30 


48 


5 


0.40 


- 


0.50 


8/9(1.2.2.2/3.1) 




e? paratype 


30 


48 


4.4 


0.40 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




f paratype 


30 


48 


4.8 


0.42 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




t? paratype 


30 


48 


4.8 


0.40 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




T paratype 


30 


48 


4.7 


0.38 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




J paratype 


30 


48 


5 


- 


0.55 


- 


9(1.2.3.3) 




J paratype 


30 


48 


4.4 


- 


0.55 


- 


10(1.2.3.2.1.1) 




v paratype 


32 


54 


(7.3) 


0.50 


- 


- 


12(1.2.3.4.2) 




2 paratype 


32 


54 


6.1 


0.50 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




v paratype 


32 


54 


4.8 


0.46 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




J paratype 


32 


54 


5.8 


0.52 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




S paratype 


32 


54 


5.9 


0.51 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




i paratype 


32 


54 


4.9 


0.50 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




5 paratype 


32 


54 


5 


0.53 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




J paratype 


32 


54 


5.3 


0.45 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




2j. (A-l) paratype 


30 


48 


4.2 


- 


0.51 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




Sj. (A-l) paratype 


30 


48 


3.8 


0.42 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




2j. (A-l) paratype 


30 


48 


4.3 


- 


0.51 


- 


9(1.2.3.2.1) 




5j. (A-l) paratype 


30 


48 


4.9 


0.43 


- 


- 


12(1.2.3.4.2) 




.-j. (A-2) paratype 


27 


40 


3.7 


0.32 


- 


- 


8(1.2.3.2) 


Bartle Frere 


$ 


30 


48 


4.4 


0.40 


0.55 


- 


9(1.2.3.2.1) 




. 


32 


54 


4.9 


0.50 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




9 


32 


54 


4.9 


0.51 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




2 


32 


54 


5.1 


0.52 


- 


- 


11(1.2.3.3.2) 




? 


32 


54 


4.9 


0.48 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




9 


32 


54 


5 


0.50 


- 


- 


9(1.2.3.3) 




9 


32 


54 


4.9 


0.52 


- 


- 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 




j 


32 


54 


4.8 


0.50 


- 


- 


9(1.2.2.2.2) 



130 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Figs 46-49. Peterjohnsia summa n.g. t n.sp., 1 holotype: 46. caudal-ventral view (in black, telopodiies of gonopods), 
of eighth pair (gonopods) and 9th pair (paragonopods); 47. isolated eighth pair, lateral view, 47a. detail of 
extremity of angiocoxite, lateral view; 48. isolated eighth pair, caudal view, 49. the same, oral view. 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



131 



Peterjohnsia ludovicensis n.sp. 

Material Examined 

Holotype: Australia, NE. Queensland, Hilltop 5.5 
km north of Mount Lewis, alt. 1200 m., BerleseNo. 297 
(rainforest, sieved litter), Sept. 13, 1981, G. Monteith 
and D.Cook, 1' (QMS.1499). 

Paratypes: Same area, 5.5 km north of Mount Lewis, 
via Julatten, alt. 1100 m., Berlese No. 276 (rainforest, 
sieved litter), Sept. 8, 1981, G. Monteith & D. Cook, 1 ' 
19 (QMS. 1500). 
Description 

Identical in external morphological 



characteristics to other species. No significant 
difference is indicated by the measurements and 
number of ocelli, as can be seen in Table 8. 

Male Sexual Characters: The following 
differences can be observed* 

1. the foliated part K (anterior) of the 
colpocoxite is lower Lhan the posterior branch (k) 
and therefore not visible in the caudal view (Fig. 
53); 

2. the angiocoxite (A) is bifid as in basimontana, 
but here, there is no trace of any spines on the 



TABLE 8. Peterjohnsia ludovicensis: Measurements (mm), number of rings (N), leg pairs (lp) and ocelli. 





N 


lp 


Length 


Vertical 
diameter 


Width 


Length 
anienna 


Ocelli 


■" holotype 
' paratype 
i paratype 


30 
30 
32 


48 
48 

54 


4.25 
4.20 
5.50 


0.35 
0.33 
0.40 


0.53 
0.46 
0.58 


0.47 


10(1.2.3.3.1) 
10(1.2.3.3.1) 
11(1.2.3.3.2) 




Figs 50-51. Peterjohnsia summa n.g., n.sp., i paratype: 50. vulvae, caudal view; 51. the same, distal view. 



132 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Figs 52-56. Peterjohnsia tudovicensis n.g., n.sp., ' holotype, i paratype: 52. eighlh pair S (gonopods), lateral 
view; 53. the same, caudal view; 54. the same, oral view (slightly oblique); 55. ninth pair (paragonopods); 56. 
base of second left leg and left vulva, caudal view. 



CRASPEDOSOMID MILLIPEDES IN AUSTRALIA 



133 



anterior part ('c' in figs. 42 and 47a) and the long, 
slender posterior branch (a) is, in this case, the 
same length as the oral branch (b), which here is 
shorter and sturdier than in the other species; 

3. on the ninth pair (paragonopods, Fig. 55), 
the telopodites are located in a less lateral position. 

Female Sexual Characters: Fig. 56 reveals 
no important difference from the two other 
species; vulvar pilosity is even more sparse than in 
P. summa, as here there is only a single distal seta 
on each side of the vulva (one per valve). 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I especially wish to thank Professor Peter M. 
Johns (Christchurch), who collected a great deal 
of the material studied in this article and who 
graciously told me it had been deposited in the 
Queenland Museum. Also many thanks to my 
colleague Valerie Davies, former Curator of 
Arachnids at the Queensland Museum, who 
arranged for all the Craspedosomids in her care to 
be sent to me for examination. I would like to pay 
tribute to the great spirit of co-operation shown 
by my colleague S. Golovatch (Moscow), who 
kindly kept me up to date in great detail, on his 
work concerning other Australian 

Craspedosomids. I am grateful to Michele 
Bertoncini (M.N.H.M. Paris) for the numerous 
drawings that illustrate this article, and also 
particularly for her significant and competent 
contribution, to Anne Cooper (M.N. H.N. Paris) 
who translated this paper from French to English. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Brolemann, H.W., 1935. 'Faune de France 29. 
Myriapodes Diplopedes (Chilognathes I)' 
(Lechevalier: Paris). 369 pp. 

Golovatch, S.L, in press. The first Chordeumatida 
(Diplopoda) from Tasmania, with comments on the 
origin of trans-specific disjunctions. 

Hoffman, R.L., 1963. Notes on the structure and 
classifiation of the Diplopod family 
Heterochordeumatidae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(13)6: 129-35. 
1979. Classification of the Diplopoda. Mus. Hist. 
Nat., Geneve: 1-238. 

Jeekel, C.A.W., 1981. Australia Expedition 1980; legit 
C.A.W. Jeekel and A.M. Jeekel-Rijvers. List of 
collecting stations, together with general notes on 
the distribution of Millipeds in eastern Australia and 
Tasmania. Versl. Techn. Geg., 30 (Inst. v. Taxon. 
ZooL, Amsterdam) : 1-59. 

Mauries, J. P., 1978. Le genre neo-zelandais 
Schedotrigona Silvestri, 1903: revision et place dans 
une nouvelle classification des Craspedosomides 
(Myriapoda, Diplopoda, Craspedosomida. Bull. 
Mus. natn. Hist. nat. 3eme ser., 510, ZooL 351: 43- 
66. 
1982. Une famille nouvelle et deux genres nouveaux 
de Cleidogonoidae, avec notes sur la classification 
de la superfamille (Diplopoda, Craspedosomida). 
Steenstrupia 8(6): 165-76. 

Mauries, J. P. and Geoffroy, J.J., 1983. Decouverte, 
dans les Causses Majeurs, d'une remarquable espece 
cavenicole du genre Opisthocheiron Ribaut, 1913 
(Diplopoda, Craspedosomida, Opisthocheiridae). 
Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse, 118(1982): 141-140. 

Shear, W.A., 1979. Diplopoda from the Nepal 
Himalayas. Chordeumida with comments on the 
Asian chordeumid fauna. Senck. biol. 60(1-2): 1 15— 
30. 



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Mvw QdMus, 25(1): 135— 140.[1987] 

REVISION OF THE AUSTRALIAN ZUPHIINAE 2. COLASIDIA MONTEITHI SY> 

NOV. FROM NORTH QUEENSLAND, FIRST RECORD OF THE TRIBE LELEUPIDIINI 

IN AUSTRALIA (INSFC T A COLEOPTERA: CARAB1DAE). 



MARTIN BAtilHR 

Zoologische Staatssamrnlung Munchhausenstr. 21 D 8000 Munchen 60, West Germany 



ABSTRACT 

Colasidia monteithi sp. nov. is an inhabitant of lowland rainforest of northern Queensland. It 
is the first representative of the tribe Leleupidiini of the subfamily Zuphiinae recorded from 
Australia. Colasidia monteithi ts apotypic within the genus Colasidia and is presumably derived 
from more plesiotypic ancestors similar to species slill living in New Guinea. The high degree ot 
apomorphy, and the present distribution, indicate thai the ancestor oJ Cotushlia monteithi w 
ancient invader into Australia. 



INTRODUCTION 

Zuphiinae is a small but. especially in the 
Australian area, quite diverse group within the 
truncatipennian Carabidae. In Australia 12 species 
have been found. The genus Planetes is included 
here in the Zuphiinae although its systematic status 
is still controversial (see Jedlicka 1963; Habu 1967; 
Reichardt 1967; Darlington 1968). Genera known 
from Australia are Zuphium Latreilie, 
Parazuphium Jcannel, A crogenys Macleav . 
Pseudaptinus Castelnau, and Planetes Macleay. 
Since all species were described between 1862 and 
1890. and because most of the diagnoses are 
unsatisfactory, only few species can be determined 
with certainty. A revision of the Australian 
Zuphiinae was statted by Bachr (1984). 

The tribe Leleupidiini was discovered only 
recently, but constitutes a rather extensive group 
(Basilewsky 1951. 1953. 1954, 1967) of small and 
oddly shaped beetles. Although, originally 
recorded from tropical Africa, mainly from the 
high mountains of East Africa, species were later 
described from Asia (Basilewsky 1954; Landin 
1955). Since then, Leleupidiini also became known 
from Madagascar (Basilewsky 1967), and 
Darlington (1971) extended their geographical 
range to New Guinea, where two species are now 
known. 

Very little is known about the habits of species 
of Leleupidiini, all discoveries having been made 
tn the course of extraction or washing of soil and 
litter samples. All species seem to be rather rare. 
The three recorded species of the Asiatic-New 
Guinea genus Colasidia, for example, are known 
from single females only. Presumably the species 
arc secretive and perhaps butrow in loose soil and 
litter. To my knowledge there are no indications 
of myrmecophilous habits in any species, but some 



morphological attributes, e.g. the morhliform 
antennae, and (he peculiar, enlarged, and 
glandular terminal segment of the labial palpi, 
could suggest such habits. 

The discovery of a new species of the genus 
Colasidia by G.B, Monteith now extends the 
geographical distribution oi the Leleupidiini to 
Australia 

Type material is lodged at the Queensland 
Museum (QM). 

KEY TO THE AUSTRALIAN AND NEW 
GUINEAN GENERA OF ZUPHIINAE 

The diagnostic features o\' the Leleupidiini (for 
description of the tribe see Basilewsky 1951) can 
be gathered from the following key. which 
comprises all genera of Zuphiinae so far recorded 

from Australia and New Guinea. 

1. First antenna! segment short and thick, 
shorter than second and third segments 
together. Antennae moniliform, short, 
cxrending only to middle of pronoturn. Head 

very long, eyes small, temples at least three 
times as long as eyes. Last segment of labial 
palpi extraordinarily large, square. 
asymmetrically fixed to second segment. Tribe 
Leleupidiini semis Colasidia Basilewsky 

First antennal segment as long as, or longer 
than second and third segments together. 
Head shorter, temples at most three times as 
long as eyes. Last segment ol labial palpi 
smaller, if extraordinarily large, then not 
square, nor asymmetrically fixed to second 
segment - 



133 



m 



MEM01HSCH THL OUFHNSt.ANDMUSbUM 



2. Striae of elytra duplicate, thus elytra with 19 
narrow ridges, Basal border of elytra entire. 
Basal three segments of T anterior tarsus 
asymmetrically widened, bisenatcly 
Minamose. Squamosity oblique, in medio- 
distal direction. Tribe Planetini 

genus Planetes Macleay 

Striae of elytra not duplicate. Basal border of 
elytra not entire. £ anterior tarsus slightly 
widened, symmetrical- Squamosity of tarsus 
straight, biseriatc or uniseriate only at iiuict 
edge of tarsus 3 

3. Antennae short, moniliform, not attaining 
base of pronotum First segment as long as 
second and third segments together. Head 
behind eyes wide, square, back of head 
straight, hardly narrowed. Eyes large. Last 
segment of maxillary palpi very large, 
enlarged to tip. Elytra parallel, apex roundish 
cut off, somewhat drawn in to middle. Elytra 

each with 6 fine ridges. Tribe Patriziini 

genus Agastus Sehmidt-Gobel 1 

Antennae longer, not moniliform, extending 
beyond base of elytra. Last segment of 
maxillary palpi normal, only slightly enlarged 
to tip. Apex of elytra not rounded, nor drawn 
ill la middle. Elytra ar most with one ridge at 
seventh interval. Tribe Zuphiim (sensu 
strkto) 4 

4. First antennal segment only as long as second 
and third segments together or slightly longer. 
Pronotum with several marginal setae in 
anterior half. Elytra with a row of 8 to 10 erect 
setae at third, fifth, and seventh intervals. 
Seventh interval carinate or at least 
considerably more raised than the other 
intervals. Flightless, elytra fused together 

.... genus Acrogenys Macleay" 

First antennal segment considerably longer 
rhan second and third segments together. 
Pronotum with one marginal seta in anterior 
half. Elytra without conspicuous erect setae at 
third. Fifth, and seventh intervals. AH Intervals 
similarly shaped, mostly rather depressed. 
Generally winged, elytra free 5 



A .species of the genus A$astus, hitherto only recorded 
trorn southeast Asia and from Africa, has been recen I 
found in New Guinea (Baehr 19S5). Members oi 
genus are likely to be discovered in northern Australia, 

AcrOgenys austratis Blackburn 1890 is a species of the 
genus Pseudaptinus Castclnau. 



5. Length of first antennal segment less than 1.5 
x second and third segments together. 
Posterior margin of head strongly rounded. 
Width oi' 'neck' at least 0.5 X width of head 
including eyes. Elytra rather convex with 

considerably raised intervals 

genus Pseudaptinus Castelnau 

Length of first antennal segment nearly 2 >c 
second and third segments together. Posterior 
margin of head rather truncate. Width of 
'neck' less than 0.5 x width of head including 
eyes. Elytra depressed, intervals flat, at most 
ve-Ty feebly raised 6 

6. Larger, length over 7.5 mm. Elytra with 
distinct intervals First antennal segment with 

one long tactile seta near tip 

genus Zuphium {sensu strkto) Latreille 

Smaller, length less than 7 mm. Intervals 
hardly perceptible. First antennal segment 

with several long tactile setae 

genus Parazuphiutn Jeannel 

Colasidia Basilewsky 

Colasidia Baxilewsky, 1954. p. 215, fig. I. Darlington, 

1971, p. 332. 
Tvpe species: Co'osulia maiayica Basilewsky, 1954, 

Diagnoses 

Genus of the tribe Leleupidiini Basilewsky of 
the subfamily Zuphiinae. Ant -tike, small /uphiine 
beetles with fairly small eyes. Tooth of mentum 
long, nearly as long as lateral lobes, tip rounded 
or feebly notched. Last segment of labial palpi 
very large, square, just about two times longer 
than wide. Punctures of dorsal surface very coarse. 
WillgS in all known species airophied. 

Kfytothf Known Spe< wb 

1. Eyes larger, roundish, length o\' eyes about 
one third of length of temples behind eyes. 
Head wider across eyes than across temples. 
Hind part of head strongly rounded (New 
Guinea) C. papua Darlington, 1971 

Lyes smaller, oblique, length o'i eyes less Than 
one third of length of temples. Head widest at 
a distance behind eyes 2 

2. Posterior border of temples feebly rounded 
off. Posterior part of head nearly straight. 
Head decidedly trapezoidal, wider than 
pronotum. Posterior angles of pronotum 
blunt, jUSl slightly projecting (Singapore) 

C. maiayica Basilewsky, 1954 



A NEW COLASIDIA 



137 



Posterior border of temples decidedly 
rounded off. Thus, posterior part of head 
rounded. Head not strikingly trapezoidal, 
narrower than pronotum. Posterior angles of 
pronotum acute and projecting. Sides in front 
of posterior angles strongly curved 3 

3. Elytra short and wide, very convex, less than 
1.5 x as long as wide, more than 2 x wider 
than pronotum. Pronotum short, nearly as 
wide as long (0.95 x). Head short, nearly as 
wide as pronotum. Ratio length of head 
(labrum to anterior border of 'neck') to width 

of head less than 1.75 (New Guinea) 

C. madang Darlington, 1971 

Elytra rather elongate, more than 1.5 x as 
long as wide, only 1 .75 x as wide as 
pronotum. Pronotum conspicuously narrower 
than long (0.85 x ). Head elongate, distinctly 
narrower than pronotum (0.8 x ). Ratio 
length of head to width of head more than 2 

(Australia, North Queensland) 

C. monteithi sp. nov. 

Colasidia monteithi sp. nov. 

Material Examined 

Holotype: QM T.9181, presumably 9 (sex not 
confirmed by dissection). Australia, North Queensland, 
2 km WNW of Cape Tribulation (16°05'S, 145°28'E). 
23. ix. -7.x. 1982, G. Monteith, D. Yeates & G. 
Thompson. 

Description 

Measurements: Overall length : 5 . 1 8 mm, length 
to apex of elytra: 4.47 mm, maximum width: 1.32 
mm. 

Colour: Head and pronotum reddish-brown, 
elytra blackish. Labrum, antennae, mouthparts, 
and legs yellow. Lower surface dark reddish, first 
abdominal segments brownish, last three 
abdominal segments dark brown to black. 

Microsculpture: Upper surface rather sparsely, 
but very coarsely and rather regularly, punctate, 
sparsely hirsute, with long, yellow hairs. Pilosity 
partly inclined, partly erect. No microsculpture 
visible between the punctures. Also lower surface 
and legs wholly punctate and hirsute. 

Head: Very elongate (more than twice as long 
as maximum width). Head steadily tapering from 
posterior border to front. Eyes small, very oblique, 
temples behind eyes about 5 x longer than 
diameter of eye, rounded off behind. 'Neck' one 
third of width of head. Frontal furrows long, not 
reaching anterior border of eyes. Frons and vertex 
convex. A straight ridge from median border of 
eye to base of antenna. Above base of antenna a 




1 

Fig. 1: Colasidia monteithi sp. nov. Habitus. Scale = 1 
mm. 



triangular prominence. Anterior supraorbital seta 
at anterior border of eye, posterior seta far away 
from eye near posterior border of temples. Clypeus 
not divided from frons, clypeus smooth, with two 
long setae and several short bristles along anterior 
border. Labrum rather large, anterior border 
feebly notched, side parts widened, thus, basal 
parts of mandibles concealed. Labrum six-setose, 
sides with several additional short bristles. 
Mandibles short, inner border straight, apex 
suddenly hook-like curved. Mentum with a long 
and stout, entire tooth which is only slightly- 
shorter than lateral lobes, bisetose. Epilobes 
distinctly separated, longer than lobes, tip 
somewhat curved inwards. Glossa corneous, apex 
truncate, bisetose. Paraglossae membranaceous, 
much longer than glossa, distally strongly curved 
inwards. Terminal segment of labial palpi very 
large, square, about twice as long as wide, entire 



138 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



surface with long and dense pilosity, ventrally with 
a long glandular cleft. Penultimate segment with 
some bristles. Base of maxillae laterally 
protruding, with some long hairs. Galea sparsely 
hirsute. Basal part of lacinia wide, corneous, 
lateral border bristled, distal part narrower and 
only weakly corneous. Median border of lacinia 
not dissected. Maxillary palpus fairly small, 
pointed, last segment sparsely pilose. Antennae 
short, moniliform, extending to apical third of 
pronotum. Basal segment 0.8 x as long as second 
and third segments together. Segments 4-10 
shorter than wide. Basal segment with a long 
tactile seta and several short bristles, remaining 
segments with an apical row of long setae and with 
a double, very dense pilosity, mixed from long and 
erect, and short and depressed hairs, respectively. 

Pronotum: Distinctly shorter and wider than 
head (ratio width of head/width of pronotum: 
0.79), and clearly longer than wide (ratio width of 
pronotum/length: 0.83), heart-shaped. Sides 
strongly curved to the rounded anterior angles, 
widest in front of first third. Sides concave in front 
of the pointed and prominent posterior angles, 
these slightly advanced from base. Base straight. 
Sides bordered, without lateral groove, apex and 
base not bordered. Basal grooves indistinct due to 
the coarse punctures. Median line complete, but 
fairly indistinct. Pronotum convex, coarsely 
punctate, with sparse, erect pilosity. One lateral 
seta each a short distance in front of first third and 
at the protruding posterior angles. 

Elytra: Broadly oval and strongly convex, about 
1.5 x longer than wide, less than twice as wide as 




Fig. 2: Colasidia monteithi sp. nov. Lower side of head. 
Scale = 1 mm. 



pronotum (ratio width of elytra/width of 
pronotum: 1.76), widest in last third. Shoulders 
rounded off, apex transversely cut off, somewhat 
drawn in to middle, bordered. Beyond apical 
border with a narrow, membraneous band. Striae 
distinguished only by the very coarse, but fairly 
regular punctures. No basal pore visible. Pilosity 
fairly sparse, but elongate, obliquely erect. Border 
along ninth stria basally with a row of about six, 
behind middle with one or two, and near apex with 
about six umbilicous pores and very long setae. 
Also lateral border of elytra pilose. No elytral 
pores recognizable. Elytra fused together, hind 
wings reduced. 

Lower surface: Wholly hirsute, with exception 
of proepisterna (only anteriorly hirsute) and of 
anterior parts of first abdominal sternites. 
Sternites with a long seta on each side, last sternite 
with one seta each side ( £ ). Metepisternum 
quadrate. 

Legs: Fairly elongate, especially posterior 
tarsus. Whole legs densely hirsute, lower parts of 
all tarsal segments pilose. Clawy smooth. 

S aedeagus: Not known. 

Immature stages: Unknown. 

Distribution 

Only known from Cape Tribulation at the base 
of Cape York Peninsula, northern Queensland. 

Habits 

The unique specimen of Colasidia monteithi was 
discovered by use of Berlese-extraction of leaf 
litter. According to G.B. Monteith's information 
the collecting area is one of the wettest in Australia 
and has still a very luxurant rain forest flora. Apart 
from this information, virtually nothing is known 
about the habits of this beetle, as is the case in all 
other species of the genus. The circumstances of 
discovery, the small eyes, short antennae, and the 
'stream-lined' body shape all point to a habit of 
living in leaf litter or loose soil. Striking 
pecularities are the very large, glandular terminal 
segments of the labial palpi, which are reminiscent 
of the antennal clubs of Paussinae. Perhaps, they 
can be regarded as an indication of a 
myrmecophilous habit. 

Discussion 

Colasida monteithi is distinguished from the 
three other species of the genus by its very narrow 
body shape, especially by the exceptionally 
elongate and narrow head and by the small and 
oblique eyes. The narrow head — in comparison 
to the pronotum — and the coarsely punctate 



A NEW COLASIDIA 



139 



upper surface are shared by C. monteithi and both 
species from New Guinea, C. papua and C. 
madang, which indeed seem to be the nearest 
relatives of C. monteithi. Additional diagnostic 
differences between these species and C. monteithi 
are given in the key. 

If large eyes and the rounded, less widened back 
of the head are interpreted as plesiomorphic 
character states, then C. papua seems to constitute 
the most primitive species of the genus. Reduction 
of eyes and elongation, or widening of the back of 
head can be interpreted as adaptations to a 
secretive life in soil or litter or in the upper soil 
strata proper, and they must be regarded as 
apomorphic character states. Reduction of eyes is 
most striking in C. malayica and C. monteithi, 
whereas C. madang is intermediate between these 
species and C. papua. The same is true concerning 
the deformation of the head and the extreme 
widening and development of its angular hind 
edges in C. malayica, and the extreme elongation 
of the head in C. monteithi. In these characters C. 



madang is also intermediate. From this viewpoint 
C. malayica and C. monteithi constitute the most 
apotypic species. C. malayica, however, seems still 
more divergent morphologically than C. 
monteithi. At the same time the geographical 
ranges of these two species are located at the limits 
of the known range of the species within the genus. 
With regard to distribution, C. malayica is the 
most isolated of the species. 

It is likely that the centre of origin of the genus 
Colasidia was in New Guinea, where the most 
plesiotypic species live. From there the apotypic 
species spread to the north (Malaysia) and to the 
south (North Queensland). This view is opposite 
to that of Darlington's (1971), according to whom 
the (presumably winged) ancestors of the New 
Guinean species came from the Oriental area. 

With regard to the distribution of the whole 
tribe Leleupidiini, I must agree that the ancestors 
of the genus Colasidia originated in the Oriental 
Region. The recent distribution of the species, 
however, points to a secondary migratrion from 



*s> 





Fig. 3: Distribution of the species of the genus Colasidia: ■ = C. malayica Basilewsky, A= C. madang Darlington, 
* = C. papua Darlington, • = C. monteithi sp. nov. Co - Cooktown, Ca = Cairns, TO = Townsville. 



140 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



New Guinea back to the north and, on the other 
hand, to a migration further south to northern 
Australia. 

In any case my view of the distribution pattern 
of the genus could be changed substantially if, for 
example, further species should be discovered in 
Southeast Asia or in the Indonesian Islands. 
Because of their secretive habits and their obvious 
rarity this will require special and careful 
searching. 

Regarding Australian zoogeography it must be 
stressed that the single Australian species 
represents an apotypic form within the genus 
Colasidia. The presence of related species in New 
Guinea suggests that the ancestor of Colasidia 
monteithi immigrated to Australia from the north 
via Cape York Peninsula. This has been suggested 
before for other rainforest species (Darlington 
1961). Since all recent species of Colasidia are 
flightless it may be supposed that immigration 
could only take place step by step at short distances 
over land. Hence immigration into Australia was 
only possible at times when the water gaps between 
New Guinea and North Queensland were 
considerable narrower, and when rain forests in 
North Queensland covered much larger areas and 
were contiguous. This high degree of apomorphy 
in several morphological characters and the 
distribution at the base of Cape York Peninsula 
clearly demonstrates that C. monteithi is not a 
recent immigrant from New Guinea, but that it 
represents a fairly old member of the soil living 
fauna of the rain forests of North Queensland. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I want to express my warmest thanks to Dr G.B. 
Monteith (Queensland Museum, Brisbane) for 
offering the unique specimen of Colasidia 
monteithi for examination and description. I also 
heartily thank Dr A.F. Newton, Jr. (Cambridge, 



Mass.) for sending on loan the type of Colasidia 
papua. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Baehr, M., 1984. Revision der australischen Zuphiinae 
1. Die Gattung Acrogenys Macleay (Insecta, 
Coleoptera, Carabidae). Spixinal: 115-34. 
1985. Description of a new species, Agastus hirsutus, 
with first record of the genus from New Guinea 
(Coleoptera : Carabidae : Zuphiinae). Int. J. Ent. 
27: 224-8. 

Basilewsky, P., 1951. Leleupidia luvubuana, nov. gen. 
et nov. sp. (Col. Carabidae). Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 
44: 175-9. 

1953. Revision des Leleupidiini (Col. Carabidae, 
Zuphiinae). Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 47: 263-81. 

1954. Un genre nouveau de Leleupidiini de la 
presqu'ile de Malacca (Col. Carabidae, Zuphiinae). 
Rev.fr. Ent. 21:213-16. 

1967. Description des deux Carabides de Madagascar, 
representants des groupes encoure inconneus dans 
la region malgache. Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 72: 248-52. 

Darlington, P.J. Jr., 1961. Australian Carabid beetles 
V. Transition of wet forest faunas from New Guinea 
to Tasmania. Psyche, 68: 1-24. 

1968. The Carabid beetles of New Guinea III. 
Harpalinae continued. Perigonini to 
Pseudomorphini. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 137(1): 
1-253. 

1 97 1 . The Carabid beetles of New Guinea IV . General 

considerations, analysis and history of the fauna, 

taxonomic supplement. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

142(2): 129-337. 
Habu, A., 1967. Carabidae, Truncatipennes group 

(Insecta : Coleoptera). Fauna Japonica: 1-388. 
Jedlicka, A., 1963. Monographic der Truncatipennen 

aus Ostasien. Lebiinae-Odacanthinae-Brachyninae 

(Coleoptera, Carabidae). Ent. Abh. Mus. Tierk. 28: 

269-579. 
Landin, B.-O., 1955. Entomological results from the 

Swedish expedition 1 934 to Burma and British India. 

Coleoptera: Carabidae. Ark. Zool. (2)8: 399-472. 
Reichardt, H., 1967. A monographic revision of the 

American Galeritini (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Arq. 

Zoo. Sao Paulo 15: 1-176. 



Mew. QdMus. 25(1): 141 — 150.[1987] 



THE GENUS NEOLAXTA MACKERRAS (DICTYOPTERA : BLATTARIA 

BLABERIDAE) 



Louis M. Roth 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, U.S.A. 

(Correspondence: 81 Brush Hill Road, Sherborn, MA, 01770, U.S.A.). 



ABSTRACT 

Three species of the Australian genus Neolaxta are described, two of which, namely mackerrasae 
and triangulifera, are new. The generic description is modified, and a key is given to distinguish 
both sexes of the species. Neolaxta is very close to Laxta and can only be separated from it by 
spines on the anteroventral margin of the front, or all femurs; this character may be poorly 
developed or absent in the female. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Australian cockroach genus Neolaxta was 
based on a single species. In this paper I describe 
2 new species and modify Mackerras's diagnosis 
of the genus. 

The following Museums and their curators lent 
me specimens: ANIC — Australian National 
Insect Collection, CSIRO, Canberra, A.C.T., 
Australia; Dr D.C.F. Rentz and Mr John 
Balderson; MCZH — Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 
U.S.A.; UQLA — Department of Entomology, 
University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, 
Australia; Miss M. Schneider, through Dr G.B. 
Monteith; QM — Queensland Museum, Brisbane, 
Australia; Dr G.B. Monteith. 

Genus Neolaxta Mackerras 

Neolaxta Mackerras, 1968, p. 143; type species by 
monotypy, Neolaxta monteithi Mackerras, 1968, 
pp. 143-6. 

Diagnosis (from Mackerras) 

Sexes dissimilar, males with long wings, females 
apterous. Head concealed beneath pronotum; face 
tuberculate. Anterior and lateral margins of 
pronotum angularly raised; pronotum of males 
and all terga of nymphs and females tuberculate, 
giving the nymphs and females a hard knobbly 
feeling. Legs short and slender; anteroventral 
margins of fore femora with several large spines 
proximally, followed by a row of fine spinules 
distally, other femoral margins unarmed; tarsi 
short and bare, pulvilli large, arolia rather small, 
claws symmetrical. Terga and sterna of male fairly 



smooth; T10 short, rounded; cerci blunt, short, 
but projecting well beyond T10. Terga of females 
and nymphs bearing 2-3 rows of large pale 
tubercles and numerous smaller dark ones; T10 of 
similar shape to that of male, but cerci very short, 
stout, not projecting as far as T10. S9 of male 
asymmetrical, with very short slender styles. 
Sterna of female smooth medially, minutely 
tuberculate laterally, S7 large, smoothly rounded, 
bare in centre and tuberculate laterally. The genus 
is distinguished from Laxta by the angularly up- 
turned edges of the pronotum, the regularly 
arranged very large pale tubercles on the dorsum, 
the possession of large spines on the anteroventral 
margin of the fore femur and densely tuberculate 
face, and the irregular development of the 
branches of CuA in the male. 

The two new species of Neolaxta do not have 
many of the above characters which are best used 
for specific determination of monteithi. Males of 
the new taxa do not have a tuberculate face, and 
the anterior and lateral edges of their pronota are 
not angularly turned upwards (in some species of 
Laxta the head, at least in part, may be 
tuberculate, and the large tubercles on the dorsum 
may be regularly arranged). The antero- and 
posteroventral margins of the mid and hind 
femora may have a few small spines, similar to 
those on the front femur. The new species of 
Neolaxta are similar to species of Laxta, except 
for the presence of large spines on the ventral 
margin of the front femur (Fig. 3D), or all femora, 
and this is the only character to separate these 
genera. However, the femoral spines may be very 
small and reduced in numbers, or lacking in some 



141 



142 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



females and nymphs, and these individuals can be 
easily mistaken for species of Laxta. The genitalia 
(male and female) are similar in both genera. 

The distance between the eyes may be greater or 
less than the length of the first antennal segment; 
this can be shown by calculating an eye antennal 
index (EAI) which is the interocular distance 
(measured near the top of the head, where the eyes 
are closest together) divided by the length of the 
first antennal segment. 

Males of Neolaxta are very rarely seen free- 
living in the field and most are collected at light, 
occasionally in considerable numbers (Monteith, 
personal communication). 

Key to Adults of Neolaxta 

1. Males (winged) 2 

Females (apterous) 4 

2. Pronotum with anterior and lateral margins 
strongly incrassated and raised (Fig. 2A). 
Anteroventral margins of mid and hind 
femora unarmed monteithi 

Pronotum with anterior and lateral margins 
not thickened or raised (Figs. 3A, 4A). 
Anteroventral margins of mid and hind 
femora with 1-6 small spines (similar to those 
on the front femur) 3 

3. Hind margin of supraanal plate broadly 
rounded (Fig. IE). Anteroventral margin of 
front femur usually with 12-26 (rarely 4-8) 
small spines, those with large numbers 
occupying practically the full length of the 
margin (Fig. 3D). Pronotal punctations not 
half-moon-shaped mackerrasae 

Hind margin of supraanal plate with a median 
triangular projection (Fig. IH). Anteroventral 
margin of front femur with 2-4 widely spaced 
spines. Pronotal punctations partly 

pigmented, half-moon-shaped (Fig. 4A) 

triangulifera 

4. Pronotum with anterior and lateral margins 
strongly incrassated and raised (Fig. 2C). 

Head densely tuberculate (Fig. 2D) 

monteithi 

Pronotum with anterior and lateral margins 
not thickened or raised (Figs. 31, 4C). Head 
not tuberculate (Fig. 4D) 5 

5. Hind margin of supraanal plate trilobate (Fig. 
4C). Abdominal tergites not granulate, 
tubercles few in number and widely spaced 
along the hind margins of the segments (Fig. 
4C) triangulifera 



Hind margin of supraanal plate weakly convex 
(Fig. 31). Abdominal tergites granulate, and 
with tubercles arranged in 2 or 3 rows (Fig. 
31) mackerrasae 

Neolaxta monteithi Mackerras 
(Figs 1A-D;2A-E) 

Neolaxta monteithi Mackerras, 1968, pp. 143-6, figs 1- 
4, pi. 1, figs 1-6 (male and female). 

Material Examined 

Holotype: male, Tooloom, New South Wales, 
30.xii.1966, G.B. Monteith, QM T.6621. 

Paratypes: 1 S , originally from Tooloom, New South 
Wales, ex C.S.I.R.O., colony no. 244, Canberra, 
A.C.T., in the QM. Same locality and colony data, 3 1 , 
lv, 30.xii.1966, G.B. Monteith, in ANIC. 

Other Material: Queensland, UQLA: Bald Mtn. 
area, 3000-4000', via Emu Vale, 1*, 27-31 .i. 1972, l' F , 
26-30.L1973, G.B. Monteith, 19 (genitalia on slide no. 
6), 26-30.1.1973, B. Cantrell; Boldery Park, Cooyar, 
124, 19, 24.x. 1975, Monteith and Lambkin; Cooyar, 
Maidenwell Road, 2\ , 12. i. 1975, G.B. and S.R. 
Monteith; Saddletree Ck., Bunya Mts., IS (terminalia 
on slide no. 5), 24.x. 1975, Monteith and Lambkin; 
Levers Plateau, via Rathdowney, 35", 3 1.x. 1976, G.B. 
Monteith; Lawes, 15, 2. hi. 1954, V.R. Catchpoole. 
ANIC: Bunya Mts., U, 12, 17-18.ix.1966, G. Monteith 
and B. Cantrell; Emu Ck., under log, 1 v, 27.7.1967, S.V. 
Mark; Nanango, 1 9, 4.V.1964, G. Monteith. New South 
Wales, ANIC: Unumgar State Forest, via Kyogle, I?, 
1 i nymph, 11. iv. 1966, T. Weir; C.S.I.R.O. colony 244, 
ex Tooloom, N.S.W., 7v, 6.* and 55 nymphs, 
30.xii.1966, G.B. Monteith. Questionable Locality, 
ANIC: 15 miles E. of Busselton, Western Australia, 2?, 
l.xi.1967, G. McCutcheon (with following label: 'Data 
probably wrong; M.J. Mackerras cannot recollect 
specimens from this locality — J. Balderson, 
21.xii.1969'). 

Description 

Male: Distance between eyes greater than the 
length of the first antennal segment (EAI= 1.2- 
1.7). Head with frons, vertex, and genae rough 
(rugulose and tuberculate) (Fig. 2B). Pronotum 
subelliptical, anterior and lateral margins 
thickened and raised (Fig. 2A) f dorsal surface 
rugulose, with sparse large tubercles, ventral 
surface rugulose with a fine ridge on either side of 
the hood where the edge is turned upwards. 
Abdominal tergites smooth, all posterolateral 
angles rounded. Supraanal plate convex (Fig. IB), 
hind margin thickened, not reaching hind margin 
or subgenital plate. Subgenital plate weakly 
asymmetrical, right and left sides slightly concave, 
distal region curved upwards, styles short, slender, 
inserted on the lateral margins (Fig. 1C). 
Anteroventral margin of front femur with 1-9 



ROTH: NEOLAXTA 



143 








Fig. 1: Neolaxta spp. from Queensland. A-D. .V. monteithi Mackerras: A. Female from Bald Mt. area, supraana) 
plate. B-D. Male from Saddletree Ck., Bunya Mts., suprannal plate and paraprocts, subgenital plate and styles, 
and genital phallomeres, respectively. E-G. S, mackerrasae* n. sp., male paratype from Mt. Fisher: E. Supraanal 
plate and paraprocts; F. Subgenital plate and styles; G. Genital phallomeres. H-J. N. triangulifera, n. sp., male 
paratype from 3.0 km west of Cape Tribulation: H. Supraanal plate and paraprocts; I. Subgenital plate and 
styles; J. Genital phallomeres. 

Male supraanal plates are ventral views; subgenital plates, and genital phallomeres are dorsal. The 
phallomeres are shown in their normal position (LI and L2 = sclerites of the left phallomere; L2vm = medial 
sclerite or L2 ventromedial; R2 = sclerite of the right phallomere). All drawn from slide preparations. Small 
scale refers to the supraanal and subgenital plates, large bar to the genital phallomeres. 



144 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




3mm 




Fig. 2: Neolaxta monteithi Maekerras, from Tooloom, New South Wales. A. B. Male holotype, pronotum and head 
(frontal), respectively. C-E. Female paratype, pronotum, head (frontal), and abdomen (plus metanotum and 
part of mesonotum), respectively. 



ROTH: NEOLAXTA 



145 



short robust spines on basal half, followed by 
some spaced spinules distad, margins of mid and 
hind femora unarmed. Genitalia as in Fig. ID; L2d 
separated from L2vm; R2 with a subapical 

incision. 

Colouration: Head mostly dark brown, 
ocelliform spots pale, margin of clypeus yellow, 
labrum light brown with yellow margin, genae 
reddish brown. Antennae with 2-3 pale segments 
near the apex. Pronotum with thickened raised 
anterior and lateral margins amber, surface 
tubercles reddish, medial region dark reddish 
brown. Lateral zones dark brown, anteriorly with 
a yellowish spot on either side of the midline. 
Tegmina and hind wings dark brown except for 
the clear anal area of the wings. 

Measurements (mm): Body length, 18.0-24.0; 
pronotum length x width, 4.8-5.8 x 7.1-8.9; 
legmen length, 20.0-25.7; interocular distance, 
1 .0-1 . 1 ; length of first antennal segment, 0.6-0.8. 

Female: Interocular distance about 2 or more 
times the length of the first antennal segment 
(EA1 = 1.9-2.5) (Fig. 2D). Head entirely densely 
tuberculate, the tubercles on the vertex somewhat 
sparser (Fig. 2D). Entire dorsal surface of thorax 
and abdomen densely covered with granules, and 
large apically rounded tubercles, the latter on the 
abdomen arranged transversely in 2 rows (except 
for a single row on Tl) (Fig. 2E). Pronotum more 
or less semicircular, with produced posterolateral 
corners, anterior and lateral margins incrassated 
and upturned (Fig. 2C), ventral surface of 
upturned region granulate, a slender ridge on each 
side of the hood as in the male. Abdominal tergites 
with lateral angles blunt, not produced, their sides 
only slightly overlapping the sternites (Fig. 2E). 
Supraanal plate with lateral margins concave to 
accommodate the short cerci which do not reach 
the convex hind margin of the plate (Figs 1 A, 2E). 
Abdominal sternites with lateral regions pitted and 
granulate. Anteroventral margin of front femur 
with 4-10 spines on the basal half, these less 
distinct than in the male. 

Colouration. Head dark brown. Labrum and 
lower half of clypeus yellowish. Pronotum dark 
reddish brown with a pale spot anteriorly on each 
side of the midline. Abdominal tergites similar to 
base colour of the pronotum. Coxae, femora, and 
tibiae brown, trochanters, knee spots, and tarsi 
yellowish. 

Measurements (mm): Body length, 16.7-22.7; 
pronotum length x width, 5.0-6.5 x 9.0-11.6; 
interocular distance, 1.5-1.6; length of first 
antennal segment, 0.6-0.8. 



Remarks 

The raised and thickened margins of the 
pronotum in both sexes make this species 
distinctive. The females may vary considerably in 
size; one of the smaller females (pronotum length 
x width, 5.5 x 9.0) was unequivocally an adult 
because it had an ootheca in its uterus. An ootheca 
removed from one of the larger females contained 
24 partly developed embryos. Mackerras (1968) 
reported that one female produced 28 young, and 
they require about a year to mature. 

Dr G.B. Monteith (personal communication) 
states that N. monteithi 'is always found under 
stones and bits of wood lying on the ground; it 
tends to rest on the ground rather than on the 
object'. 

Neolaxta mackerrasae n.sp. 
(Figs 1E-G;3A-I) 

Material Examined 

Holotype: male, Kirrama St. For., 32 km NW of 
Cardwell, Qld., 800 m, flight intercept trap, rain forest, 
23.vi.-8.viii.1982, S. and J. Peck, SBP 46; in ANIC. 

Paratypes: Queensland. ANIC: Danbulla, 1$, 
30.vi.1951, F.J. Gray; near Cairns, 2S (dried out of 
spirit), Aug. 1966, H.M. Cameron; Moses Ck., 4 km N 
by E of Mt. Finnigan, nr. Cooktown, 15.47S 145. 17E, 
1 ', 14.X.I980, 19., 15.x. 1980,2? nymphs, 14-16.X.1980, 
T.A. Weir and R.A. Barrett; Lake Barrine, IS, 
I5.vii.1933, H.A. Gray. The following were collected in 
a flight intercept trap, rain forest, by S. and J. Peck: 
Same data as holotype, 5 S ; Lacey's Creek, 10 km SE of 
EI Arish, 40 m, 6<, 23.vi.-5.viii. 1982, SBP 47; Rosina 
Creek, 14 km SE of Millaa Millaa, 720 m, SS, 24.vi.- 
2.viii.l982. Thefollowing were collected by J. Balderson: 
Davies Ck., 20 km E by S of Mareeba, 17.02S 145. 37E, 
3., lv nymph, 19.xi.l981;Palmerston Nat. Park, 24 km 
E by N of Ravenshoe, 17.35S 145.43E, 12, 14.xi.1981; 
Mt. Haig, 21 km NE by N of Atherton, IS, I7.xi.1981. 
The following were collected by I.F.B. Common and 
M.S. Upton: Mt. Edith, 18 mis NE of Atherton, 3400 
ft, 25, 17.iii.1964; Mt. Lewis, 8 mis NW of Mt. Molloy, 
3200 ft, IV, 18.iv.1964.MCZH: Millaa Millaa, Atherton 
Tab., 2500 ft, 1- nymph, April 1932, Darlington, 
Australia Harvard Exp.; Kuranda, K. QM: Rex 
Lookout via Mossman, rain forest, 1 S , 13.x. 1980, G.B. 
Monteith. The following were collected by G.B. 
Monteith and D.K. Yeates: Majors Mt., 7 km SE of 
Ravenshoe, 1000-1 100 m, 1 v , 4.V.1983; Mt. Demi, 7 km 
SW of Mossman, 900-1000 m, 19, 26.iv.1983. The 
following were collected by Earthwatch/Qld. Mus.: Mt. 
Bartle-Frere, Sth. Peak Summit, 1620 m, IS (genitalia 
on slide no. 15), IS nymph, 6-8.xi.1981, NW/Centre 
Peak ridge, 1400-1500 m, 35, \S nymph, 7-8.xi.198I; 
Bellenden Ker Range, Summit TV Stn., 1560 m, 19, 1- 
7.xi.l98i, Vi km S of Cable Tower No. 7, 500 m, IS, 
4 :, 1<J and2i nymphs, 17-24.X. 1981, 19, 25-3 1.x. 1981, 
Cableway Base Stn., 100 m, IS, is nymph, 17- 



146 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 







ROIK SL'OLAXfA 



W 



24. < 1981. C ahlc lower J, 1054 m, I nvmpO, 17 
24.x. 1981, I' and It nymph, 25-31 x.!98L. The 
following, were collected by Monteiih, >e3iei. I 
Thompson, ittlflfj pyrelhrum knockdown; Mi Edith, 
iamb Range, [MO ra. i , L2,S 1982; BmerqU O 
Lamb Range. 950m t 2,11 ..\. 1982; 3.0 km wesi o( Cape 
Tribulation [site 6), 500 m. RF. 1' , 20. ix. -7. x.1982. I ' 
nvnnph. 2.x. 1982: 4.5 km west of Cape Tribulation (site 
i W m, 1 i | 29. k 19X2 The following were collected 
by G Moiileith and D. Cook, Bakers Blue Ml.. 17 km 
w.'M .it Mi. Mollov, 1100m, RF, I nymph, 12. ix. 1981; 

Mi | awtssummli via Julatten, 1200m, i I nymph, 

9.ix.l98l; M(. Finnigan via Helenvale, 760-1000 m, 7... 
I nymph, 20 J7 f v|i 1974; Bloomfield Road via 
Hcleuvale, above ABRS site 4, rain forest, 300-460 m f 
1/. 20-27 vu 1974; Thornton Peak vu Dafrltree, 7( K * 
1000m, rain forest, I 1 - nymph. 22. ix. 1981. The following. 
wore uollocrcd by Monteiih, Yeates, and Cook, some 
after pyrethrum knockdown; mi. Fmmuan. W kraSof 

GBOktOWXi, B50 -IJ00 in. 2 ,3' and 1 nymphs 19- 
JJ iv.iv82; black Mtft M 17 km ESEof Julalten, 800-1000 

m, i.. i- nymph, 29-30 iv i9S2, 4,2, nymphs, 
I4.iv.l982; Ml. Fisher, 1050-1 I00m, 7 kmSW of Millaa 

viiii.-m, i' (tcrmlrwlii oo slide no. uj, 2', 4v, i- 

nvmph. 27-29.iv.I982; Windsor Tbld.. NNW of Ml. 
CortUlie, 1050 m, 2 .JJantUi nymphs, 15-1 8.iv. 1982, 
35 km NNW ul Mi. Carbine, 1050 m. 2 . 1 < nymph, 
IS-is iv 19S2, I.' and I, nymphs, 25-26. iv. 1982. 
UQLA: The following woe collected by B. Cann- M 
PalnicrBton Nat Pk., via lunisfail, I , 23Jv.i968j B 
rnilet exist of Wallaman halls, Ingham, I r , 3.i. 1973; Mt. 
Lewis via Julatten, 3500 n , 2 , 1 ■ nymph. 8/Ktl.l966< 
1 . 2K.xii.I966; Millaa Millaa Falls via Millaa MiUaa, 
1 . Hl-I I Mi. 1966 The following wore collected by G. 
Monidth: Belldenden Kct, lv, 7.viii.l966; Cooper 
Ci<ck. 18 miles N of Oainr.ce River, I -'\ 21-22.vU969; 

I 1 Ck.. PalmciMon Nal. Pk., I- nymph, 
2>.*ii 1964; Paluma Dam, 2 , 30-3 1. xii. 1 964 (labelled 

-.p., by M.J. Mackenas), Lake Facham, I 
mmph 21.\ii.l9(4; N. Old (exact locality illegible). I 
nymph, 27.XU*Wf 

(elPTION 

M.M.t; fnterocular distance less than the length 
of the tirst antenna! segment (I.A1 = Q.5-0.9)(Fig. 
1C). Mead with vertex and frontoclypeal region 
depressed, essentially smooth, genae not 
luberculatefFig. 3C). Pronolum wilh anterior and 
lateral margins not incrassated or strongly 
upturned, sparsely tuberculate f surface punctate 
(noi granulate} (Fig. 3 A), ventral Surface 
practically smooth, without ridges on either side 



of the hood. Abdominal tergites and sTernites 
smooth. Supraanal plate broadly rounded (Fig. 
IE), no! quite reaching the hind margin of the 
subgenital plare. Subgenital plate weakly 
asymmetrical, hind margin rounded, lateral 
margins not distinctly indented (Figs. IF. 3B) 
Ventral margins of femora aimed with spines as 
follows: Front femur, anterior margin, 4-26 (often 
occupying the entire length of the margin. Fig. 
3D), posterior margin, 0; Mid femur, anterior 
margin, 1-4, posterior, (rarely 1); Hind femur, 
anterior margin, usually 2, sometimes 1 or 3, rarely 
4. hind margin 0. sometimes 1 . Genitalia as in Figs. 
IG, 3E-H; L2d separated from L2vm; R2 with a 
subapical incision. 

Colouration: Dark brown. Head with labrum 
brown, lower part of clypeus whitish, rest of face 
brownish black. Antennae brown with 2-4 white 
segments near the tip. Pronotum with anterior 
region pale, lateral zones reddish brown, medial 
hood and posterior region blackish biown, rarely 
reddish brown. Tegmina dark brown; wings 
mfuscated. Abdominal tergites and sternites, and 
legs brown, subgenital plate reddish brown vviih 
yellowish spots along the right and left margins. 
Cerci pale dorsal I y and ventrallv. 

Measurements (mm): Body length, 13.5-16.5; 
pronotum length x width, 4.1-5. 1 >: 6.0-8.1; 
tegmen length, 15-1-19.5; intetocuJar distance, 
0.3-0.7; length of first antennal segment. 0.5-0.9. 

FfeMALc: Interocular distance about the same or 
slightly less than the length of the first antennal 
segment (EAI = 7-I I). Head with vertex 
granulate, Irons and genae rugulose. Dorsal 
surface of thorax and abdomen with large spaced 
tubercles, and dense granules, tubercles on 
abdominal tergites essentially arranged in 2 rows 
(Fig 31); lateral borders of ihe abdominal tergites 
not widely overlapping the edges of the sternites. 
Supraanal plate with sides parallel, hind margin 
weakly convex, noi indented medially (Fig. 31). 
Lateral regions of abdominal sternites not 
distinctly granulate, practically smooth. 
Anretoventral margin of front femur with 1-13 
very small spines, often difficult to see (sometimes 
lacking spines), hind margin unarmed; mid and 
hind femora unanned. 



Seolstta toask&rattaet n - S P-- ,rom Queensland. A-H. Mai**., variam from Ml. Spurgeon; A. Pronoturn; 
8. Subgenital plate and styles (ventral); C. Head fftd > FfOlH femur showing the spines on the 

j iieroventia) maiginj 6-C O llitft! phallomcrej lt t L2vmand L2d, and R2, respectively; H. Genital phallomere 
l.2vm and 1.2:1. I. Female para type from Ml. Fisher, 7 k.m wcsl of M1JI.1.1 Miliar hnlnrus (din on the left half 
was rcmrw.-d). \ (gs E-W orcchirfn preparation. 



.4* 



Ml MOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND* MUSEUM 



Colouration; Reddish and i eddish (Mown, shiny; 
specimens are encrusted with dirt and have to be 
cleaned to reveal color and texture (Fig. 31). Head 
reddish brown, clypeus and labruni yellowish. 
Disk of pronotum dark, shading to lighter red at 
the lateral borders, and with a pair of yellow spots 
on the anterior margin (Fig. 31). Meso- and 
metonotum and abdominal tergites red with 
indications of a pair of broad dark longitudinal 
Stripes On i lie right and left halves of the segments 
Undersurface of thoracic segments reddish with 
yellow areas near the body margin, the pronotum 
Showing the pair tfi yellow anterior spots that are 
visible from the dorsal surface Abdominal 
Stemltefi and legs red to reddish brown. Cera 
dorsally and vcntrally reddish or yellowish. 

Measurements (mm): Body length, 17.0-21.0; 
pronotum length >: width, 4.7-6.4 x 8,7-114; 
intcrocular distance. 0.7-0.8; length of I 
untcnnal Segment, 0,7-1.0. 

Nymph: Both sexes resemble The adult female 
except that the surface granules are less distinct, 
and the base color is lighter so that the longitudinal 
bands are more obvious. Spines on the 
anteroventral margin of the front femur are often 

lacking, 

Variant; Male specimens from Mt. Spurgeon 
differ in being laiger on the aVfifftgC, and much 
lighter in colour. Spikes on ventral margins ol ihc 
femora aa follows: Front, anterior. 8-24, 
posterior, 0; Mid; anterior, 0-3, posterior, 
(rarely 1); Hind, anicnoi, 0-1 (rarely 2), hind, 0. 

MtiaSUreiXWntg (nun): Body length, 16.5-18.2; 
pronotum length x width, 4.8-5.2 x 7.7-8.3; 
legmen length, IS. 7-22.0; interocular distance, 
f) 3 -0,5, length of first antennal segment, 0.8-0 9; 
EAl = 0.3-0.6. 

Material examined: Queensland. MCZH: Mt. 
Spurgeon, 3500-4000 ft.., \ T (wing on slide no. 
216), trf (terminalia on slide no. 89), 1 f 
(terminalia on slide no. 90), 5 ' , 26.vii.1932. 1 ' . 
28.vii.I932, Darlington, Australia Harvard Exped. 

Etymology 

The species is named after the late Dr M. 
Josephine Mackerras. 

Remarks 

The number of spines on the anteroventral 
margin of the front femur varies greatly in both 
sexes. Males never lack them completely and have 
as few as 4-8 in specimens from K',\, FtSher, and 
Ingham, whereas the number vai v from I 2-26 in 
other localities. In females |fe spines are reduced 
in size and number and arc difficult to see. Females 



and nymphs may lack the spines completely which 
explains why Mackerras labelled 2 feuutles Luxtu 
sp. These specimens and others with l Laxtch\ \ \ 
femora are similar to females o) Nvalaxta 
mackerrasae from the same or nearby loenlm-'s 
and I therefore consider them to be this species. 
However, it is possible that there is a species ol 
Laxta whose females have the same color pattern 
as M mackerrasae. 

Neolaxta trtangulifcni n sp 
(Figs 1H-.I;4A-D) 

MAtEKlAL HXAMiNI-n 

HoioTYPr; male. N.t. Qld.. Nth. Bell P«ak, 20 km 
.< aims, 900-1000 m, 15-16. ix. 1981, G. Mumeith Hid 
D Cook,QMT.956L 

PAKAIWLSr Q'.:th\si\M'. QM Mt- Fisliei, 7 km S\\ 
MiLlaa Miilaa. N. Qtd., QM. Beilesale No. 409, 
rainforest, 1100 rn. sieved litter, i \& Ml ; . 1 , 

27iv. 1V82, Monteith, Veates, and Cook; feellcndcfl i | 
Range, l .':kmS. Cable Tower No. 7.500 m. I f nvmph, 
2S-.M..X.I98!, Earthwatch'QId. Museum, t he following 
were collected by Momeiih, Veates and Thompson 3 (3 
km W of Cape Tribulation (site A), 500 m, KF. 1 r 
(rerminalia on slide no. 16), in bail, id f| trap " 
7a. 1982; Nh Qld, Bell Peak North. 10 km f. 
(iordufivale. S:5t»-UKX)i-n. I i (genitalia OB did HO IT}, 
13 K.I982. ANIC: The I r&ki *at Park. I'SI' ol 
Herlvrton, Qld, >n leal llrtfl nymphS, 25.1,1972, 

J. G. Brooks: 22 km 9 i ■ ■ 001 LOflglands Gap Ret., 
leafmould, rain forest, I' nvmph, ll.\i.l%«>. I G 
Hi .ink.', 

Desc k.m'i u.»N 

M\le: Region between the ocelli distinctly 
concavely excavated, eyes bulging, close together, 
the interocular distance less than the length of the 
first antennal segment (EA 1=0.41 (Fig. 4B). 
Pronotum subelliptical, margins not thickened, 
weakly upturned, surface punctate (not granulate), 
with only 4 small tubercles on the elevated hood 
portion, the two anterior ones closer together than 
the posterior pair; the punctations arc pits each 
containing a minute seta (Fig. 4A). Supraanal plate 
transverse, hind margin produced medially as a 
small triangular lobe (Fig. 1H). Subgenital plate 
weakly asymmetrical, right side oblique, hind 
margin rounded, weakly reflcxed dot sad (Fig. 11). 
Ventral margins of the femora armed as follows: 
Front femur, anterior margin, 2-4, posterior 
margin, 0; Mid femur, front, 4-6. hind 1-2; Hind 
femur, front. 3-4, postcrioi , 1-2. Genitalia us in 
Fig. 1 J; L2d attached to apex of L2vm; R2 without 
asubapical incision 

Colouration: Light brown Region between eyes 
and ocelli dark brown, rest oi face yellowish. 
Pronotum with hood and mid posterior region 



ROTH: NEOLAXTA 



149 



somewhat darker than the lateral and anterior 
parts; punctations partly pigmented, half-moon- 
shaped. Tegmina light brown, hyaline. Abdominal 
tergites, sternites, and legs, light brown. (The male 
paratype is lighter in color than the holotype). 

Measurements (mm): Body length, 14.0-14.8; 
pronotum length x width, 5.0 x 7.6-8.5; tegmen 
length, 17.0-17.5; interocular distance, 0.2; length 
of first antennal segment, 0.5. 

Female: Very flat, covered with a thin layer of 
dirt which has to be removed to see color and 
surface texture. Head smooth, vertex flat, 
interocular space about the same as the length of 
the first antennal segment (EAI =0.9-1.0) (Fig. 
4D). Pronotum (Fig. AC) with anteromedial 



margin weakly indented, tubercles very sparse, a 
few restricted to the hood and along the hind 
margin, remaining surface practically non- 
granulate, some small dark specks (each indicating 
the position of a minute seta) may be slightly raised 
above the surface. Abdominal tergites with small, 
widely spaced tubercles along their hind margins, 
remaining surfaces non-granulate, lateral margins 
widely overlapping the edges of the sternites. Hind 
margin of supraanal plate undulate, the right and 
left sides deeply concave forming 3 lobes (a medial 
and 2 lateral) (Fig. 4C). Front leg with minute dark 
granules on the anterior face of the coxa, and 
ventral surfaces of the trochanter and femur, some 
of the granules also occurring on the lower anterior 




Fig. 4: Neolaxta triangulifera, n. sp., from Queensland. A. Male holotype from Nth. Bell Peak, pronotum. B. Male 
paratype from 3 km west of Cape Tribulation, head (frontal). C, D. Female paratype from Mt. Fisher, 7 km 
southwest of Millaa Millaa, habitus, and head (frontal), respectively. 



150 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



surface of the femur. Spines on the ventral margins 
of the femora are as follows: Front femur, anterior 
margin, 0-1, hind margin, 0; Mid femur, anterior, 
0-4, posterior, 0-2; Hind femur, anterior 0-3, 
posterior, 0-2. 

Colouration: Light brown. Head with a dark 
brown spot on the frons and between the eyes, the 
latter divided by the Y-shaped suture. Dorsal 
surface brown, with lighter broad lateral zones. 
Pronotum with dark specks, each spot indicating 
the site of a minute seta. Abdominal sternites light 
brown, speckled with small brown spots. Cerci 
dark brown with yellow apices. 

Measurements (mm). Body length, 14.6-17.0; 
pronotum length x width, 4.3-5.4 x 9.0-10.2; 
interocular distance, 0.8-0.9; length of first 
antennal segment, 0.9-1.0. 

Nymph: Both sexes resemble the adult female, 
but lack the minute dark granules on the front 
coxa, trochanter, and femur. Spines on the ventral 
margins of the femora are lacking. 

Etymology 

The specific name refers to the median 
triangular lobe on the hind margin of the 
supraanal plate. 

Remarks 

As in mackerrasae, the small number and size 
of the spines on the ventral margins of the femora, 
or their complete absence, makes it difficult to 
place the females and nymphs in Neolaxta. 
However, the shape of the supraanal plate (both 
sexes) is unique for the species and makes it easily 
identifiable. 

Neolaxta sp. A. 

Material Examined 

Queensland. ANIC: Bluff Ra. near Biggenden, 
foothills under leaf mould, 1 9 (possibly a nymph), 
16.viii.1971, H. Frauca. 



scalloped, lacking a distinct medial triangular lobe. 
Pro-, meso-, and metanotum with a longitudinal 
row of upright tubercles on each side of the 
midline; in addition, the pronotum has groups of 
tubercles on the outer borders of the cucullus. The 
tubercles along the hind margins of the abdominal 
tergites are upright and each segment has a median 
tubercle forming a longitudinal line that is a 
continuation of the medial double row of thoracic 
tubercles. The spines on the anteroventral margin 
of the front femur are only slightly more robust 
than the hairs on the mid and hind femora, and 
they are not characteristic for the genus. The 
ventral surface of the trochanter and femur of the 
front leg lack granules. 

Colouration: The surface is covered with debris 
which has to be removed to reveal color and 
texture. Light brown. Head with frons and vertex 
dark brown. Pronotum with 4 dark spots on the 
lateral parts of the hood where groups of tubercles 
are located. A dark brown median line, delineated 
by upright tubercles, starts at about the center of 
the pronotum and continues the length of the 
meso- and metanotum. 

Measurements (mm): Body length, 13.2; 
pronotum length x width, 4.5 x 8.0; interocular 
distance, 1.0; length of first antennal segment, 0.8. 

Remarks 

Although this specimen appears to be distinct 
from the more northern triangulifera, I feel it 
should not be named until the male is found. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I thank the museums and curators, mentioned 
earlier, who kindly lent me specimens. I am 
grateful to the American Philosophical Society 
(Penrose Fund), and the Australian Biological 
Resources Study (ABRS), for partial support. 



Description 

Female. Similar to triangulifera, but differs as 
follows: Supraanal plate shorter, the hind margin 
between the rounded posterior corners weakly 



LITERATURE CITED 

Mackerras, M.J., 1968. Neolaxta monteithi, gen. et sp. 
n., from eastern Australia (Blattodea : Blaberidae), 
Jour. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 7: 143-6. 



Mem. QdMus. 25(1); 151 — 167.(1987] 



THE GENUS 77c YONICUS SHAW FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW CALEDONIA 
(DICTYOPTERA : BLATTARIA : BLATT1DAE : TRYONICINAE). 



Louis M. Ruth 

Museum of Comparative Zoology* Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, U.S.A. 

(Correspondence: 81 Brush Hill Road, Sherborn, MA, 01770, U.S.A.). 



ABSTRACT 

The genu.s Tryonicus^ which was previously known from one species, T. parvus (Teppen, m 
souiheastcrn Australia is revised- Two new species, T. man leit hi and T, mackerrasue are described 
from north Queensland. The genus is newly recognized from New Caledonia by the transfer of 
three species of Siyhpyga to Tryonicus, viz. T, angusia Chopard, 7". rufescens Chopard, and T. 
vicina Chopard. Tryonicus is redefined, its subfamily position is discussed, and a key is presented 
to both sexes of the six included species. 



INTRODUCTION 

The material on which this paper is based was 
loaned to me by the following museums and 
curators; ANIC — Australian National Insect 
Collection, CSIRO, Canberra, A.C.T., Australia, 
Dr D.C.F. Rentz and Mr John Balder.son; MCZH 

— Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.; Dr A,K 
Newton; MHNB — Namrhistorisches Museum, 
Basel, Switzerland; Dr C. Baroni Urbani; QMBA 

— Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia, Dr 
G.B. Momeith; UQLA — University of 
Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Australia; Miss 
M. Schneider through DrG.B. Monteith. 

Genus Tryonicus Shaw 

Tryonicus Shaw. 1925, p. 202; Mckittriefc and 
Mackerras, 1965, p, 224: Mackerras, 1968. p. 556 
Type-species: Tryonicus montunus Shaw [synonym 
of Tryonicus pQTVUS (Tepper)], by monolvp\, 
Princis. 1966. p. 559. 

Rim \fiKS 

Species o! Tryonicus are found, at reasonable 
altitudes, on the ground under .stones and bits of 
wood in wet rain forest. They are never found 
under bark or above ground on dead trees or logs 
like most other rainforest cockroaches (Monteith, 
pers. comm.). 

Affinities 

McKittrick and Mackerras ( 1965) established the 
Tryonicinae and placed it between the 



I.amprobJattmae and Blattinae in the Blattidae. 
However, Princis (1966, p. 404) did not accept tin 
Lamproblattinae or Tryonicinae, and 
synonymized both with Blattinae. Shaw (1925, p. 
202) had earlier suggested that the genus be placed 
in the BiuUa group o!" the Blauinae. 

McKittrick and Mackerras (1965, p. 227) 
compared the spermathecae of Latnproblatw 
aibipalpus (Lamproblattinae), Blatta oriemulis 
(Blattinae), and EurycoUs floridana 
(Polyzosteriinae). According to them, the 
spermatheca of Tryonicus parvus (= montunus) 
is forked and one branch bears a round sclerotized. 
terminal expansion, whereas the other is wholly 
membranous, but is thicker than the common duct 
(Fig. 2L). When sderoti2ations occur in 
spermathecae of the other species, supposedly they 
are elongate rather than round- Unfortunately 
these comparisons are based only on one species 
representing each of the subfamilies. Tryonicus 
muckerrasae n. sp. and T. monieithi n. sp. have 
un branched spermathecae whose sclerotized 
reservoirs are elongate and straight (Fig. 6B, J), 
or elliptical or round (Figs. 3H, 1, 6C, E, H). 
Tryonicus sp. 1 has a forked spermatheca but the 
small branch is about the same width as the 
common duct (Fig. 7F, G). The most unusual 
spermatheca occurs in Tryonicus angusfa which 
has a reservoir that terminates in a sphere at one 
end and a club-shaped extension at the other (Fig. 
8G). Although the spermathecae are variable, I 
believe that the other characters given by 
Mackerras (1968, pp. 513, 556) warrant retaining 
the subfamily Tryonicinae. 



151 






MU.MOlRSOl TMh OLEHNSI.ANPMLiSLl M 



The OOCbcCttC Of the I arnproblattinae differ 
markedly from those of the Blattinae and 
Polyzosteriinae. both of which have similar egg 
cases. A comparison of the oothecae of species o\' 
Tryonicus with those of related subfamilies mi 
aid in placing the genus more urn ilv (Roth 

1968, p. 87). Mackerras (196X. p. 560) 
unsuccessfully tried to rear T. parvus but never 
ohtained oothecae. I have seen one pinned female 
of T monteiihi which had started CO make an 
ootheca. but not enough had been formed in the 
genital chamber \o indicate the final shape of the 
keel, and nature of ihe lateral walls. Howe\er, the 
fragment suggested that the shape of the keel and 
wails are different from those of the Blattinae and 
Polyzosteriinae; the walls of the fragment 
contained masses of calcium oxalate crystals, 
which js characteristic of all Blattidae Shaw ( i 
p. 191) stated 'hat the ootheca is not longitudinally 
fluted 

T. macki'rrasue, T. monteithL and T sp. I are 
more closely related to each other (TI modified. 
and similiarity in left male genital phaltomere), 
than they are to either T parvus and T. angusla. 
Male genitalia o[ 7. rufescens and T. vicina were 
not available for comparison. The male genitalia 
and female spermathecae of the new Australian 
taxa are variable suggesting that these species aie 
in a state of flux. 

Diagnosis 

Eves reduced, distance between them greatet 
than that between antenna! sockets, ocellar spots 
absent. Last maxillary palpal segment enlarged 
(Figs2F. 3E,4C). Male tegmina reduced in length. 
either narrow lateral pads (PL I A), or broad 
(normal width) with overlapping hind margins 
(PL IC, Eh orcomplerely absent (Fig. SA); wings 
vestigial, much smaller than and hidden under the 
regmina (Figs 2A, 4AL or absent (Fig. 8 A). Female 
completely apterous (PI . IB), or with small lateral 
tegmina and hind wings absent (PL ID, F). 
Ventral margins of femora armed as follows: 
Front femur: anterior margin with a few slender 
setae on basal half followed by B row of very small 
piliform setae, terminating in 1 ot 2 large distal 
spines, posterior margin with 0-1 spines plus I 
distal, or completely unarmed; Mid femur ; 
anterior margin. pins 1 distal, or comply lj 
unarmed, posterior margin unarmed or, 0-2 plus 
1 distal. Hind femur: anterior margin, plus 1 
distal, posterior margin, usually 1-? (0 or 4-6 
rare), plus 1 distal, or with 2 spines without a 
distal; geniculate spine on mid and Hind femora, 
■Tit from front femur. Pulvilli small and apical , 



or not clearly present on all s< ■ or 

completely absent; arolia absem | Mackerras stated 
thai arolia are \small or absent*, but I have not 
seen i his structure on any specimens; in her 
description oi T. panus, on which the generic 
description was based, she stated that arolia are 
absent, as was pointed out by Shaw), tarsal claws 
long, symmetrical, simple First abdominal tergite 
( r ) with (PL IC), or without a medial 
specialisation; female abdominal tergites 
unspecialized. Male subgenital plate symmetrical 
racticalty SO. styles similar, small, cylindrical, 
widely separated (Fig. 2D>. Spermatheea with a 
long convoluted duct, the terminal region forked 
(Figs 2L, 7E, G), or unbranched, the enlarged 
reservoir straight (Fig. 6B), or with an elliptical 
(Fig. 6C) or round enlargement (Fig. 3H), or with 
both an elliptical or round swelling (Fig. 
Basivalvulae of female genitalia fused with the 
spermathecat plate terming a single StTOQg scleritc 
surrounding the spermathecal opening (Fig. fi 
Male genital phaltomere L2v may be 
intraspecifieally variable (Fig. 5 A D). 
Proventrieulus as in Fig oG. 

Ke\ v-> Sprats of I'ryomcus* 

L Males 

Females . 7 

I egmina present 

Tegmina absent (New Caledonia i .... &n£U$to 

3. Tegmina reduced to widely separated, nsi fO« 
lateral pads which extend only to about the 
hind margin of the mesonotum ormctanotum. 
Hind wing-, present (vestigial) or absent .... 4 

Tegmina reduced in length reaching to about 
hind margin of T2 ? or middle of TB, their 
Widths normal \wth hind margins overlapping 
at midline (PI . IC, F). Firs' abdominal tergite 
h a median specialisation 5 

4. Tegmina short reaching 10 about hind margin 
of mesonotum. Hind wings absent 6 

Tegmina longer, extending slightly beyond 
hind margin of meianotum (PL 1, A). Hind 
wings very narrow (Fig 2A), hidden under 
tegmina. I h abdominal tergite 
unspeciali/ed. (Australia) parvus 

5. Small (pronotum length > width, 2.0-:. 
2,8-3.1; legmen length 2 2-3.0). Yellowish 
brown, palps pale. Hind margin of supra 



'The male of Tryoril u ■ I fcej wore Msee 

remarks under thai spfcclca] 



ROTH: TRYONICUS 



153 



plate concavely excavated (Fig. 3G). 
(Australia) mackerrasae 

Larger (pronotum length X width, 3.2-4.3 x 
4.0-5.5; legmen length, 3.1-4.5). Blackish or 
dark brown (tegmina may have a metallic 
sheen), palps dark. Hind margin of supraanal 
plate convexly rounded (Fig, 4D), or with a 
weak medial indentation (Fig. 4B). 
(Australia) monteithi 

6. Tegmina with anterior (outer) margin straight, 
posterior (inner) border convex, apex 
truncate. (New Caledonia) rufescens 

Tegmina narrower, tapering to an acute or 
subacute apex. (New Caledonia) vicina 

7. Tegmina and wings absent (PI. 1,B) 8 

Tegmina reduced to small lateral pads (PI. 
1,D,F), wings absent - 9 

8. Hind margin of T7 sinuous (Fig. 2E). 
(Australia) parvus 

Hind margin of T7 straight (Fig. 8A). (New 
Caledonia) .angusta 

9. Tegmina very narrow, tapering to an acute or 
subacute apex. (New Caledonia) vicina 

Tegmina slightly wider, apically truncate or 
subtruncate .„ 10 

10. Blackish or blackish brown; head, antennae, 
and palps dark brown. Pronotum length x 
width, 3.0-4.0 x 3.9-4.9; legmen length x 

width, 1.0-2 x I 2-1 .7. (Australia) ... ... 

monteithi 

Coloration not as above 1 1 

11. Reddish brown; head blackish brown, 
antennae and palps pale yellowish. Pronotum 
length x width, 2.6 x 4.0; tegmen length x 

width, 1 7 y 0.8. (New Caledonia) 

rufescens 

Yellowish brown; head not darker than rest 
of body; palps pale, antennae slightly darker. 
Pronotum length x width, 2 .0-2.3 X 2 9-3,3; 
tegmen length x width, 0.7-1,0 x 0.8-0.9. 
(Australia ) mackerrasae 

DlSlRlBUI ION 

Of the three species of Trynnicus known from 
Australia, T. parvus is the most southern and was 
previously known from eastern New South Wales, 
and Lamington National Park in southeastern 
Queensland near the New South Wales border 
(Mackerras 1968). New records extend the range 
800 km north to Eungella, central Queensland. T. 
mackerrasae, T. monteithi and T. sp. I occur in 



mountains of the wet tropical zone of north 
Queensland. T. mackerrasae is most widespread, 
extending from the Kirrama Range north to Cape 
Tribulation. The other two have smaller ranges 
within the same zone and all three are sympatric 
in the mountains behind Mossman (Fig. 1). 

Before Tryonicus was recognized from New 
Caledonia, Dr G.B. Monteith wrote me (June 7 f 
1984) that 'The reason I went to New Caledonia 
(an old Gondwana plate fragment with many 
ancient biogeographic links with Australia) was to 
investigate the summit faunas of some of its 
mountains. One of the montane relicts I suspected 



• macheuasae 
n monteitfii 
■ parvus 
sp 1 




Fig. I: Distribution of species of Tryonicus m Australia. 



154 



MEMOIRS OF THL QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



might be there was Tryonicus and I was delighted 
to confirm this'. There are many examples of links 
between primitive elements of the Australian flora 
and fauna and that of New Caledonia (e.g 
Lloiloway 1979; Monteith 1980). The new 
Caledonia species all occur above 600 m altitude. 
T. angusta is widespread over the northern two- 
thirds o^ the island, but T. rufescens and T. vicina 
are still known only from their type localities at 
Mt Ignambi and Mt Humboldt, respectively at the 
north and south ends of the island. 



Tryonicus parvus (Tepper) 
(Figs 2A-L, Plate 1A, B) 

Periplaneta parva leppev, 1895, p. 162 (female). 
Blattapurva (Tepper), Kirby, 1910, p. 564. 
Piatyzosteria parva (Tepper), Shelford, 1910, p. 7 (as 

doubtful species). 
Cutiiia parva (Tepper), Shaw, 1925. p. 191. 
Afclanozosteria parvu (Tepper), Prineis, 1966, p. 576. 
Tryonicus parvus (Tepper). Mackerras, 1968, p. 557, figs 

50-57, 58, 98, 99, 103 (male and female). 
Tryonicus momanus Shaw, 1925, p. 202, figs 24-26; 




( : i<j, 2: Tryonicus parvus (Tepper). A~G, Male: A, Thorax (right tegmen removed ro show small hind wing); B, Left 
genital phallomere; C, Supraanal plate; D, Subgenital plate; E, Seventh abdominal tergite; F, Maxillary palpal 
segments 4 and 5; G, Genital phailomere L3; H, Nymph, seventh abdominal tergite. f-L, Females: 1-K T 
Supraanal plates; L, Terminal portion of spermatheca. Localities: A-E. FL Bald ML area, Qld.; F, Gibraltar 
Range, via Glenn Innes^ N-S.W.;G, Lamington National Park, Qld.; 1, Barnngton House, N.S.W.;.J, Eungella 
Nat. Park, Qld.; K, L, National Park. McPherson Range, Qld. 



ROTH: TRYONICUS 



155 



McKittrick and Mackerras, 1965, p. 224, figs 2, 9a, 
9b, 10; Mackerras, 1968, p. 557; Princis, 1966, p. 
559. 

Material Examined 

The holotype was not examined; it is a 9, from Sydney, 
N.S.W. and is in the South Australian Museum. 

Queensland. QMBA: National Park, Q., 
Macpherson Ra., 8 holotype of Tryonicus montanus 
Shaw (no. 0/2872); (labelled montana), xii.1918, 
(additional data from Shaw, 1925, p. 203: Lamington 
Plateau, 3000 ft, 1917-1918); National Park, Lamington, 
Q., 2 ? paratypes of Tryonicus montanus Shaw (genitalia 
of one mounted between coverslips by M.J. Mackerras), 
3000 ft., i.1917, H. Tryon; same locality and elevation, 
IS paratype of T. montanus, l.iii.1921, A.J. Turner. 
UQLA; Eungella Nat. Pk., via Mackay, N.Q., 1 S (slide 
10), 5.viii.l968, B. Cantrell; Conondale, sites 12-13, 1 v, 
29.xi.1974, G.B. Monteith; Lamington Nat. Pk., S.E. 
Qld., Nothofagus forest, 3800 ft, 1 & (slide 8), 1 nymph, 
30. i. 1965, G. Monteith; Bald Mt. area, via Emu Vale, 
SE. Qld., 3-4000 ft., 17-22.V.1969, 1 * (slide 12), B. 
Cantrell, 2tf, I nymph, G.B. Monteith; no data, 1$ 
(genitalia mounted between coverslips by M.J. 
Mackerras). MCZH: Nat. Park, Q., McPherson Rge., 
3-4000 ft., IS, March 1932, Darlington. ANIC: 
Lamington N.P., l£ (genitalia between coverslips on 
pin), 1 nymph (ex colony 212, 1. v. 1965 (both det. as 
parvus by Mackerras). 

New South Wales. UQLA: Barrington House, via 
Salisbury, IS (slide 9), 26-28.xii.1965, T. Weir. The 
following were collected by G. Monteith: Carrai Plateau, 
via Kempsey, 1 /, 3-5. i. 1967; Gibraltar Range, via Glen 
Innes, rain forest, 3 $ , 27-29.xii.1972; Night Cap Track, 
Whian Whian S.F., via Dunoon, 1 nymph, 25. xi. 1972. 
{1$ retained at MCZ). ANIC: Ebor, 1- (genitalia 
between coverslips on pin), 21. hi. 1954, E.F. Riek (det. 
as parvus by Mackerras). 



Description 

Mackerras (1968, p. 557) gave a complete 
description of parvus. The following should 
distinguish this species from the new taxa. 

Male. Tegmina greatly reduced to narrow, 
widely separated lateral pads extending slightly 
beyond hind margin of metanotum; wings much 
smaller, narrow, elongated, completely hidden 
under tegmina (Figs 2A, PL 1A). First abdominal 
tergite unspecialized. Hind margin of seventh 
abdominal tergite sinuous (Fig. 2E). Supraanal 
plate transverse, hind margin almost straight (Fig. 
2C), or weakly convex. Interstylar margin of 
subgential plate convex (Fig. 2D). Left genital 
phallomere as in Fig. 2B. Anteroventral margin of 
front femur with 2 distal spines, posterior margin 
with 1 distal; Mid femur, anteroventral margin, O 
plus 1 distal, posteroventraJ, 0-2 plus 1 distal; 
Hind femur, anteroventral with plus 1 distal, 
posteroventraJ, usually 2 or 3 (rarely 0, or 4-6) 



spines plus 1 distal. Pulvilli small, apical. Mainly 
black, shining. Antennae with a few pale segments 
in the middle third. 

Female. Apterous (PI. IB). Supraanal plate 
trigonal, apex rounded (Fig. 2K), or weakly (21) 
or more distinctly indented (Fig. 2J). Spermathecal 
reservoir round, bulbous, arising from the long 
convoluted duct preapically, the region beyond the 
insertion wider than the long duct (Fig. 2L). 

Measurements (mm) (2 in parentheses). Body 
length, 12.0-14.0(11.0-16.7); pronotum length x 
width, 3.2-3.8 x 4.7-5.8 (3.2-3.7 x 4.8-5.3); 
tegmen length x width, 2.7-3.5 x 1.2-1.7. 

Nymph. Resembles adult female but hind 
margin of seventh abdominal tergite is more deeply 
sinuous (Fig. 2H). 

Tryonicus mackerrasae, n. sp. 
(Figs 3A-I, Plate 1,C, D) 

Tryonicus n. sp. A and B, Mackerras, 1968, p. 561. 
(female). 

Material Examined 

Holotype: r , Kiramma State Forest, via Cardwell, 
N. Qld., 17-18. viii. 1966, G. Monteith (labelled 
Tryonicus sp. nov., by Mackerras); in the QMBA 
(T.9526). 

Paratypes: Queensland. UQLA: Crater Lake Nat. 
Park, via Ravenshoe, N.Q., 1 3 (slide 7), 1 £ (slide 13), 
2<J, IS (slide 14), tf (slide 15), 39, 9.viii.l968, B. 
Cantrell (IS and lv retained in MCZ); Millaa Millaa 
Falls, via Millaa Millaa, N.Q., 1 ', 10-1 l.xii. 1966, B. 
Cantrell; same data as holotype, 1 a (slide 17); Mt. Edith, 
2 ml. N. of Tinaroo Dam, N.Q., 3500 ft., 1 2, 2.vi.l972, 
G.B. Monteith. QMBA: Bellenden Ker, Cableway Tower 
No. 3, 1000 m, Pyrethrum/trees, It, 25.ix.1981, G. 
Monteith; Beltenden Ker Range, N.Q., Cable Tower No. 
3, 1054 m, 1 ' (slide 39), 25-31.X.1981, Earthwatch/Qld 
Mus.; Mt. Fisher, 7 km SW Millaa Millaa, N.Q., 
Kjellberg Rd., 1000 m, 1 f (slide 32), 4', IS, 1 - (slide 
33), 3.V.1983, G.B. Monteith and D.K. Yeates; The 
Bluff, 11 km W. of Mossman, N.E. Qld., 800-1300 m, 
U (slide 24), 2.xi.l983, Monteith, Yeates, and 
Thompson; 4.5 km W. of Cape Tribulation (site 9), 760 
m, Pyrethrum knockdown, R.F., IS, 29. ix. 1982, 
Monteith, Yeates, and Thompson; Mt. Demi, 7 km S.W. 
of Mossman, N.E. Qld., 1100 m, 1' (slide 29), 
29.x. 1983, D.K. Yeates and G.I. Thompson; 21 km S. 
of Atherton, N.E. Qld., 1040-1100 m, Pyrethrum 
knockdown in R.F., 1 * , 5.xi. 1983, D.K. Yeates and G.I. 
Thompson. ANIC: 'Dunbulla' {= Danbulla), 25, 
30.vi.1951, J.F. Gay (sp. A of Mackerras). 

Description 

Male. Tegmina reduced in length reaching to 
about hind margin of T2, or middle of T3 , normal 
in width, hind margins overlapping; hind wings 
much smaller, folded, curved, apices directed 



156 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




1mm 





3mm 



2 mm 




2mm 




Plate 1. Tryonicus spp., habitus of males (upper row) and females (lower row). A, B, T. parvus (Tepper) (A from 
Gibraltar Range, via Glenn Innes, N.S.W.; B, from Conondale, Qld); C, D, T, mackerrasae, n. sp., male 
holotype and female paratype (both from Kirrama State Forest, Qld); E, F, T. monteithi, n. sp., male holotype 
(Bellenden Ker Range, Qld), and female paratype (Bartle Frere, NW Centre Peak). Arrow in Fig. C indicates 
position of gland on Tl . 



ROTH: TRYONH US 



157 



toward midline of abdomen where their tips almost 
touch setal specialization on T! (Figs 3A, PI. IC). 
First abdominal tergite with dense seta] tuft 
directed dorsally or dorsoposteriorly located in 
anteromcdial fossa (Figs 3A, PI. IC), and partly 
hidden under metanotum. Hind margin of T7 
straight. Supraanal plate transverse, lateral 
margins oblique, corners rounded, hind margin 
shallowly concave medially (Fig 3C) Subgenital 
plate short, extending slightly beyond hind margin 
of supraanal plate, interstylar margin truncate or 
practically so (Fig. 3D). Front femur: 



anterovemral margin with row ol slender setae on 
basal half followed by row of very small piliform 
setae, terminating in 1 distal spine, posterovcntral 
margin with single distal spine; Mid femur: 
anteroventral margin with 1 distal, posierovemral 
margin unarmed, or sometimes with 2 small 
spines, 1 distal spine present; Hind femur: 
anteroventral margin with 1 distal spine, 
posteroventral margin with 1 or usually 2 spines, 
plus 1 distal; genicular spine on mid and hind 
lemurs. Arolia and pulvilli absent. Left genital 
phallomere as in Fig. 3B. 




2mm 





0.5 



0.5mm 





i |i i 3: Tryonicus mackerrasas n. >p. A-F, Males: A, Hototype, thorax (rtghl Legmen removed to show hind tying): 
B-D, Paraiype from Ml. Demi. 7 km SW of MosSPttn, Qld.: B, Left genital phallomere; C, Supraanal plate; 
t). Subgenital plate; E, Holotype, maxillary palpal segments 4 and 5. II. Female paratypes; F, Thorax (Ml 
Ldith, Qld.); G, H, Supraanal plaie and terminal pan ol spermatheea (Mi. Fisher. 7 km SW of Millaa Millaa, 
Old); I, Terminal pari of sperrnatheca (Kirrama Stale foiest. Qld.). 



158 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Coloration. Head reddish brown, palps and 
basal part of clypeus yellowish, labrum brownish 
yellow. Antennae light brown, without pale 
segments. Pronotum brown, lateral regions more 
broadly pale than anterior or posterior zones. 
Tegmina, abdominal tergites, and cerci, brownish, 
darker than paler legs and abdominal sternites. 

Female. Tegmina widely separated, small 
lateral pads, posterior margins convex, apices 
trunctae reaching (and a continuation of) hind 
margin of mesonotum, or sometimes slightly 
beyond (Figs 3F, PL 1, D); hind wings absent. 
Supraanal plate transverse, hind margin usually 
with a shallow mesal invagination (Fig. 3G), or 
sometimes narrowly truncate. Genital sclerites 
typical of the genus. Spermatheca unbranched 
with a round or elliptical reservoir at apex (Fig. 
3H, I). 

Measurements (mm) (V in parentheses). Body 
length, 6.0-9.2 (6.3-8.4); pronotum length x 
width, 2.0-2.6 x 2.8-3.1 (2.0-2.3 x 2.9-3.3); 
tegmen length x width, 2.2-3.0 x 1.7-2.3 (0.7- 
1.0 x 0.8-0.9). 

Remarks 

Mackerras (1968, p. 561) claimed to have 2 new 
species of Tryonicus which she did not name. 
Species A was represented by 2 small yellowish 
females taken at 'Dunbulla', Qld. (actually 
Danbulla), and have small lobiform tegmina. 
Species B was represented by a male and female 
which were small, yellowish brown, with pale 
yellow legs and palps, collected in Kirrama State 
Forest. These latter two specimens are the holotype 
and a paratype of the present species which 1 am 
dedicating to Dr Mackerras. According to her, the 
female is apterous, but it has small tegmina (PL 
ID); she may have erred because the hind margins 
of the tegmina appear to be a continuation of the 
hind margin of the mesonotum. I have examined 
the specimens of her sp. A and they are both 
mackerrasae. 

Tryonicus monteithi n. sp. 
(Figs 4A-G, 5A-D, 6A-I, Plate IE, F) 

Material Examined 

Holotype: S, Bellenden Ker Range, N.Q., Summit 
TV Stn., 1560 m, 29.iv.-2.v,1983, G.B. Monteith and 
D.K. Yeates; in the QMBA (T.9540). 

Paratypes: Queensland. UQLA: Mt. Edith, 2 miles 
N.of TinarooDam, N.Q., 1 J, IS (slide 16), 2.vLl972, 



G.B. Monteith. QMBA: Mt. Bellenden Ker, Centre Peak 
Summit, 1500 m, IS (slide 26), \- (slide 30), 1; (slide 
34), 10-12.iv. 1979, G.B. Monteith; The Bluff, U kmW. 
of Mossman, 1300 m, 1 2 (slide 27), 2.xi.l983, Monteith, 
Yeates, and Thompson; same locality as holotype, 1 v , 
28.x. 1983, Monteith, Yeates and Thompson, I# 
(deposited in MCZ), 1 * (slide 36) 2 J (R.F., pitfall trap), 
29.iv.-2.v. 1983, G.B. Monteith and D.K. Yeates. U 
(R.F., pitfall trap), Apr. -Oct. 1982, S. Montague. The 
following were collected by Earthwatch/Qld. Mus.: same 
data as holotype, lv (slide 25), 25-31.X.1981; Mt. Bartle- 
Frere, N.W. Centre Peak ridge, 1400-1500 m. 2£, l¥, 
7-8.xi.1981; Mt. Bartle-Frere, Sth. Peak summit, 1620 
m, 2v (one deposited in MCZ), 6-8.xi.1981; Bellenden 
Ker Range, Cable Tower 3, 1054 m, pitfall trap in rain 
forest, l(S (slide 35), H (slide 37), l.xi.1981. The 
following were collected by G.B. Monteith and D. Cook: 
BartleFrere, N.W. Centre Peak, 1400-1500 m, I J (slide 
22), 1 ■?, 1 2 (slide 23), 24.ix.1981; Nth. Bell Peak, 20 km 
S. Cairns, 900-1000 m, 1 .', I5-16.ix.198K 

Description 

Male. Tegmina reduced in length, reaching 
almost to hind margin of T2 or middle of T3, 
width normal, hind margins overlapping along 
midline of abdomen (PI. IE); hind wings further 
reduced, curved, apices directed toward median 
specialization on Tl (Fig. 4A). First abdominal 
specialization a tuft of setae in an anteromedial 
fossa or depression. Supraanal plate convexly 
rounded (Fig, 4D), sometimes with a weak 
indication of a broad medial indentation (Fig. 4B). 
Interstylar margin weakly convex (Fig. 4E, F), or 
subtruncate (Fig. 4C). Front femur: anteroventral 
margin with long slender setae on basal half, 
followed by row of short piliform setae, and 1 or 
rarely 2 distal spines, posterior margin with 1 distal 
spine; Mid femur: anteroventral margin with 1 
distal, posteroventral with 1 or 2 spines plus 1 
distal; Hind femur: anteroventral margin with 1 
distal, posteroventral with 1, 2, or rarely 3 spines 
plus 1 distal; genicular spine on mid and hind 
femurs . Arolia and pulvilli absent . Terminal 
portion of L2v sclerite of left genital phallomere 
variable (Fig. 5A-D), 

Coloration. Head black. Antennae may have 
some pale distal segments. Labrum reddish brown, 
basal half of clypeus yellowish, maxillary palps 
dark brown. Pronotum and tegmina black or 
brownish black very narrow lateral edges of 
former, and anterior margins of latter may be 
reddish brown, and the tegmina may have a 



Fig. 4: Tryonicus monteithi n. sp., male paratypes from Queensland. A, Thorax (left tegmen removed to show 
reduced hind wing); B-F, Supraanal plate (with cerci) and subgenital plate (with styles); G, Segments 4 and 5 
of maxillary palps. Localities: A, Mt. Bartle Frere; B and C, Bartle Frere, NW to Centre Peak; D and E, 
Bellenden Ker Range, Cable Tower 3; F and G, Bellenden Ker Range, Summit TV station. 



ROTH: TRYONtCUS 



159 





B 






|mm 




160 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Fig. 5: Tryomcus monteithi n. sp., male paratypes from Queensland, left scnital phallomeres. Localities: A-C, 
Bellenden Ker Range, Summit TV station (A). Cable Tower 3 (B and C); D, Bartle Frere, NW to Centre Peak. 
All to same scale. 



ROTH: TRYONICUS 



161 







S« — b 



0.5mm 





~"~~™— — ' 






l 



0.5 



X 



•/ 




Fig. 6: Tryonicus monteithi n. sp., female paratypes from Queensland. A, Genitalia (a = spermathecal opening; b 
= basivalvuta and spermathecal plate; c = spermatheca); B, C, Spermathecae. D. E, Supraanal plate and 
spermatheca, respectively; F-H, Supraanal plate, provcntriculus (flattened), and spermatheca, respectively; I, 
J, Supraanal plate and spermatheca, respectively. Localities: A, Bellenden Ker Range, Summit TV station; B, 
Bartle Frere, NW Centre Peak; C, Mt. Bellenden Kcr Centre Peak; D and B, Mt. Bellenden Ker Centre Peak 
summit: F-H, Mt. Edith, 2 miles north of Tinaroo Dam; 1 and J, The Bluff, 1 1 km west of Mossman. 



162 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



metallic sheen. Abdominal tergites dark brown. 
Abdominal siernues and legs reddish brown, the 
former somewhat darker. Cerci dark brown 
iMirnlur to abdominal rergires). or reddish brown 
(much lighter than tergites). Some specimens are 
dark reddish brown rather than blackish. 

Female: Tegmiaa lateral pads usually extenduig 
slightly beyond (PI. l> F), but sometimes level with 
hind margin of mesonotum. Hind margin of 
supraanal plate usually convexly rounded (Fig 
6A, D, F), sometimes with a weak concave 
indentation (Fie. 61). Genitalia as in Fie. 6A. 
Spermatheca unbrancbed, terminal reset 
uniformly elongated (Fig. 6B ? J), or with an 
elliptical or round dista! swelling (Fie. 6C, E, H) 
Proventriculus as in Fig. 6G. Coloration dark 
brown or blackish brown. 

MEAsuRkMtiNts (mm) ( ; in parentheses). Body 
length, 11.0-13. 7(10. 3-13. 5);pronotumlengii 
width, 3.2-4.3 x 4.0-5.5 (3.0-4.0 X 3.9-4.9); 
tegmen length X width, 3.1-4.5 x 2.5-3.5 (1.0- 
2.0 x |JW 

Remarks 

reoerally this is a larger and darker species than 
mackerrasae. Although the two caxa look quite 
different (size and color), many of the 
morphological characters are similar indicating a 
close relationship. 

Of particular interest is the apparent 
polymorphism in the shape of the Pern ale 
spermatheca whose terminal reservoir varies from 
a straight tube more or less uniform in width, to 
one that has an elliptical or round distal swelling, 
ihc latirr two forms occurring in mackerrasae. 
After preparing the first spermathecal slides I 
thought that the round terminal bulb in 
mackerrasae, and the straight tube in monteithi 
were good characters to differentiate the females 
of these taxa, especially in some specimens whose 
size was not clearly distinctive. However, 
additional preparations showed that The extent of 
spermathecal variation makes the use of this 
character doubtful, however, I have seen no 
mackerrasae spennathecae with a uniformly 
straight reservoir, unless I have misidentificd some 
of the small females of monteithi. The la 
significance of spermathecal variation is unknown. 
Variability in the L2v of the male lei i 
phallemere also suggests that the species \% in a 
fluid state. 

Tnonicus sp. I 

(Fifi.7A-G) 

■i 

!. ciwInndL QMBA; vit. 1 1 iml im s\v MoMiwm, 



9QCMQQU oi a I '' <shde 28), 26 t W.19fi3 Montciih i 
Yeates; Mt. Lewis road, via Jaiauen, rain I'OTCST, I ' 
(slide 31). 11.\.19S0, G-B. Montenh; DeviJ 1 * Thumb 
area, in km NW Mossman. lOOCKUBOm. I (filld* 

9-10. xT98c\ Mnnicith, Yeaies, and Thompson. UQLA: 

Mt. Lewis, via J lulaticn. 3500ft. . 1 i blide 1 1), 4.v . 1970, 
C.B. MotUeiuY 

The above specimens look Hkc miniature monteithi 
,<<\\ color), but I cannot place I 
unequivocally in that species. 

Description 

Mali: First abdominal iergite modified. 
Tegmina and wings as in monteithi Hind margin 
of supraanal plate with a medial invagination (Fig. 
7A) (usuaLly rounded in monteithi). Subgenital 
plate as in Fig. 7B. L2v of left genital phallomere 
vvnh a spine-like sclerotization: L2d with 
numerous small spines along the lateral postenor 
margin (Fig 7Q. Shining black (metallic), or dark 
brown; maxillary palps dark. 

Ffmalf. Tegminaas in monteithi. Hind margin 
of supraanal plate with a small shallow medial 
invagination (Fig. 7D, F). Spermatheca with 
terminal reservoir elongated, straight, without a 
bulbous swelling, inserted preapically, the small 
branch beyond the insertion about the same width 
as the common duct (Fig. 7E, G). 

Measurements (mm) ( ■ in parentheses). Body 
length, 8.5-9.6 (8.5-10.3); pronotum length x 
wiith.3.0 /. 3.6-3.7(2.6-3.1 x 3.5-3.9); legmen 
leneth x width. 2.9-3.3 X 2.3-2.6(1.2-1.4 , 
0.9-1.2). 

Remarks 

These specimens are somewhat small for 
monteithi and large for mackerrasae. Color is 
similar to monteithi (especially the dark palps and 
the metallic male). The male's left genital 
phallomere differs somewhat from those of i In- 
other 2 taxa, but this structure may bo variable (at 
least in monteithi). The terminal portion of the 
female's spermatheca [S elongated without a 
bulbous swelling, as in some monteithi, hut it has 
a small branch beyond the point oi insertion of 
the reservoir, Trvnnirus parvus also has a 
branched S| matlieea, but the large reservoir is 
round and bulbous, and the small branch is wider 
than the convoluted duet. 

The male of Try<>niru\ sp. I keys out to coupler 
i size and shape of hind margin of supraanal 
plate it is close to mackerrasae, but its coloration 
is similar to that of monteithi. The L2d and L2\ 
of the male's left genital phallomere (Fig. 7C) 
dilfers somewhat from the two new species, but 
I be L2v of monteithi may be variable (Fig. 5). The 



ROTH: TRYONICUS 



163 



size of the female is intermediate between 
mackerrasae and monteithi (couplets 10 and 11). 
Its spermathcea, unlike these two species, has a 
small branch beyond the insertion of the elongated 
distal reservoir (Fig. 7E, G), whose non-bulbous 
shape resembles that of some specimens of 
monteithi (Fig. 6B, J). 



Whether these specimens are variants of 
monteithi and mackerrasae, or are a distinct taxon, 
requires a study of additional material. A male 
from Mt. Demi (same locality as the sp. 1 male 
from Mt. Demi) appears to be typical 
mackerrasae. 




0.5 





0.5mm 




) 




w 



0.5 mm 



0.5 mm 





Fig. 7: Tryonicus sp. 1. A-C, Male (Mt. Lewis Road, via Julatten, Qld.): A, Supraanal plate; B, Subgenital plate; 
C, Left genital phallomere. D-G, Females: D and E, Supraanal plate and terminal portion of spermatheca (Mt. 
Lewis, Qld.); F and G, The same (Devils Thumb area, 10 km NW of Mossman, Qld.). 



164 



MfcMOIKS Ol THL QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Tryonicus ungusta (Chopard) n. comb. 
(Fig. 8A-H) 

Styhpyga angusta Chopard, 1924, p. 332, figs 63, 64 

(male and female). 
Neosiylopyga angusta (Chopard) Princis, 1966: 540. 

Material Examined 

Syntype: f , Forest ol" Mont lgnambi, New Caledonia, 
8.viU91l, Dr. S.[arasinl and Dr. Rfouxl; in the Basel 
Museum. 

Additional MATERIA1 : New Caledonia. QMBA: All 
specimens were collected by G. Monteith and D. Cook: 
TableUnio.700-1000m.2Ml wilh slide 41), 10. v. 1984; 
Ml Rembai, 650 m, 1 ', 700-900 m, 2., i nymph, 
9.V.I9S4; Mandjelia, above Pouebo, 600-750 m. I ' , 1 1- 
I3.V.1984; Mt. Do Summit, 1000m. 1 '.2 (Iwilhslide 
42), 20.V.1984; Mt. Mou Summit, 1200 m, 1 (slide 4.V 
spermatheca lost in preparation but similar to the one 
on slide 42), 20. v. 1984. 



Description 

Male. Dorsal surface of thorax with few, 
scattered, minute punciaiions. Pronotum strongly 
convex, with a shallow, median, longitudinal 
sulcus on posterior half. Tegmina and wings 
absent. First abdominal tergite unspecialized. 
Hind margin of T7 straight (Fig. 8A). Supraanal 
plate transverse, apex of hind margin rounded 
(Fig. 8Ah shallowly concave (Fig. 8C, F), or 
truncate (Fig. 8E). Subgenital plate not extending 
beyond hind margin of supraanal plate, interstylar 
margin weakly convex (Fig. 8B). Front femur: 
anteroventral margin with I or 2 distal spines, 
posterior margin without spines; mid femur: 
anteroventral margin without spines or with 1 
distal, posterior margin without spines; hind 
femur: anteroventral margin with 1 distal, 
posteroventral with 2 spines, none distal. Pulvilli 






Fig. 8: Tryanicus angmtu (Chopard) from New Caledonia. A, Male from Table Unio, habitus. B-F, Males: B-D, 
from Table Unio, subgenital plate, supraanal plate, and left genital phallomere, respectively; E. I\ Supraanal 
plates from Mandjelia, and Mt. Do, respectively- G, H, Female from Mt. Do. spermatheca and supraanal plate 
respectively. 



roth: Txrowcus 



165 



appear I© be absent from most of the tarsal 
segments, but in some specimens they are 
recognizable on ihe fourth segment, and 
sometimes the third as well. Left genital 
phaliomere as in Fig. 8D. 

Coloration. Black or reddish brown, usually 
shiny. Head black, ctypeus yellow Antennae and 
legs reddish brown, palps brown. 

Female. Habitus similar to male. Supraanal 
plate transverse, trigonal, hind margin with (Fig. 
SH)or without a shallow medial indentation. Legs 
similar to males with following differences in 
femoral armament: mid femur: posteroventral 
margin without or with 1 spine; hind femur. 
posterovenral margin with 0-2 spines. 
Spermatheca with a slender duct leading into a 
sclerotized enlarged reservoir which is very dark 



and spherical at one end and somewhat lighter and 
club-shaped on the other (Fig. 80), 

MEASUREMENTS (mm) ( - in parentheses). Body 
length, 10.6-13.5 U LO-14.2); pronotum length x 
width, 3.4-4.0 X 4.1-4.8(3.5-4.0 X 4.3-4.8). 

Nymph. A male nymph (1 1 .5 mm) resembles the 
adult but its supraanal plate is more strongly 
trigonal With the lateral margins somewhat 
undulate Body color dark brown, legs yellowish 
brown. 
Rfmarks 

This is the only species of Tryonicus in which 
the males lack tegmina. T. angusta is close to 
parvus (absence of male tergal gland, and 
similarities in left male genital phaliomere). The 
spermathecae of the two species are strikingly 
different. 





mm 





•V B, Tryonicus rufescens (Chopard). female syntype, thorax and iegmina, and supraanal plate, respectively. 
• D, Tryonicus vicina (Chopard), female holotype, thorax and legmina. and supraanal plate, respectively. 



Ihh 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Tryonicus rufescens (Chopard) n. comb. 
(Fig. 9A, B) 

Stylopyga rufescens Chopard, 1924, p. 333, figs 65-67 

(male and female). 
Neostylopyga rufescens (Chopard), Princis, 1966, p. 540. 

Material Examined 

Syntype: i , Ignambi, New Caledonia, vii.!911, Drs. 
S[arasin] R[oux]; in the Basel Museum. 

Description 

Female. Tegmina with anterior border straight, 
posterior border convex, apex subtruncate, 
reaching to hind margin of mesonotum; hind 
margin of metanotum practically straight (Fig. 
9A). Supraanal plate transverse, trigonal, apex 
weakly indented (Fig. 9B). The only female I have 
seen has the front and mid legs missing, and 
damaged hind legs. The anterior and posterior 
ventral margins of the hind femurs have 4 or 5 
large spines and 1 terminal spine; the left leg has 
only 4 non-pubescent tarsi and the metatarsus has 
2 rows of spines along the entire ventral margin. 

Coloration. Reddish brown. Head dark brown, 
antennae, clypeus, and palps yellowish. Legs 
reddish. 

Measurements (mm). Length, 9.3; pronotum 
length x width, 2.6 x 4.0; tegmen length x 
width, 1.7 x 0.8. 

Male. I have not seen the male of this species. 
From Chopard's description, the tegmina 
apparently are similar to those of the female (i.e. 
squamiform). The supraanal plate is triangular, 
with hind margin subtruncate. Subgenital plate 
with posterior margin convex, styles rather long, 
close together, subacute. 

Tryonicus vicina (Chopard) n. comb. 
(Fig.9C,D). 

Stylopyga vicina Chopard, 1924, p. 334, figs 68, 69 (male 

and female). 
Neostyhpyga vicina (Chopard), Prinris, 1966, p. 540. 

Material Examined 

Holotype: v, Summit of Mont Humboldt, New 
Caledonia, 1600 m, 18.viii.191I (not Nov., as indicated); 
in the Basel Museum. 

Description 

Female. Antennae pubescent. Tegmina very 
narrow, inner margin straight, tapering to a 
subacute apex, reaching to hind margin of 
mesonotum; wings absent; hind margin of 
metanotum concave (Fig. 9C). Supraanal plate 
transverse, hind margin broadly rounded, not 
idented medially (Fig. 9D). Pulvilli and arolia 



absent; tarsi pubescent. Front femur: 
anteroventral margin with 2 large proximal spines 
followed by a row of piliform setae, plus 2 terminal 
or distal spines; posteroventral margin with 1 distal 
spine. Mid femur: anteroventral margin with 2 
spines on distal half, plus 1 terminal spine, 
posterior margin with 3 spines on distal half plus 
1 terminal. Hind femur: anteroventral margin with 
3 distal and no terminal spines; posterior margin 
with 2 distal and 1 terminal spine. 

Coloration. Reddish brown. Head similar to 
pronotal disk. Pronotum with anterior and most 
of lateral borders lighter than the disk region. 
Antennae, palps and legs light brown. 

Measurements (mm). Length, 9.0; pronotum 
length x width, 2.5 x 3.6; tegmen length x 
width, 1.6 x 0.7. 

Remarks 

According to Chopard, the male (which I have 
not seen) has tegmina and the concave hind margin 
of the metanotum, similar to the female. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

1 thank the individuals mentioned earlier who 
kindly loaned me specimens from their respective 
museums. I am grateful to the American 
Philosophical Society, and the Bureau of Flora 
and Fauna, Australian Biological Resources 
Study, for partial support. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Chopard, l., 1924. Blauidae de la Nouvelle-Caledonie 
et des lies Loyalty. In Sarasin, F. and Roux, J., 
Nova Caledonia. Recherches scientifiques en 
Nouvelle-Caledonie et aux lies Loyalty. A. Zoologie 
3: 301-36. 

Holloway, J.D., 1979. A survey of the Lepidoptera, 
biogeography and ecology of New Caledonia. Ser. 
EntomoL 15, 588 pp., (W. Junk: The Hague). 

Kirby, W.F., 1910. A synonymic catalogue of 
Orthoptera. Vol. 3. British Museum (Nat. Hist.), 
London. 

Mackerras, M.J., 1965. Australian Blattidae 
(Blattodea). I. General remarks and revision of the 
genus Polvzosteria Burmeister. Aust. J. ZooL 13: 
841-82. 
1968. Australian Blattidae (Blattodea). IX. Revision 
of Polyzosteriinae tribe Methanini, Tryonicinae, 
and Blattinae. Aust. J. ZooL 16: 511-75. 

McKittrick, F.A. and Mackerras, M.J., 1965. 
Phyletic relationships within the Blattidae. Ann. 
EntomoL Soc. Amer. 58: 224-30. 

Monteith, G.B., 1980. Relationships of the genera of 
Chinamyersiinae, with description of a relict species 
from mountains of north Queensland (Hemiptera : 
Heteroptera : Aradidae). Pac. Insects 21: 275-285. 



ROTH: TRYONICUS 167 



Princis, K., 1966. Orthopterorum Catalogue (Ed. M. remarks on Tepper's types. Proc. Linn. Soc. 

Beier), Pt. 8. Blattariae, subordo Blattoidea, Family N.S. W. 50: 171-213. 

Blattidae, Nocticolidae. W. Junk, s'-Gravenhage. Shelford, R.W.C., 1910. Genera Insectorum. Blattinae. 

Roth, L.M., 1968. Oothecae of the Blattaria. Ann. Vol. 109. (M.P. Wytsman: Brussels). 

EntomoL Soc. Amer. 61: 83-111. Tepper, J.G.O., 1895. Notes on Victorian and other 

Shaw, A.E., 1925. New genera and species (mostly Blattariae and descriptions of new species. Trans. 

Australasian) of Blattidae, with notes and some R. Soc. S. Aust. 19: 146-66. 



Memoirs 

OF THE 

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Menu Od MM* 25(1): 169— 176.[1987] 

THREE NEW POL YRHA CHfS SEXSPINOSA-GROUP SPECIES FROM THE 
PHILIPPINES (HYMENOPTERA ; FORMICIDAE) 



RljDOl f J. Kohoui 
Queensland Museum 



ABSTRACT 

Eight species of ihe Polyrhachis sexsptnosa species-group arc recorded from the Philippines. 
Three {P. exotica, P. ignota and P. scabra) are described as new and iwo {P. aurecvesiim 
Donisihorpe and P. ctijppSO Ford), previously described from elsewhere, are recorded from Ihe 
Philippine Islands for the first time. A key to all species of the group known to occur in the 
Philippines- is provided. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Polyrhachis sexpirwsa species-group was 
revised recently by Bolton (1975). He recognised 
twelve species, two of which, P. magnified 
Menozzi and P. osiris Bolton, are apparently 
endemic to the Philippines, and gave full reference 
citations, which are not repeated here. My studies 
on the systematica of Indo-Australian Polyrhachis 
have resulted in the recognition o( three new 
species from Mindanao. They are described here 
as P. exotica n.sp,, P. scabra n.sp. and P. ignota 
n.sp. The first two were originally received from 
a private collection, without data, but certainly 
originating from somewhere in the Philippines 
probably Mindanao. Their presence there was later 
confirmed by specimens received from the Bernice 
P Bishop Museum, Hawaii, through the kindness 
of Dr Gordon Nishida. The occurrences of P. 
aureovestila Donisthorpe, P. calypso Forel and P. 
sexspinosu (Latrj were also verified from this 
material, and the third new species (P. ignota) was 
discovered. This brings to eight the number of P. 
sexspinosa-group species found in the Philippines. 

The illustrations were drawn using a Zeiss 
(Oberkochen) SR Stereomicroscope and camera 
lucida. Those of the new species and of P. osiris 
depict hototypes. 

The conventions of measurements and indices 
used in this paper are identical to those of Bolton 
(1973, 1975). 

The following abbreviations are used for 
institutions and depositories: ANIC = Australian 
National Insect Collection, CSIRO, Canberra; 
BMNH = British Museum (Natural History), 
London; BPBM - Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 
Honolulu; USNM = National Museum of Natural 
History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D-C.;QM = Queensland Museum, Brisbane; RJK 
- R.J. Kohout, Brisbane (private collection). 



KEY TO P S-f.YSP7.VOS/X-C.ROUP SPECIES RECORDED 

from Philippines (Based on Worker Cvsie) 

1 First gastral tergite covered with fine, rather 
dense pubescence, which is arranged in a 
characteristic midline pattern (Fig. 12) 2 

First gastral tergite smooth and shining; 
pubescence almost completely absent from 

dorsaL surface of the gaster (Fig. 9) .. 

P. exotica, sp. nov. 

2. Petiolar spines relatively long, elevated, 

recurved and hook-like (Figs 18, 19) 

P. calypso Fore] 

Petiolar spines relatively short, scarcely 
elevated, not developed into recurved hooks. 

3 

3. Head strongly contracted behind eyes, the 
occipital margin narrow, neck-like; antennal 
scapes relatively long (SI > 190) 4 

Head not strongly contracted behind eyes, the 
occipital margin broad; antenna! scapes 

relatively short (SI < 190), (Fig. 16) 

P. aureovestila Donist 

4. Antennal scapes with numerous short erect 
hairs (Figs 5, 17) 5 

Antennal scapes without erect hairs, or with 
only a few inconspicuous solitary short hair 
present (Figs 6, 13, 14) 6 

5. Occipital margin with lateral angulai 
prominences, which are visible in full face 
view (Fig. 17) P. sexspinosa (Latr.) 

Occipital margin without lateral angular 
prominences, short and collar-like (Fig- 5) ... 
P. osiris Bolton 

6. Extensor surfaces of middle and hind tibiae 
wit h moderately long erect hairs 7 



169 



170 



MLMOIKS OF THE QUtfiNSLAND MUSEUM 



Extensor surfaces of middle and hind tibiae 
Without erect hairs P. magnified Menozzi 

7 Proi. : |0 SUni strongly convex in profile 
(Fij;. 7) P. ignota, sp. nov. 

PjOflOtal dorsum only moderately convex in 
profile (Fig* 8) P. seabra, sp, 

Polyrhachis aureovestita Donisthorpe, 1937 
(Fig, 16) 

M\!!.k!ai Examined 

Mindanao. Zamboanga (2d Sui Lemesahan, 6O0 m, 
7.ix.l95S. ligiii (rap, H.E. Milliron, BPBM col!. U 
worker); Agusan, S. Francisco, »u km St, 1 3.xi. 1 95^, 
L.Quate&C. Yoshimoto, BPBM coll (I atate female), 

DIMENSIONS 

Worker cited first: TL 14.76, 16.07; HL 3.53. 
3.63; HW 2.32. 2.42; CI 66. 67; SL 4.3S ( 4.33: SI 
189, 179; PW 2.02, 2.37; MTL 5.34, 5.34. 

Remarks 

Both specimens closely match the holotype of 
P. aureovestita. They represent the first records of 
this species from the Philippines. 

Polyrhachis calypso Forel, 1911 
(Figs 18, 19) 

Matbuai EXAMINED 

Solu: Tawitawi, Tarakan, Farm, distr., !Lii.l957, 
Yoshio Kondo, BPBM coll. (I worker). 

Dimensions 

TL 10.28; HL 2.40; HW 1.50; CI 62, SL 3.03; 
SI202;PW 1.25; MTL 3. 5K. 

REMARKS 

Not previously recorded from the Philippines. 
In spite of some minor differences, including the 
slightly narrower head and the reduced pilosiiv. 
the single worker closely matches the syntypes and 
other available material of P. calypso from 
Borneo, Sumatra and Java. 

Polyrhachis exotica, sp. nov. 
(Figs 9, II, 15) 

Materiai Examined 

Mindanao: Misamis Oriental. Mi. KibungoL 10.-U. 
April I960, H.M. Torrevillas. KPHM , oil (Holttypt 2 
paratype workers): Mt. Kibunuol, 20kmS£ of Gineoog, 
700-SOOm, 9.-lS.iv.i960, H.M. Torrevillas, BPBMcOlL 
(3 paratype workers); Ml. JEmpagatao, 9.-18. April 1961, 
H.M. Torrevillas. BPBM coll. (1 paratype worker. 2 
paratype dealate females); Hindaneon, 20 km S of 
Gingoog, 600-700 m, 20.-24.iv.1960, H. Torrevillas. 
BPBM coll. (2 paratvpe workers): Minalwany, 1050 m. 



24 iii.-4.iv.1961, W. lorreviUax, BPBM coll. (1 paratype 
worker); MINDANAO, no tun her data, e\ C. Danes coll. 
(3 paratype workers. I paraiype dealate female). 

TYpt DEPOSITION'; Holotype and most paratypes (6 
workers and 2 females) in BPBM; 3 paratypes (2 workers, 
t female) in RJK; 1 paratype worker each in ANIC, 
BMNH, USNM and QM (with kind consent of Bern ice 
P. Bishop Museum). 

Description 

Work.lr 

Dimensions (hoiotvpe cited first): TL 14.46, 
13.31-14.66; HL 3.43, 3. 17-3.43; HW 2.22; 2 07- 
2.22; CI 65. 64-66, SL 4.48, 4.28-4.59; SI 202, 
201-207, PW T 2.06, 1.96-2.17; MTL 6.05, 5.74- 
6.10 (13 measured). 

Mandibles with 4 distinct teeth. Clypeus with a 
median longitudinal carina; convex in profile 
Sides of head in front of eyes feebly convex, nearly 
straight; narrowed behind eyes with occipital 
margin narrow and without lateral angular 
prominences. Antenna! carinae well elevated, 
sinuate; the furrow between them 2 x as wide in 
front than behind. Antennal scapes long, 
extending beyond the occipital margin by at least 
half their length Eyes convex, but not as 
prominent as in some species of the group Median 
ocellus present, though rather obscure in some 
specimens. Pronotum in profile very strongly 
convex, dome-like Pronotal spines long, 
projecting laterally and strongly curved forward. 
Mcsonotal dorsum in profile straight; propodeal 
dorsum shallowly concave, declivity abrupt. 
Mesopleural process produced to form an acute 
ventral angle. Propodeal spines very strong, long. 
elevated from their bases, divergent and recurved. 
Petiole with dorsum sloping anteriorly, spines 
scarcely elevated and curved to the base of gaster, 
which is short and broadly ovate, first tergite 
covering almost half of the gastral dorsum. 

Mandibles relatively smooth and shining at the 
masticatory border; punctate-opaque laterally, 
with numerous piliferous pits at their bases. 
Sculpturation a fine reticulate punctation on 
clypeus. front and sides of head; increasing 
posteriorly to coarsely punctate on vertex and at 
the occipital border. Mesosoma and petiole fairly 
coarsely and closely punctate; sides of mesonotum 
and propodeum foveolate-punctate. Dorsum of 
gaster shining, with only very fine microscopic 
punctations. 

All surfaces of the body and appendanges, 
except the tips of spines and dorsum of the first 
gastral segment, with numerous yellow or off- 
white long erect undulate hairs. These are longest 
and most dense on the mesosoma! dorsum and 



NEW POLYXitACHISWfX. if S 



i M 



only slightly shorter On rhe head, petiole, gaster 
and legs. Apprcs*>ed, somewhat radiating, bright 
golden pubescence abundant all over the body, 
except the mandibles, legs, apices of pronotal, 
propodeal and petiolar spines, and most of gasier 
(where it is much diluted, and virtually absent 
from dorsal aspect of the first tergite). 

Head and body black or very dark reddish 
brown; mandibles at the masticatory border, 
apical portions of antennal segments, subpetiolar 
process and legs reddish brown, the femora always 
a shade lighter. Gaster black with deep red 
reflections. 

Re male 

Dimensions: TL 16.08-16.63; HL 3.73-3.88; 
HW 2.47-2.57; CI 65-67: SL 4.74-4.99; SI 190- 
1%; PW 2.37-2.47. MTL 6.20-6.35 (3 measured). 

Females differ from workers in the usual 
characters identifying full sexuality — three ocelli, 
complete mesosomal structure and wings. The 
sculpturation, pilosity and colour patterning is 
identical, but development of the spines is 
different. The pronotal spines arc short and stout, 
projecting laterally and bent only weakly forward. 
The propodeal spines are directed posteriori \. 
projecting horizontally, with their tips curved 
slightly inwards. The petiolar spines are closely 
similar to those of the workers, but slightly 
shorter. 

Mam and Immatusi Stacks 

Unknown. 

Ri MARKS 

i ; , i a very distinct member of the P. 

svxs/jittoso-gioup. U possesses all [he combined 
characters of the group except that the 
smooth and shining, in contrast to those oi other 
species, where it is characteristically pubescent. 
This character together with the exceptionally 
produced pronotal dorsum render exotica 
immediately identifiable, and readilv separable 
from any other member of i-p 



l'ohrhachis ignof* *p. nov. 
<F.gs*MCi, 13) 

MATERIA! Hvam. 

MINDANAO: Zamboanga ctei Sur, LemesaTian, 600 m, 
7 -Six 1MSK H.E. Milliron, BPBM coll. (HoJwypCj 2 
paraiype workers). 

I mi Deposition: Holotype and 1 pararype in BPBM; 
I paralype in RJK. 

Description 

WtU-i- i 



Dimensions (holo:vpe ated first); TL 14.36, 
13.26-14.97; HL 3.48. 3 i7-3. 43; HW 2.07, 1.86- 
tJfJi CI 59, 59-60; SL 4.54, 4.43-4.48; SI 219, 
216-238; PW 1.81. J. 66-1. 81; MTL 6.20, 3.90- 

6 20 (3 measured). 

Mandibles with 5 teeth. Clypeus carinate, 
sinuate m profile (convex above and concave 
below). Sides ol' head in froni of eyes only feebly 
convex, almost straight; strongly narrowed behind 
eyes. Occipital margin narrow, collar-like, without 
lateral angular prominences. Antennal carinae 
elevated, sinuate. Antennal scapes extending 
beyond occipital border by nearly half their length. 
Eyes convex Pronotum strongly convex, distinctly 
swollen (though not to such a degree as in P 
exotica); pronotal spines stout, projecting lateraly, 
only slightly curved forward. Mesonotal dorsum 
in profile feebly convex, propodcurn shal lowly 
concave, declivity abrupt. Metanoial groove 
replaced by a minutely raised ridge. Mesopleural 
process represented as a non-acute simple lobe. 
Propodeal spines elevated at their bases, divergent 
and recurved. Petiole relatively low in front; its 
dorsum shallowly concave in profile, sloping 
anteriorly, and with a weak median longitudinal 
ridge similar to that in P. osiris. Apices of petiolar 
spines scarcely elevated, the spines short. Gaster, 
when contracted, short, broadly ovate. 

Mandibles smooth and shining at the 
masticatory border, densely punctate at their 
bases, intervening surfaces with graded 
sculpturation. CJypeus and front o\' head finely 
reticulate-punctate; sculp! u rat ion increasing 
posteriorly in intensity and density, so that the 
dorsal face and lateral branches of occiput are 
somewhat coarsely rugose Mesosomal dorsum 
With weak rugosity, decreasing posteriorly in 
intensity and density. Gaster very finely reticulate- 
punctate. 

White or yellowish erect hairs present in variable 
density all over the body and appendages, but 
absent from the antennal scapes. Relatively long, 
Mibereci. somewhat radiating rich golden 
pubescence variously developed; most dense on 
head and mesosomal dorsum, rather diluted on 
lateral portions of mesosoma (the specimens might 
be somewhat worn). Gaslral pubescence ranging 
from yellow on anterodorsal aspect of first tcrgite 
to silvery white elsewhere, arranged in a 
characteristic midline pacta 

Body and appendanges bUtefc, 

Se\OAL_S ANP IM? ■-■:■'■ S ["JM >E5 

Unknown. 

Remarks 

This is the third P. sexspi/josa-groap specie:- 
"in Philippines which lacks hairs on the antennal 



172 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




mm 



Figs 1-2: Lateral view (antennae and legs omitted); 1 — P. osiris; 2 — magnified. 

Figs 3-4: Dorsal view of mesosoma and petiole (pilosity omitted); 3 — P. osiris; 4 — magnified. 

Figs 5-6: Head in full face view (right antennae and cephalic pilosity omitted); 5 — P. osiris; 6 — magnifica. 

Figs 7-9: Lateral view (antennae and legs omitted); 1 — P. ignota; 8 — sedbra; 9 — exotica. 

Figs 10-11: Dorsal view of mesosoma and petiole; 10 — P. ignota (tip of the right spine on holotype broken off); 

11 — exotica. 
Fig. 12: Dorsal view of mesosoma, petiole and gaster of P. scabra. 



NEW POL YRHA CMIS SPECIES 



[73 




174 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Figs 13-17: Head in full face view (right antenna and cephalic pilosity omitted); 13 

— exotica; 16 — aureovestita; 17 — sexspinosa. 
Figs 18-19: Petiole of P. calypso; 18 — lateral; 19 — anterior. 



P. ignota; 14 — scabra; 15 



scapes (the others are P. magnified and P. scabra). 
P. ignota differs from magnifica in having erect 
hairs present on the extensor surfaces of the middle 
and hind tibiae and in the structure of the pronotal 
spines. In P. ignota these are quite short, and only 
weakly curved, while in P. magnifica they are long 
and strongly curved forward. P. ignota differs 
from P. scabra in having a strongly produced 
pronotal dorsum, which is only moderately convex 
in scabra. 



Polyrhaehis magnifica Menozzi, 1925 
(Figs 2, 4, 6) 

Material Examined 

Negros: Talay, Valencia, 8. i. 1961, H.M. Torrevillas; 
Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt. Iriga, 500-600 m, 4.- 
17. May 1962, H.M. Torrevillas; Camarines Sur, Mt. 
Isarog, 750-850 m, 20 km E of Naga, 4.-11 .April 1963, 



H.M. Torrevillas (all BPBM coll.); Luzon, no further 
data, ex C. Danes coll. 



Remarks 

This species was adequately described by 
Menozzi, and redescribed by Bolton (1975). The 
pubescence of specimens from Mt. Isarog tends to 
be more silvery than in the other populations 
where it is consistently brightly golden. 

Polyrhaehis osiris Bolton, 1975 
(Figs 1,3, 5) 

Remarks 

I have been able to examine the holotype 
through the kindness of Barry Bolton. Apart from 
P. exotica, this is the only endemic Philippine 
species of the group with erect hairs on the 
antennal scapes. 



NEW (>tit YI4HACHIS SPECIES 






Polyrhaehis sea bra. sp. nov. 
(Figs 8, 12, 14) 

Material ExaminI 

Minim's \o: Agusan, 10 km I rancisco, 

I 2. Nov, 1959, Quate & Yoshimolo, BPBM coll. 
(Holotype, 2 paratype workers); M team is Oriental, Ml. 
-.!!,.,') - iK.Apri! 1961, H.M. Torrevillas, BPBM 
coll. (3 paratype workers), Agusaru Esperanza, 4.- 
li.Xi.1339. CM, Voshupoto, BPBM coll. (1 paratype 
worker); Zarnboanga del Sur, 1 1 km NW of Milbuk, 390 
m t 5.viii.l958. H.E. Miiliron.. BPBM coll- (I par.: . 
worker); Surigao, 1_. Mamit. 23.xi.-l .xii. I959 r C.H. 
Yoshimolo, BPBM coll. (I paratype worker); Mr 
Or., Balason, l.iv.1960, H Torrevillas, BPBM coll. 
pseudogyne); Mindanao, no further data, ex C. Danes 
coll. (2 paratype workers, 1 paratype dealate female) 

Tvpr DEPOSITION: Holotype and 5 paralypes (4 

workers and 1 pseudogyne) in BPBM; 3 paratype* (2 

workers, I dealate female) in RTk. 1 paratype worker 

each in ANIC, BMNH, USNM and QM (with kind 

.. :i( of Bernice P. Bishop Museum). 

Description 
Worker 

Dimensions (holotvpe cited first, pseudogyne 
last): TL 14.81, 13,56-15.06, 16.48; HL 3 43, 
3.22-3.58, 3.93, HW 2.02, 1.86-2.12, 2.37; CI 59, 
58-61, 60; SL 4.74, 4.38-4.89, 5.14; SI 235, - 
237, 217: PW 1.66, 1 56- 1 .Ki, 2.02. MT! 6 25, 
5.85-6.35, 6.80 (12 measured). 

Mandibles with five teeth. Clypeus carinate, 
sinuate in profile (convex above, concave below). 
Sides o\' head in front of eyes almost straight, 
strongly contracted behind eyes, with narrow 
occipital margin, lacking lateral angular 
prominences. Antennal carinae rising sharply, 
sinuate. Antennal scapes long, extending beyond 
the occipital margin by about half their length- 
Eyes convex. Pronotum in profile moderately 
convex; pronotal spines long, slender, projecting 
laterally and curved forward. Mesonotal dorsum 
straight in profile, propodeal dorsum shallowly 
concave, declivity abrupt. Metanotal groove 
replaced by a minute ridge. Mesopleural process 
represented as a dentiform lobe with acme ventral 
angle. Propodeal spines long, elevated at their 
bases, diverging and recurved. Petiole with 
dorsum sloping anteriorly spines scarcely 
elevated, short. 

Mandibles punctate-opaque with numerous 
pUifefoUS pits, Seulpturation consists of very fine 
punctation on clypeus, front and sides of head, 
increasing posteriorly to densely, but shallowly 
punctate. Dorsum of rnesosoma densely, but 
shallowly punctate, sculptural intensity increasing 
laterally to coarsely punctate. Gaster very finely 
reticulate-punctate. 



All body surfaces except antennal scapes with 
rather diluted, moderately long, undulate, silvery 
white hairs, These are longest on mesosomal 
dorsum and shortest on lateral portions of 
;OSoma, and on the gastral dorsum. Silvery 
white, somewhat radiating, appressed pubescence 
abundant over entire body, including gastral 
dorsum, where it forms the midline pattern 
characteristic ot most members of the group. 

Body black with the appendanges dark reddish 
brown. 

The single pseudogyne (in the terminology of 
Wheeler, 1910) represents a worker-like form with 
transversely enlarged mesonotum, which is convex 
in profile. The seulpturation and pilosity are 
essentially as in the worker. 

Female 

Dimensions: TL 15.51; HL 3.63; KW 2.17; CI 
60; SI 4 69; S! 216; PW 2.02; MTL 5.80 (I 
measured). 

The female differs from the worker in the usual 
sexual characters, including the reduction in length 
of pronotal and propodeal spines. The 
seulpturation and pilosity similar to that in 
worker. 

Mai e and Immature Staghs 

Unknown. 

Remarks 

This species stands close to P. rnagnifica and 
bears a superficial resemblance to the silvery 
pubescent population of that species from Mt. 
Isarog, Luzon Island. The main distinguishing 
features additional to that given in the key, are the 
longer antennal scapes of scabra, along with its 
more dense seulpturation and a more gracile build 

Poivrhachis sexspinosa (Latreille), 1802 
(Pig. 17) 

■" , | i 
Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur, Lcmesahan, 600 

light trap, HE. Milliron, BPBM coll. 13 
. . in poor condition). 

Dimp 

TL 12.41-13.00; HL 2.97-3.17, HW 1.86-1.94; 
CI 61-63; SL 3 78-3 93; SI 203-206; PW 1.56- 
1.76; MTL 4.74-4.99 (3 measured) 

kWCS 

Recorded previously from the Philippines by 
various authors (Smith 1858, 1859. 1863; Mayr 
186"'; Viehmeycr 1916; SiitZ 1923; Emery 1925; 
Domsthorpe 1943, Balta/ar 1966). The three 
specimens before me differ from those ol typical 



176 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



New Guinean populations of P. sexspinosa (as 
defined by Bolton, 1975) in having the 
sculpturation of the head and body more reduced 
and almost completely masked by a rich yellowish 
pubescence. In spite of these differences, and in 
view of the general similarity between these 
specimens, and the absence of additional material, 
! feel obliged to consider them as representatives 
of P. sexspinosa (Latreille). 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

1 am very grateful to Mr Barry Bolton of 
Department of Entomology, British Museum 
(Natural History), London, for his support and 
invaluable comments received during the course 
of this study and for acting as a referee of this 
paper. To Dr Robert W. Taylor of ANIC, CSIRO, 
Canberra for his part in guiding my first steps in 
studying Polyrhachis while working under his 
supervision. To Mr Edward C. Dahms of 
Queensland Museum, Brisbane I owe thanks for 
the time he has given in reading and correcting the 
grammatical part of the manuscript. Finally I 
would like to extend my thanks to Dr Gordon 
Nishida of the Bern ice P. Bishop Museum, 
Honolulu, to Dr CI. Besuchet of Museum 
D'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva and to Prof. Dr 
Maria M. Principi, Universita Degli Studi Di 
Bologna, for loans of types and other material 
used in this study. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bai.tazar, C.R., 1966. A Catalogue of Philippine 

Hymenoptera. Pacific Insects Man. 8, 488 pp. 
Bolton, B., 1973. The ant genus Polyrhachis in the 



Ethiopian Region. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 

28(5): 283-369, 63 figs. 
1975. The sexspinosa-gioup of the ant genus 

Polyrhachis F. Smith. (Hyra. Formicidae), J. Ent. 

(3)44(1): 1-14, 14 figs. 
Donisthorhe, H.St.J.K., 1943. The Ants (Hym., 

Formicidae) of Waigeu Island, North Dutch New 

Guinea. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (11)10: 433-75. 
Emery, C, 1925. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. 

Subfam. Formicinae, in Wytsman Genera 

Insectorwn, fasc. 183: 302 pp., 4 pis. 
Forel, A., 1911. Fourmis nouvelles ou interessanies. 

Bull. Soc. vaud. Sci. nat. 47: 331-400. 
Latreille, P. A., 1802. 'Histoire naturelle des fourmis'. 

(L'imprimerie de Crapelet: Paris) 445 pp., 12 pis. 
Mayr, G.L., 1867. Adnotationes in Monographiam 

Formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum. Tijdschr. Ent. 

10: 1-85, 2 pis. 
Menozzi, C, 1925. Nuove formiche delle isole Filippine 

e di Singapore. Atti Soc. Nat. Mat. (6)4: 92-103. 
Smith, F., 1858. 'Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects 

in the Collection of the British Museum. Pari 6, 

Formicidae'. 216 pp., 14 pi. 
1859. Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected 

by Mr A.R. Wallace at the Islands of Aru and Key. 

J. Linn. Soc. (2ool.)3: 132-78. 
1863. Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects collected 

by Mr A.R. Wallace in the Islands of Mysol, Ceram, 

Waigiou, Bouru and Timor. /. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 

7: 5-48. 
Stitz, H., 1923. Ameisen von den Philippinen, den 

malayischen und ozeanischen Inseln. Sber. Ges. 

naturj: Freunde Beri., 1923: 110-36. 
Viehmeyer, H., 1916. Ameisen von den Philippinen und 

anderer Herkunft (Hym.). Ent. Mitt. 5: 283-91, 2 

figs, 
Wheeler, W.M., 1910. Ants. Their Structure. 

Development and Behaviour'. (Columbia University 

Press: New York) 663 pp. 286 figs. 



Mem. OdMus. 25(1): 177— 192. [1987] 



STUDY OF A LOWER CRETACEOUS ACTINOPTERYGI AN (CLASS PISCES) 
COOYOO A USTRALIS FROM QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA 



Tempf Lees 

and 

Alan BakTHOLoMAi 

Queensland Museum 



ABSTRACT 

The Lower Cretaceous actinopterygian fish Xiphactinus australis Woodward, 1894 is redescribed 
from new r material. Comparisons of Ihis taxori with other ichthyodectid genera, Xiphactinus, 
Ichthyodectes, Cladocyclus and Gillicus, shows it is sufficiently distincl to warrant recognition in 
a separate genus, Cooyoo gen. now. In addition C. australis is shown to be more closely related 
to Ichthyodectes than Xiphactinus. 



INTRODUCTION 

Woodward (1894) described an isolated partial 
teleost skull from Lower Cretaceous marine 
sediments of Queensland and identified it as the 
new species, Portheus australis. Portheus was later 
shown by Hay (1897) to be a junior synonym of 
Xiphactinus, a conclusion followed by most 
subsequent workers. 

Since Woodward's (1894) description, no 
further work has been carried out on this species. 
During this time, the Queensland Museum has 
acquired a number of excellent specimens o\" this 
fish, including an almost complete skeleton, 
several well preserved skulls and a neurocranium, 
as well as numerous pieces of vertebrae, partial 
crania, jaws and skeletal fragments. The material, 
collected from marine sediments of the 
Hughenden, Richmond and Boulia areas of 
Central Queensland, forms the basis for the 
current revision and allows for a more complete 
description and identification of the species. 

Detailed comparison is made with Tour 
ichthyodectid genera: Xiphactinus Leidy, 1870, 
Ichthyodectes Cope, 1870, Cladocyclus Agassiz, 
IS41 and Gillicus Hay, 1898. This indicates that 
the Queensland species requires separate generic 
status. 

Relationships with the Ichthyodectidae have 



been discussed by several workers, namely 
Bardack (1965), Bardack and Sprinkle (1969), 
Cavender (1966), Nelson (1973), Taverne (1973, 
1974) and, most recently, Patterson and Rosen 
(1977). The classification of lchthyodectiformes 
proposed by Patterson and Rosen (1977) will be 
followed: 

O. IcBTHYODFCTiFORMEs Bardack and Sprinkle, 
1969 

S.O. Allothrissopoidei Patterson and Rosen, 
1977 

F. Allothrissopidae Patterson and Rosen, 1977 
Genus Atiothrissops Nybelin, 1964 
S.O. Ichthyoofctoidhi Romer, 1966 
F. Ichthyodectidae Crook, 1892 
Ichthyodectes Cope, 1870, Xiphactinus Leidy, 
1870, Gillicus Hay, 1898, Cladocyclus Agassiz, 
1841, Eubiodectes Hay, 1903, Proporthcus 
Jaekel, 1909, Chriocenthtes Hackel, 1849, 
Thrissops Agassiz, 1833, Spathodactylus 
Pictet, 1858, Cooyoo gen. nov. 
F. Saurodontidae Cope, 1871 
Saurodon Hays, 1930, Saurocephatus Harlan 
1824 

Specimen Designations 

QMF — Queensland Museum specimen, GSQ 
— Geological Survey of Queensland specimen. 



177 



178 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Abbreviations in Figures 
Terminology follows Bardack (1965) 



Ang. 


angular 


Boc. 


basioccipital 


bpt. pr. 


basipterygoid process 


Bsc 


basisclerotic 


Bsp. 


basisphenoid 


Dent. 


dentary 


Ect. 


ectopterygoid 


eff. ps. a. 


foramen for efferent 




pseudobranchial artery 


Epo 


epiotic 


Eth. 


ethmoid 


Exo. 


exoccipital 


f.m. 


foramen magnum 


Fr. 


frontals 


Hym. 


hyomandibular 


hym. f. 


hyomandibular fossa 


inf. f. 


infundibular fossa 


Int. 


intercalar 


lat. head v. 


lateral head vein 


lat. temp. f. 


lateral temporal fossa 


Max. 


maxillary 


Mes. 


mesopterygoid 


Mpt 


metapterygoid 


Op. 


operculum 


Pal. 


palatine 


Par. 


parietal 


Pas. 


parasphenoid 


Pmx. 


premaxillary 


Pop 


preoperculum 


Pro. 


prootic 


pro. br. 


prootic bridge 


ptm. f. 


post-temporal fossa 


Pto. 


pterotic 


Qu. 


quadrate 


Ra. 


retroarticular 


Sclr. 


sclerotic 


se. f. 


Subepiotic fossa 


Soc. 


supraoccipital 


Sph. 


sphenotic 


IX 


foramen for glossopharyngeal 




nerve 


X 


foramen for vagus nerve 



Superorder TELEOSTE1 
Order ICHTHYODECTIFORMES Bardack and 

Sprinkle, 1969 

Suborder ICHTHYODECTOIDEI Romer, 1966 

Family ICHTHYODECTIDAE Crook, 1892 

Genus Cooyoo gen. nov. 

Diagnosis 

Medium-sized ichthyodectid teleost (single 
complete individual 1.1 m). Supraoccipital crest 
rises above the dorsal surface of the neurocranium 
at a mean angle of 15°, significantly lower than in 
both Xiphactinus (30°) and Ichthyodectes (39°). 
Fused parietals unornamented. Frontals possess 
raised, medially concave ridges originating at 
anterior base of parietal hump, diverging to form 
part of dorsolateral margin of brain case; 
anteriorly, the ridges converge to complete an 
oval-shaped ring bounding anterodorsal surface of 
neurocranium; between the ridges, frontals are 
smooth and rise to a peak at midline; frontals also 
exhibit laterally directed, triangular-shaped shelf. 
No ridges have been observed on the frontals of 
Xiphactinus; in Ichthyodectes ridges are present, 
but are medially convex. 



Fig. 1 : Localities from which Cooyoo australis specimens 
have been collected. 



140 142 144 14b 


i:s 




150 

■ 


Towns 


152 


10 • 


Jinx 






& 


Fossi 
local 


fish 
ties 


12 " 








E3 


Cretaceous marim 
sediments 







00 


200 300 40C 




14 . 


Sea 


e . 


Kilometers 














16 - 


I \t ' 'tlf \ 












'■ . 


Julia ('Ml ' A .if ^ £mtgW endon 
| V . Richmond id* ;:-\ 












20 ■ 


1 /r*\ J V— I 












22 . 


^Mf ]\ 












24 . 


QUEENSLAND Y.-i 










V 














2d . 


V 








Brisb 


ane ■ 




! \ 





























COOYOO AUSTKAUS 1ROM QUEENSLAND 



179 



Sphenotics project laterally tapering to 
truncated points; sphenotics directed 
lateroventrally in Xiphactinus and anteroventrally 
in Ichihyodectes. 

Large, venrrally directed hyomandibular fossa 
lies obliquely across lateral surface of 
neurocranium, spanning the sphenotic, prootic, 
pterotic and intercalar; its posterior portion is 
obscured by a wing of pterotic. Hyomandibular 
fossa is orientated horizontally in both 
Xiphactinus and Jchthyodectes. Located directly 
below the hyomandibular fossa is large, 
rhomboidal, subtemporal fossa, posteroventral 
margin of which is formed by slanted, prootic- 
intercalar bridge. 

Above hyomandibular fossa on pterotic is a 
depression forming the lateral temporal fossa; 
dorsal margin of this fossa rises from midpoint of 
hyomandibular fossa, extending upward in an arc 
ending on frontals. 

Teeth are medium to small (mean height 4 mm); 
size range within a jaw is low. In Xiphactinus the 
teeth are large (1-4 cm) and variable in size. In 



Jchthyodectes the teeth have a mean height of 8 
mm and show little size variation. 

Premaxillary basically rectangular, elongated 
dorsoventrally; its denial margin is curved and 
bears six alveoli. Xiphactinus has an ovate 
premaxillary with a straight dental border; 5-6 
alveoli are present, In khthyodectes the 
premaxillary is rhomboidal or ellipsoidal in profile 
with a mean number of 6.6. alveoli, 

Range 

All material with detailed locality information 
has been collected from either the Toolebuc 
Formation or Allaru Mudsione, both of which are 
Lower Cretaceous (Albian) age (Day et aL, 1983), 
not as suggested by Bardack (1965) Upper 
Cretaceous. 

Etymology 

The name means fish in the Pooroga language 
spoken by the Jarambali Aborigines who lived in 
the Upper Flinders, Hughenden and Dutton River 
districts (Curr and Curr 1887). 



- 




BOI . 



eff.psya, 

irt". I\ 

Fro. 2: Cooyno australis. Lateral aspect of neurocranium from specimen QMF 12325. 



180 



MFMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Cooyoo auslralis (Woodward, 1894) 
Pnrtheu* QUStroliS Woodward, (894, PP- 444-7, pi. 10; 

Longman, 191,1. pp. 95-4; Wade. 1930, p. 143; 

David. 1950. p. 449; Hills. 1458. p ; 
XiphacthwsaustralLs (Woodward, 1894); Bardack, 1965, 

P- 54; Hill, Play lord and Wood. 1%8. pi, K XU ( I ); 

Long, 1982, p. 71. 

Material 

Holotype, GSQ2445 Portion of upper and lower jaw, 
Clulha Station, near Hughenden, 5 km from Home 
station on Gidgery Creek. Fm.; Allaru Mudstone. Age: 
Lower Cretaceous, Albian. Referred specimens all of 
Albian age: QMF354, partial skull, Hughenden, near 
Flinders River, QMF10I6, Sklill, six miles northeast of 
Richmond; QM F2581, vertebrae and ribs, 'Lydia 
Downs', Nelia, QMF6346, skull and vertebrae, 'Laura 
Downs', Julia Creek, at M.R. 465493 Julia Creek 
1:125,000. Allaru Mustone; QMF9466, skull, Stuan 
Creek, Hughenden, QMF9468. skull. Dinga Ding 
Station, near McKinlay, Allaru Mudstone; QMF9469, 
skull, 'Boree Park', near Richmond; QMF9471, 
vertebrae, "Dinga Ding Station', near McKinlay, Allaru 
Mudstone; QMF9472, skull, Dinga Ding Station', near 
McKinlay, Allaru Mudstone; QMF12325, 
neurocranium, 'Warra Station', near Richmond, 
Toolebuc Formation; QMF12327. skull, fin and 
vertebrae, Pelican Bore, Stewart Creek, 'Dunraven 

i, Itiorl', near Hughenden. Toolebuc For -mat ion: 
QMFI2710, partial skull. 'Arrant Station', near 
Hughenden North-west or Weather Paddock, Allaru 
Mudstone; QMF127U, skull. Mountain Creek. 
'Redclifie Station', near Hughenden, Allaru Mudstone. 

Diagnosis 
As for the genus. 

Description 

While most of the skeleton o\' the species is 
known, certain cranial elements — vomer, orbilal 
bones, supramasillary bones — and certain caudal 
elements — pectoral girdle and pelvic and caudal 
fins have not, as yet, been recorded. 

Neurocranium (Figs 2-4): incomplete, with the 
vomer unknown and ethmoid and parethmoid 
only partially known. Basically wedge -shaped, 
with the base formed by stout parasphenoid and 
dorsal roof by ethmoid, frontal:-., parietals and 
supraoccipital. 

SuPRAGCCtPCrAt{FJgs2-4 I 6): forms triangular- 
shaped crest rising from posterior margin of 
parietals above dorsal surface u! neurocranium at 
an angle of approximately 15° (5 specimens); 
viewed laterally, posterior margin of crest appears 
concave; viewed posteriorly, supraoccipital crest 
forms dorsal pinnacle, crowning neurocranium. 
from which it extends ventrally CO contribute to 
formation oi' large subepiotic fossae; at base of 



crest, supraoccipital expands laterally to join 
epiotics. 

Epiottc (Figs 2-4, 6): crests approximately a 
quarter height of supraoccipital crest; 
supraoccipital — epiotic suture runs along median 
side of epiotic ridge, just below its crest; epiotics 
also form dorsal corners of the posterior surface 
ot neurocranium and contribute to formation of 
large subepiotic fossae and post-temporal fossae. 

Parietals (Figs 2, 3, 6): fused medially, lying 
anterior to supraoccipital crest; relatively small 
bones forming a dome at midline of dorsal 
neurocranial surface. They extend posteriorly 
around the anterior base of supraoccipital crest 
and carry anterior extensions of epiotic crests; 
dorsally. surface unornamentated. 

FRONTALS (Figs 2, 3, 6): large, extending from 
anterior parietal margins to cover nearly a third oi 
dorsal neurocranial surface. Each hears prominent 
ridge originating at anterior margin of parietals, 
just below dorsal midpoint of neurocranium; these 
gradually diverge anteriorly, curving along 
dorsolateral margin of frontals, roofing orbits and 
then re-converging anteriorly; between ridges, 






■ ■ 







1 l : . :r.' 



Cooyoo amtralis. Dorsal aspect oi ■ ■■■ ■ nuum 
from specimen QMF 12325 



COOYOO AUSTRAUS FROM QUEENSLAND 



181 



smooth frontals rise gently to form broad ridge at 
their common suture; each exhibits laterally 
directed triangular shelf, midway along 
dorsolateral margin; anterior margins of frontals 
obscured or damaged. The anterior border of the 
frontals is probably formed by the ethmoids and 
parelhmoids. 

Ethmoids (Fig. 6): imperfectly known; suture 
With frontals obscured but, anteriorly, they appear 
to exhibit beak-like rounded margin; at 
anterolateral corner of ethmoid is vent rally 
directed process appearing to articulate with dorsal 
surface of palatine head; anteroventrally, each 
contributes to deep lateral fossa, probably to 
accommodate premaxillary ligaments. 

P \rfthmoids: lie ventral to ethmoids and 
frontals; each contributes to lateral fossa; they also 
form lateral wall of nasal capsule and portion of 
anterior margin of orbit; anteroventral surface 
forms large concave condyle articulating with 
saddle-shaped surface of palatine head. 

Sphenotics (Figs 2, 3, 6): situated at posterior 
ventrolateral corner of frontals; posteriorly, they 
meet pterotics and ventrally arc bound by prootics; 
they exhibit laterally directed projection tapering 
to truncated point; posteroventral portion of 
sphenotic forms anterolateral corner of 
hyomandibular fossa, 

Hvomandibular Fossa (Fig. 2): large, 
elongate, opening veni rally, running obliquely 
across almost entire length of otic section of 
neuroeranium, spanning four separate bones'. 




■ 



•- ooy&Q oust roth. Posterior aspect of 

neurocrarmwi from specimen QMF 12325 



sphenotic and prootic form elevated anterior 
corner of fossa, intercalar forms lower posteriot 
corner, while pterotic comprises bulk of fossa and 
laterally obscures most of its posterior portion. 

pThRnrics (Figs 2, 3, 6): large, covering much 
of lateral surface of brain case; dorsally, bounded 
by parietal and epiotic, ventrally by prootic, 
posteriorly by intercalar and anteriorly, extend to 
meet sphenotic ventrally and fromal dorsally; as 
well as containing most of hyomandibular fossa, 
pterotics also bear lateral temporal fossa and roof 
of subtemporal fossa; dorsal margin of lateral 
temporal fossa forms an arc running from midway 
along ventral margin of pterotic. forward to 
posteroventral corner of frontals; pterotics also 
forms at least half lateral margin of posterior 
surface of the neuroeranium; combined with 
epiotic and exoccipital bones, contributes to large, 
posterior, post-temporal fossa. 

Subtemporal Fossa (Fig 2): large, welt 
developed and rhomboidal; roof formed by the 
pterotic, but mostly contained by prootic and 
intercalar; the prootic and intercalar form bridge 
lying obliquely across posteroventral margin of 
fossa. 

Intercalar (Figs 2, 3): large, forming 
posteroventral ueurocranial corner; bounded 
ventrally by exoccipital and anterodorsaily by 
pterotic; posteriorly, meets cxoccipitals; together 
forming foramen for vagus and glossopharyngeal 
nerves and lateral head vein. 

Prootic (Figs 2-4): anterior to intercalar and 
basiocctpital bones, forming most of anterodorsal 
portion of subtemporal fossa; covers nearly half 
lateral face of brain case and incorporates tw. 
foramina, one leading into prootic canal and othet 
for hyomandibular branch of 7th nerve. 

Basioccipital (Figs 2. 4): positioned posterior 
to prootic but ventral to intercalar, forming 
posteroventral corner of brain case; lateral surface 
of basioccipital markedly concave to 
accommodate branch of swim bladder. 

Exocciphals (Figs 2, 4): form most of ventral 
portion of posterior face of neuroeranium; 
laterally they are barely visible, sandwiched 
between intercalar dorsally and basioccipitals 
ventrally; posteriory, contribute to subepiotic 
fossa and together form foramen magnum; fused 
to medial ventral surface is half a vertebra. 

Parasphunoid (Figs 2, 6): strong, elongate, 
lying ventral to basioccipital and prootic, forming 
base of brain case; transversely, beneath orbit it 
has sharply convex dorsal surface and gentl> 
convex ventral surface; beneath brain case, 
parasphenoid divides posteriorly into two arms, 



182 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



triangular in cross section with concave lateral 
surfaces; arms taper posteriorly, terminating in 
points at posterior end of brain case; stout 
basipterygoid processes present, extending 
anterolateral^ just anterior to otic section of 
neurocranium; anterior portion of parasphenoid 
not preserved and relationship with vomer cannot 
be ascertained; parasphenoid flexes upward at 
junction of otic and orbital sections of 
neurocranium; with mean angle of flexure 
approximately 149° (3 specimens). 

Premaxillary (Fig. 6): rarely preserved, 
suggesting that ligamentous attachments not very 
strong; a relatively large, robust bone sub- 
rectangular in outline; oral border curved, with six 
alveoli, at least four bearing teeth. 

Maxillary (Fig. 6): long, fairly shallow, 
narrowing posteriorly; anterodorsal margin with 
hammer-like condyle articulating with malleolar 



head of palatine; anterior to condyle, maxillary 
shows another, smaller condyle abutting a facet 
formed by vomer and ethmoid; ventral edge of 
maxillary essentially straight, containing variable 
number of teeth (Table 1); teeth may occur in every 
alveolus or every second alveolus; Table 2 shows 
range in tooth size and number found; teeth not 
very large (mean 4 mm) and, within an individual, 
show only small range in height; lateral maxillary 
surface flat, showing little ornamentation, except 
just below dorsal surface maxillary where distinct 
groove accommodated ventral margin of 
supramaxillary bones; posterior end of maxillary 
not well preserved, but exhibits dorsal swing with 
ventral margin resting in groove in quadrate. 

Supramaxillary: bones thin, fragile, poorly 
preserved; shape difficult to determine, probably 
comprising smaller, almost ovoid posterior bone 
and larger, rectangular, anterior bone, dorsal 



TABLE 1. Number of alveoli and tooth size observed in the maxillary of specimens of Cooyoo australis. The size 

of the sample limits the amount of interpretation possible, however the size of the standard deviations clearly 

indicates how little tooth size varies in a single specimen. 



MAXILLARY 


Specimen 


Alveoli No. 
Left Right 


Teeth No. 
Left Right 


No. of complete 
teeth measured 


Mean Size 
(cm) 


SD 


QMF 10209 


27+ 38 
(anterior 
damaged) 


14+ 26 
(anterior 
damaged) 


17 


0.369 


±0.155 


QMF1016 


38 32 


28 22 


All teeth broken 






QMF6346 


34 not 
visible 


23 not 
visible 


8 


0.409 


±0.05 


QMF 12327 


34 not 
visible 


17 not 
visible 


10 


0.45 


±0.107 



TABLE 2. Number of alveoli and size of teeth observed in the dentary specimens of Cooyoo australis. 



DENTARY 


Specimen 


Alveoli No. 
Left Right 


Teeth No. 
Left Right 


Sizes (cm) 


QMF 10209 


Tooth row obscured by Maxillary 


QMF1016 


20 posterior 
end 
broken 


11 11 + 


0.75,0.94,0.86 
most teeth broken 


QMF6346 


Most teeth obscured or broken 


0.9,0.54,0.59,0.72 


QMF12372 


Most teeth obscured or broken 


0.8,0.36,0.49,0.52 


GSQ2445 


Most teeth broken 


0.99,1.08 



COO YOOA USTRA US FROM QUEENSLAND 



183 



margin of which seems to be convex. 

Deniarv {Fig. 6): fairly stout, deep, bearing 
single row of medium-sized teeth (mean 7 mm); 
teeth almost uniform size, except in QMF12327 
where first few teeth larger and broader than rest, 
dental margin rises to peak just before posterior 
end of bone; posterior to peak, margin plunges 
steeply downward to anterodorsal margin of 
angular; angular then flexes dorsally to articulate 
With quadrate; most of ventral margin of dentary 
straight, but flexes dorsally below angular; no 
internal view of dentary available. Table 2 shows 
ratio of mandibular length to depth; ratio difficult 
to measure because of poor preservation of bones 
and comparison with other genera should be 
treated with caution. 

Hyomandibular (Figs 5, 6): largest of 
hyopalatine bones; dorsally, 'dumbellVshaped 
head articulates with hyomandibular fossa; 
posterior hyomandibular margin forms gently 
curving raised rim, edging posterior margin of 
skull and articulating with prcopercular; anterior 
to rim, hyomandibular markedly concave; concave 
portion covered by postorbitals. 

Met AFMLKYtioiD (Figs 5, 6): anterior to 
hyomandibular; large, right-angle shaped element, 
bounded by quadrate posteroventrally, 
ectopterygoid anterovent rally and mesopterygoid 
anteriorly; it makes no contribution to boundary 
of orbit, formed by the palatine, mesopterygoid 
and hyomandibular. 

Mfsupterygoid (Figs 5, 6): comparatively 
small, wedged between hyomandibular and 
palatine, and dorsal to metapterygoid; despite 
small size, it forms almost half margin of orbit; at 



junction with hyomandibular is groove for 
basipterygoid process. 

PA1 m~t\f (Figs 5, 6): lies anterior to 
mesopterygoid; it possesses distinct malleolar 
head; dorsal surface of head peaked, articulating 
with vent rally grooved parethmotd; ventral 
palatine surface concave accommodating condyle 
on dorsal edge of maxilla. 

Ectopterygoid (Figs 5, 6): ventral to palatine. 
anterior to metapterygoid and dorsal to quadrate; 
elongate, forming ventral margin of 



Pal, 




Hui 



, i ■ 



FIG. 5: Cooyoo austrafis, Fxternal view of 
hyomandibular bones. Reconstructed based on 
specimens: QMF 1016. QMF 12327. QMF 12711. 



TABLE 5, Measurements of maxillary and dentary length and depths observed in specimens of Cooyoo ausrralis. 



Specimen 


Maxillary 


Dentary 


Length (cm) 


Depth (cm) 


Length (cm) 


Depth (cm) 


QMF 10209 


6.2 

(approx) 


posterior 
condyle 
obscured 


5.27 


3.18 


QMF1016 


8.46 


1.34 


5 J 


3.75 


QMF6346 


R.54 


1.98 


5.34(7) 4,3.1?) 
obscured 


QMF 12327 


9.56 


1.87 

(approx) 


A. 71 (?) 4(7) 
obscured 



Maxillary length measured from posterior margin of premaxillary to last alveolus. 
Maxillary depth measured at posterior condyle. 
Dentary length ot "alveolar border. 
Dentary depth measured ai coronoid pro* 



184 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSE1 IM 



hyomandibular apparatus; anteriorly, it has 
interdigitating suture with palatine; posterior 
margin and its relationship with hyomandibular 
difficult to determine as usually broken and 
distorted. 

Quadra tl (Figs 5, 6): articulates with ventral 
margins of ectopterygoid, metapterygoid and 
hyomandibular; triangular, with ventral apex 
forming articulating head for the jaws; posterior 
margin of the maxilla lies in groove on this condyle 
and angular portion of lower jaw articulate with 
it 

Symplectic: small, splinter-like lying near 
posterior margin of quadrate. 

Cipxumorbitai s. not preserved in most 
specimens and, at best y only partially preserved; 
fragmentary evidence indicates probably six 
circumorbital plates - dermosphenotic, two 
supraorbitals, lacrymal, infraorbital and a large 
postorbital which, when preserved, mask much of 
hyopalatine bones. 



Sclerotic (Fig. 6): bones, frequently 
preserved; most specimens exhibit two sclerotic 
bones ringing eye; basal sclerotic also frequently 
preserved, found at bottom of eye capsule; basal 
sclerotic fairly thick, heavy bone exhibiting 
delicately spined margin and posteriorly 
positioned, keyhole-shaped indentation. 

Preoflrcui ar (Fig. 6): elongate dorso- 
vemrally with an expanded ventral base bearing 13 
sensory canal openings; dorsal margin appears 
obliquely truncated, with highest point occurring 
anteriorly. 

Opercular (fig. 6): large, flat, abutting against 
posterior margin of preopercular and having a 
semicircular posterior margin. 

Pectoral girdle and Fins poorly represented. 
They are known only from one piece of cteithrum, 
a fragmentary pectoral fin and a fragmentary 
pelvic fin. 

Cleithrum: robust, L-shaped. 

Pectoral Fin: exhibits nine fin ravs. These are 



Soc. 




M.iv . 



Flo. 6; Cooyoo australis. Partial reconstruction of head. Based on specimens; QMF 1016, QMF 12325, QMF 12327, 
QMF 12711. 



COOYOU AUSTR. 1 US \ ROM Q\ 'FFNSLAND 



185 



both broad and thick . especially the most posterior 
ray which is almost twice the width ot the others. 

Pelvic Fin: is poorly preserved, exhibiting 7 
broad fin rays 

A complete vertebral column and caudal 
skeleton has yet to be collected. It is particularly 
unfortunate that no tail has yet been found. The 
most complete skeleton possesses 65 vertebrae. 

Vkrtfbraf (Fig. 6): exhibit laterally a 
longitudinal ridge separating two deep, 
longitudinal grooves. This character is not 
apparent in the first few vertebrae which are 
laterally smooth; grooves also occur on the dorsal; 
ventral surfaces of the vertebrae receiving the 
heads of neural and haemal arches. 




Remarks 

Specimens of Cooyoo ausiralis examined in this 
study show little variation in the morphology of 
bones constructing the skull. The bone shape and 
relative proportions appeared to remain essentially 
constant regardless of the overall size of the 
individual. 

The vertebrae (QMF6139 from Station Creek, 
Alton Downs, Queensland) assigned questionably 
by Woodward ( 1 894) to Ciadocycius sweeti (?) are 
obviously iehthyodectiform but are not considered 
diagnostic to a generic level. 

P\I AFOFCOIOGY 

Cooyoo Qitstralis has only been collected from 
sediments which are regarded as the deposits of a 
shallow- marine environment (Day er at. 1983). It 
is found in association with marine vertebrates 
such as ichihyosaurs, plesiosaurs, other 
aetmopterygians and sharks, and marine 
invertebrates such as ammonites, belemnites, and 
crustaceans, Also occurring in the deposits are the 
remains of terrestrial vertebrates such as dinosaurs 
and occasional terrestrial plants and insects which 
indicate proximity to the shore line. 

Cooyoo austratis is one of the fish most 
commonly collected from these sediments. This 
suggests that it was quite an abundant member of 
the ichthyofauna. Its streamlined body, powerful 
fins and numerous, sharp teeth indicate that, like 
other ichihyodecliforms, it was predacious. 




Fig 7: Cooyoo austratis — Holotype — GSQ 2445 
Portion of upper and lower jaw. Scale bar = 2cm. 



COMPARISONS AND GENERIC 
DESIGNATION 

Nine genera were previously recognized as 
forming the family Ichthyodcetidae (Patterson and 
Rosen 1977). These are Ichthyodeaes, 
Xiphactmus, Gtlfuus, t'ubiodectes, Proportheus, 
Chirocenirites, Thrissops, Spathodaetylus and 
Ciadocycius. Of these. Spathodactyhts is known 
only from a single poorly preserved specimen; 
Chirocentrites is possibly Xiphactinus: similarly 
Proportheus may be synonymous with 
Ctadocydus; Thhssops may be synonymous with 
Gillicus, and Euhiodectes equivalent to 
Ichthyodectes (Patterson and Rosen 1977). 
Because of these uncertainties, and because it is 
not possible to examine any of this material, 
Cooyoo will only be compared with the four 
accepted and fairly well known, figured and 
described genera, namely Xiphactinus, 
Ciadocycius, Gillicus, and Ichthyodectes. 
Comparisons will only be made at the generic level 
as the characters which have been used to separate 
species within a genus are minor. Most species are 



186 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Fig 8: Cooyoo australis — QMF 6346. Most complete 
specimen collected to date. Scale bar = 20cm. 



Fig 9: Cooyoo australis — QMF 12325 — An almost 
perfect neurocranium. A. Lateral view. B. dorsal 
view. C. posterior view. Scale bar = 1cm. 




Fig 10: Cooyoo australis — QMF 12327 — Skull with 
portion of the pectoral girdle. Scale bar = 2cm. 



COOYOO AUSTRALIS FROM QUEENSLAND 



187 



distinguished only on geographic grounds. For 
example, Bardack (1965) writes 'The four species 
Xiphactinus audax, X. mantelli, X. gaultinus and 
X. australis, tentatively retained in this revision, 
are distinguished primarily for reasons of 
geographic distribution rather than for 
morphologic differences.'. Comparisons made 
herein are based on the figures and descriptions 
given by Stewart (1900) and Bardack (1965) for 
Xiphactinus, Ichthyodectes and Gillicus, and by 
Patterson and Rosen (1977) for Cladocyclus. 

Although these comparisons strive to be as 
rigorous as possible, they are limited by the fact 
that only rarely are entire fish preserved or even 
representatives of all skeletal elements collected. 
For example, in the case of Cooyoo, almost no 
caudal skeletal elements have been collected and 
no comparisons of the tail skeletons are possible. 



An additional bias is that certain skeletal elements 
are so fragile that they are rarely preserved while 
the more robust predominate in the fossil material. 
Despite these difficulties it is considered that the 
material available is sufficient to define accurately 
the relationship of Cooyoo to other ichthyo- 
dectids. 

Of the four most probable genera into which 
Cooyoo may have been placed, Gillicus and 
Cladocyclus, are obviously distinct. Main 
differences between Gillicus and Cooyoo are: (1) 
Gillicus possesses minute teeth less than 1mm high 
while in Cooyoo the teeth are relatively more 
robust with a mean height of 4mm; (2) Gillicus has 
a curved dental border, while the dental border in 
Cooyoo is straight; (3) the premaxillary of Gillicus 
contains 10-17 alveoli, considerably more than the 
6 observed in Cooyoo; (4) in Gillicus, the 



TABLE 4. Summary of major similarities (S) and differences (D) between Cooyoo, Xiphactinus and 

Ichthyodectes. 



Feature 


Xiphactinus 


Cooyoo 


Ichthyodectes 


Angle of rise of Supraoccipital Crest 


D 

30 degrees 


D 

15 degrees 


D 

39 degrees 


Proportional Height of Epiotic crests 


D 


S 


S 


Parietals 
Ornament 
Shape 


D 

S 


S 
S 


S 
D 


Frontals 
Ridges 
Flange 


D 

D 


D 
D 


D 
D 


Ethmoid shape 


D 


S 


S 


Sphenotic shape 


D 


D 


D 


Hyomandibular fossa orientation 


D 


D 


D 


Subtemporal fossa orientation 


D 


D 


D 


Lateral temporal fossa, size and shape 


D 


D 


D 


Basisphenoid 
Flexure 

Cross-sectional shape 
Division 


D 

160 

S 
D 


S 

149 
S 
D 


S 

149 
D 
D 


Premaxillary 
Shape 
Number of alveoli 


D 
D 


D 

S 


D 

S 


Maxillary 
Teeth size 
Number of alveoli 


D 

S 


D 

S 


D 
D 



18S 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Fig 11: Cooyoo australis — QMF 12327 — Portion of 

vertebral column. Scale bar = 2cm. 




Fig 12: Cooyoo australis — QMF 1271 1 — Skull (right 
side) clearly showing the hyomandibular fossa. Scale 
bar = 2cm. 



Fro 13: Cooyoo australis — Skull (right side). This 
specimen exhibits the basiclerotic plate, typical of 
ichthyodecti formes. Scale bar = 2cm. 



COOYOO AUSTRAliS I KOM QUfcBNS L 



|H'> 



parasphenoid angles sharply upward beneath the 
midpoint Dflhc Otic section of the neutocramum. 
In Cooyoo this flexure is very slight. In addition, 
I he parasphenoid of Gillicus is quadrilateral in 
cross-section, while in Coovoo it is triangular; (5) 
the lateral temporal fossa of Gillicus extends onto 
the sphenotic and is much smaller than tlie one 
observed in Cooyoo which extends onto the 
frontal*; (6) in Cooyoo the hyomandibular t 
is tilted upward anterodorsafly, opposite to thai 
observed in Gillicus which tilts up posterodorsally; 

(7) in Cooyoo the hyomandibular fossa opens 
venlrally wiih most of the posterior portion being 
obscured by the pteiotic; in Qilltctts the fossa 
opens laterally and is not obscured at all; (8)in 
Gillicus, the subtemporal fossa H ovate in shape 
and proportionally smaller than the diamond 
shaped fossa found in Cooyoo; (9) in Cooyoo, the 
fromals bear strong curved ridges, comparable 
ridges are very weak in Gillicus; (10) in Gillicus, 
the ethmoid is club shaped, while in Cooyoo it ends 
in a lounded beak; and (11) in Gillicus, the 
sphenotics are forward directed hooks, while in 
Cooyoo they are simple, truncated povnts. 

Main differences between Cooyoo and 
Cladocyclus are: (I) the parierals of Oadocyclus 
extend further forward down the midline of the 
neuroeranium than those of Cooyoo; *2j the 

fromals of Cladocyclus do not, a\ In Cod} 

exhibit curved ridges or a laterally extended shelf; 
0) the ethmoids are broader and more rounded in 
Cladocyclus than in Cooyoo; (4) the sphenotics of 
Cladocyclus exhibit a posteriorly directed hook noi 
seen in Cooyoo: (5) Cladocyclus exhibits an *t ' 
shaped preopercular which tapers dorsally ending 
in a truncated point quite distinct ftroffl the broad, 
blunt, dorsal margin found in Cooyoo; (6) in 
Cladocyclus the premaxillaries appear to be 
proportionally shorter antero-posteriort) than 
those of Cooyoo; (7) the pterotics in Ciadoa . 
show an undulating suture with 1 tie Ironiais; in 
Cooyoo t this suture is straight; in addition, the 
pterotics of Cladocyclus do noi appear to ch\cure 
the posterior portion of the hyomandibular fossa; 

(8) the epiotic crests of Cladocyclus are much 
smaller than those m Coovoo, where the rpi 
crests extend almost to the posterior margin o; the 
supraoccipital crest; in Cladocyclus, the epiotics 
seem to be only half the anieio-posienor length.? I 
the supraoccipital crest 

01 the other two genera, Xiphaclinus and 
Ichthyodectes, the following comparison reveals 
that Cooyoo shows affinities with both genera but 
is sufficiently distinct | > . >. | p&rf*M 
separate generic statu* 



Comparison ot Cooyoo *ith Xiphaclinus 
reveals r he following sienifieaju differences: 

(1) the suboccipital crest in Xiphaclinus and 
Cooyoo commences on the parieials and exhibits 
a gradual rise from the dorsal surface of the 
QeuttJcraiwwn, The two genera differ significantly 
in the mean angle o\ flexure o\' this rise. In 
Mphactinus, the mean angle of flexure is MY', In 

OQyOO, the angle is significantly less, the mean 
being only 15° (5 specimens). 

(2) The relative height of tht epiotic crests 
compared to that of the supraoccipitd crest differs 
between Xtphactinus and Cooyoo; in Xtphaainm^ 
the epiotic crest is approximately one-third the 
height oi the supiaoccipital ctiestj In C\>oyoo, the 
relative height of the epiorn crest is only 
approximately one-quarter the heigh] of the 
supraoccipital oral. 

(3) the fused parietals of Xtphactinus exhibit 
'An elongate cluster of small knobs...' (Bardaek 
1965, p. 37) but the panetals in Cooyoo are 
unornamented. The construction of the parietals 
in Xtphucttnus and Coovoo is Ninnlar. In both, the 
parietals extend posteriorly some distance on either 
side of the supraoccipital crests. In Cooyoo, the 
parietals also form the anterior portion of tht 
epiotic crests. 

(4) the fromals in Xiphaclinus are quite distin- 1 
from those in Coovoo: in Xiphaclinus, the dorsal 
Surface o\' the frontal exhibits a broad shell 
extending laterally above the orbit, the frontal a] 
Cooyoo dorsally exhibit distinct ridges 
commencing at the base ol [he parietals and 
curving anterolateral^ to form the dorsolateral 
margin of the frontal* above the orbit. 

(5) the ethmoids have been obscured or damaged 
in all known specimens ol Co<mto; thus, only a 
general comparison is possible with those of 
Xiphactinus; it seems that the ethmoids in Cooyoo 
terminate anteriorly in ;.; ' hcaV" contrasting with 
the rounded anterior margin in Xiphactinu:*. 

(6) the sphenotics in Cooyoo and Xiphffctirrus 
aie similar in shape; however, in Xipkacttous I 
are orientated lateroventrally. while tit Coo 
they arc directed laterally. 

(7) the hyomandibular fossa also differs 
significantly in the amount that this- fos*a \& 
obscured by the ptcroiics; in Xiphaclinus, itu 
fossa appears to open laterally, with the pteroiic 
only forming the rooi ot the fossfl and apparently 
not obscuring the opening of the : >$sa{ \t\ ■ i 

I he opening of the hyomandibular fossa faces 
venlrally; viewed laieralK, tru hyomandibular 
fossa is almost totalis obscured; additionally, the 
fossa is noi , as in Xfphtl\ n i2tintal; il slopes 



1W 



MLMOIRSOFTHI SKANDMUSt 



obUquelj from dorsal to ventral amefoposieriorly 

.-. the lateral surface of the neurocranium in 
L(Hnoo. 

(8) in Xiphactitius, the subtemporal i 

quite large and rectangular, approximately two- 

i finds the length ol the hyomandibular fossa in 

and is located WOW the middle of tb< 

tiyottiandlbular fossa; th i tc-imercalarbri 

forms the ventral margin of ihe fossa; the size of 
the fossa in Cooyoo is comparable to that found 
in Xtphucitnus; howcvci, us rhomboidal shape 
gives it B distant t!y different orientation to that in 
Xiphocttnusb in Cooyoo t the pro- sdai 

bridge forms the posterior ventral edge of the fossa 

and consequently, lies at an angle to the 
horizontal, lilting up posteriorly; this is quite 
distinct from the horizontal orientation of this 
bridge in Xiphuciinus. 

(9) in Xiphactinus, the lateral lemporal fossa is 
confined to the pterotic and is farmed as a 
depression just above the hyomandibular fossa; 
the dorsal rim of this depression rii-.es gently from 
approximately the midpoint of the hyomandibul.ir 
i,t to end just before themidpoim of the suture 
between i he pterotic and the frontals. Posterior to 
the point above the Inomandibulai fossa Whete 
I Ins edge begins to slope upward, the rim flexes 
downward and then up again so that the pterotic 

i;. a wing just above the middle of (be 
hyomandibular fossa. The lateral temporal fossa 
in Cooyoo is very strongly developed, the roof of 
ihe fossa extending forward from the base of the 
pterotic up onto the frontals. The wing, formed 
by the pterotic above the hyomandibular fossa, 
completely obscures the posterior half of the fossa. 

(10) the parasphenoid differs between C< 

and Xiphacdmts in two main ways. Firstly, the 
■ 'iint of flexure exhibited between the otic and 
orbital sections of the bone is different, with 
Xiphacdnus exhibiting a mean flexure of [60 
considerably more than the mean of 149° in 
Cooyoo. Secondly, the relative position of the 
di visum of the basisphenoid differs between 
Xiphacdnus and Cooyoo; in Xiphacrinus* this 
division occurs below the posterior end ol the 
while in Cooyoo, it is below the anterior 
end of the prootic. 

(11) the premaxillary is only present in a single 
unen of Cooyoo, suggesting Us attachment to 

ihe maxillary was weak; the premaxillary is 
roughly rectangular with a curved alvpolai border 
bearing 6 alveoli and at least 4 teeth. In 
.\iphucunu.s, the pTemaxillary is ovate, with a 
straight dental margin bearing 5-6 alveoli, usually 
containing 2 teeth (Bardack J 965); it is reported as 



g firml) attached to the ma\illaiv f Bardack 

<I2) the size of the maxillary cectb "- 
fturtlbei of alveoli differs between the genera. In 
XiphotlinuS, the teeth are large and variable m 
size, I -4cm, while the average number of all 
is 32; ilk' let'ili ol Cooyoo are much smaller, 
having a mean size of 4mm, usually with little 
variation in size; the number of alveoli. 34, is 
similar to Xiphacdnus. 

(13) comparison of the hyomandibular 
apparatus reveals a number of differences, 
namely: fit Xiphact inu\\ the mesnpierygoid forms 
about one-third of (he margin of the orbit, 
compared to Cooyoo in which it forms 
ippro i,, i U one half the margin of thcorbit; in 
Xiphacdnus, the dotsal margin ol the 
cctopteryuoid, adjoining the metapurryg i 
straight and on the same line as the dorsal margin 
of the quadrate; in Cooyoo, this margin curves 
gently upward posteriorly, suddenly dropping 
down where the ectopterygoid metis the quadrate; 
and in Xiphacdnus, the palatine head exhibits 
liiierally directed flanges, which are absent in 

1 ooyoOi 

(14) the dorsal margin of the preopercular in 

roo and Xiphachnus diffet in being blunt m 
Cooyoo and stepped in Xiphacdnus 

Comparison of Cooyoo with khihyodectes 

\V. the following significant differences. 
<1) the supraocdpiNil i:rest riSCS much ffl 

ply above the surface of the neurocraniiuu In 

khihyodectes {mtm angle of flexure 39 ') than in 
Cooyoo where the mean angle of flexure is onl> 
L5 C 

(2) the fused parietals in khihyodectes do not 
exhibit the posterior extensions which form Ihe 
bases of Ihe epiotie crests in Cooyoo 

(3) the frontal ridges in khihyodectes are Less 
distictcti being somewhat flattened and curve the 
opposite way to those in Coovoo, 

(4) the sphenotics in Ichthyodeaes are 
anterovemrally directed with a sub-triangular 
shape, laterally, quite distinct from the truncated 
point in Cooyoo, 

(51 the posterior end of the hyomandibular fossa 
m khihyodectes is partially obscured by <\ wing of 
pterotic, the fossa opens laterally and is 
iitated parallel to the horizontal. This is quite 
different from the almost totally obscured, 
ventrally opening, obi ucd fossa in 

Cooyoo. 

(6) the subtemporal fossa in Ichlhyodc' I 
compared to Cooyoo, is proportionately Wttallei , 
approximately one-third the length of 1 1> 



COOYOO AUSTRALIS FROM <JI \NU 






hyomandibular fossa; it is different in shape, being 
basically ovale in Ichthyodectes and rhomboida! 
in Coovoo; and it differs in the orientation ot the 
pfOGlic bridge, which is horizontal and bounds 
only the posterior half of the ventral margin of the 
fossa in Ichthyodectes, in Cooyoo, it is slnni-J, 
forming the posteroventral corner o( the fossa. 

(7) the lateral temporal fossae are not a* Wrongly 
developed in Ichthyodectes as that in Cooyoo. 

(8) the parasphenoids in Cooyoo and 
Ichthyodectes differ in the relative position oi the 
division which, in IchthyoiL , ■■ . ■, urs below the 
middle of the prootic, whereas in Cooyoo* it 
divides below the anterior end of the prootic; also. 
in Ichthyodectes the ventral surface is flat, while 
in CooyOo it is curved, 

(9) the maxillary teeth Id Ichthyodectes (mean 
size of Smra) are larger than those in Cooyoo 
(mean size 4 mm) while the average number of 
alveoli in Ichthyodectes (mean number 48) is 
rtigbcr, compared with the 34 in Cooyoo, 

(10) the preoperculars in Ichthyodectes and 
Coovoo differ in the nature of their dors.il 

fins; in Cooyoo, the margin is blunt, while in 
Ichthyodectes it narrows to a sharp pom:. 

(11) the number of fin rays in the perioral fin in 
Ichthyodectes and Cooyoo is different. 
Ichthyodectes possesses II fin rays while ( '&oyan 
possesses 9. 

■JISCUSSION 

The tehthyodeciii'orm genera Ichthyodectes. 
Giilicus, Cladocyelus and Xiphaainus represent a 
group of dosrt\ related Mesozoic fish (Patjaei 
|%5j Patterson and Rosen 1977; Bardacl. arid 
Sprinkle 1969). Cooyoo australis is clearly closely 
relaied to this group. A comparison of its various 
characteristics shows a closer relationship to 
Ichthyodectes than any other ichthyodectiform 
genus including .\tphucttnus\ (lie genus in which it 
was originally placed. However it is also shown 
thai Cooyoo differs sufficiently Prowl both 
Xipfwcttnus and Ichthyodectes, to justify its 
removal to a separate genus. 

The most important features separating Cooyoo 
from both Xiphactinus and Ichthyodectes arc: 

1) The angle of rise of the supraoeeipital crest j 

2) The shape of the fromals, 
31 The form o\ the spin-none; 

iiape and orientation of 
hyotnandibnlro 
J) Shape oi the preraaxillary; and 
61 Sue of the maxillary teeth. 

TKc - 1 ' '.mce of these differences is 
emphasised when the characters which have been 



used to diagnose other ichthyodectiform genera 
are examined. Characters used include dentition, 
degree of flexure of the parasphenoid, form of 
maxillary and deruary bones, form of the palatine 
head and presence or absence of ornament on the 
parietals (Barctack [965). The character 
differences listed above arc thus considered 
sufficient to support the placement: of this species 
into a new genus. 

The material of Cooyoo australis examined in 
this study showed little morphological variation 
between specimens. This is in contrast to the 
findings of Patterson and Rosen (1977) who 
observed significant variation between specimens 
of Cladocyelus. Patterson and Rosen (1977) fell 
unable to determine whether these differences were 
sexual, specific or generic \.. because of the 
Inadequacy of our sample, and because of absence 
of comparable information for other 
ichthyodectiform "genera" - * (Patterson and 
Rosen 1977). The fact that no significant 
morphological variation was observed among 
specimens of Cooyoo australis suggests that the 
Variations observed by Patterson and Rosen (1977) 
in Cladocyelus are not due to sexual dimorphism 
but probably represent at least specific differences. 

The problems of assessing the significance of 
morphological variant npounded in most 

cases by paucity of material. This is probably the 

tin reason that no attempt has yet been made to 
tank the imporxance dI morphological differences 
observed within the ichthyodectiform group. The 
Deed ha Study is emphasised by the fact 

t ha r mnsi ichthyodectiform genera are monotypic. 
Additionally la the lew genera fa which more than 
■ pecies is recognised, the species are based on 
geological or geographic distribution (Bardack 
1965; Patterson and Rosen 1977; 

Allowing for the factors mentioned above it h 
concluded that while it has been shown [ha! 
Cooyoo australis shares more characters with 
Jcihyodectes than Xiphactinus, it has also been 
demonstrated that Coovoo australis posse 
sufficient morphological lii.stinclivr.TU'ss from b 
these genera to warrant the placement of it into an 
independent genus. 

LITERATURE CITED 

i 1.., IK*' 44. KivArn/hv. fl/r /»■■. ■ ,-. ■ n 

fipsstk vo4 [Nfl liatcl] 

Bardack, P.. 1965. An< ftnd evolution of the 

cere ; th< Pttfifont ( 'nrrrrip Vntv. K i ■ 

Vmebfaro 10 I 
Rakdvk. 0. and Sprinldc, d, IW9, Morphol nti 

relationships of Hwrucephstlid [>nhe*. I'irtdiana 



192 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Cavender, T.M., 1966. The caudal skeleton of the 
Cretaceous teleosts Xiphaainus, Ichthyodectes and 
Giilicus and its bearing on their relationship with 
Chirocentrus. Occas. Papers Mus. ZooL, Univ. 
Michigan 650: 1-15. 

Cope, E.D., 1870. On the Saurodontidae Proc. Am. 
Philos. $oc, 11:529-38. 

Curr, M and Curr, E.M., 1887. Upper Flinders, 
Hughenden, Dutton River Etc. In Curr, E.M., The 
Australian Race', Vol. II, pp.460-61. (Melbourne: 
John Ferres). 

David, T.W.E., 1950. 'Geology of the Commonwealth 
of Australia'. (Edward Arnold, London), Vol. 2: 
499. 

Day, R.W., Whitaker, W.G., Murray, C.G., Wilson, 
I.H., and Grimes, K.G., 1983. Queensland 
Geology. GeoL Surv. Qd Publ. 383: 133-48. 

Hay, O.P., 1898. Observations on the genus of fossil 
fishes called by Professor Cope Portheus, by Dr 
Leidy Xiphact'inus. ZooL Bull. (Boston) 2: 25-54. 

Hill, D., Playford, G. and Woods, J.T., 1968. 
Cretaceous Fossils of Queensland (Queensland 
Palaeontographical Society, Brisbane) pl.K XII (I). 

Hills, E.S., 1958. A brief review of Australian fossil 
vertebrates. WestoI,T.E. (Ed.)/// 'Studies on Fossil 
Vertebrates'. (Althone Press: Univ. London) pp. 
86-107. 

Leidy, J., 1870. Remarks on some ichthyodorulites and 
on certain fossit Mammalia. Pia. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
21: 12-3. 



Long, J. A., 1982. The history of fishes on the Australian 
continent. In Rich, P.V., and Thompson, E.M. 
(Eds.), 'The Fossil Vertebrate Record of Australia' 
(Monash Univ. Offset Printing Unit: Victoria) pp. 
53-86. 

LONGMAN, H.A., 1913. Notes on Portheus australis. 
Mem. QdMus. 2:94-5. 

Nelson, G.J., 1973. Notes on the structure and 
relationships of certain Cretaceous and Eocene 
feleostean fishes. Amer. Mus. Novit. 2524: 1-31. 

Patterson, C, and Rosen, D.E., 1977. Review of 
Iehthyodectiform and other Mesozoic fishes and the 
theory and practice of classifying fossils. Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 158: 81-172. 

Stewart, A., 1900. Teleosts of the Upper Cretaceous. 
Kansas Univ., GeoL Survey 6: 257-403. 

Ta verne, L., 1973. Les affinities systematiques des 
teleosteens fossiles de l'ordre des 
Ichthyodectiformes. Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belg. 
49; Sci. Terre. 6: l-ll. 

1974. Deuxieme note sur la position systematique des 
teleosteens fossiles de Tordre des 
Ichthyodectiformes. Bull. Soc. Beige. GeoL 
Paleont., Hydrol. 83(1): 49-53. 

Wade, R.T., 1930. The fossil fishes of the Australian 
Mesozoic rocks. J. R. Soc. N.S. W. 64: 115-47. 

Woodward, A.S., 1884. On some fish remains of the 
genera Portheus and Cladocycius from the Rolling 
Downs Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of 
Queensland, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 6(14): 444-7. 



Mem. Qd Mils. ISi I ): 1 93— 200. [ 1 987] 

LOWER CARBONIFEROUS PALAEONISCOIDS (PISCES : ACTINOPTERYGU) FROM 

QUEENSLAND 



Susan Turner 
Queensland Museum 

and 

John Albprt Long 

Department of Geology, University of Western Australia, Nedtands WA 6009 



ABSTRACT 

incomplete remains of Lower Carboniferous palaeoniscoid Ushes from the SLar of Hope 
Formation, northern Queensland, are described and figured, but due to absence of diagnostic 
features must be assigned to the suborder Palaeoniscoidei. family indeterminate. Lower 
Carboniferous palaeoniscoid remains from the Narrien Range, central Queensland, are figured for 
the first June; such mkrofossUs could provide biostratigraphic information. Queensland records 
of Carboniferous palaeoniscoid fishes are discussed and compared with those from the Mansfield 
fauna of Victoria. 



INTRODUCTION 

Robert Etheridge jnr (in Jack and Etheridge 
1892, pp. 136, 296) mentioned a headless 
palaeoniscoid fish from the Star of Hope 
Formation which he regarded as a possible new 
species of the genus Palaeoniacus, and named it 
after the collector W.H. Rands. There is some 
uncertainty regarding the identification of GSQ 
LI 522 as being the same specimen to which 
Etheridge referred, as he did not refer to a 
specimen number. We are confident that the 
specimen seen by Etheridge and by A.S. 
Woodward was actually GSQ LI 522. in the 
absence of other articulated remains of 
palaeoniscoids from the same district. Turner 
(1982. p. 601 ) and Long and Turner (1984, p. 242} 
both refer to the name given by Etheridge to his 
material as nomen nudum, and Therefore we 
refrain from useage ot this name in this work to 
avoid future confusion. In this paper we describe 
two specimens of palaeoniscoid fishes from the 
Star of Hope Formation and attempt to 
summarize the status of other Carboniferous 
palaeoniscoids from other parts of Australia. 

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION 

Family Actinopthrygii 
Order Palaeoniscijormls 
Suborder Pai \poniscoidei 

Palaeoniscoid Family and Genus indet. A. 
(PL 1A, Fig. 1) 

Material Examined 

Specimen GSQ L1522 from the Suttor River, 4 miles 

WSW of Ml McConnelL near Lome I . mun, 



Charters Towers district, north Queensland. Lower 
Carboniferous, Star of Hope Formation ('Star Beds'); 
impression of part of body only from behind to pectoral 
region to the posterior of the trunk including most of the 
caudal fin, excluding the extremities of the dorsal and 
ventral hypochordal lobes. Squamation intact in places. 

Description 

The specimen (PL 1A, Fig. 1) is a small 
palaeoniscoid fish having a slender caudal 
peduncle. There are approximately 15-16 scale 
rows from the anterior extent of the ventral 
hypochordal lobe of the caudal fin to the posterior 
extent of the dorsal fin. There are about 13 scales 
in the posterior most scale rows and up to 18 at 
the level of the dorsal fin. On average typical 
rhomboid body scales are 1.5 nun long by 1 .0 mm 
wide. Nine dorsal fulcral scales are visible from 
the caudal inversion scale row to the dorsal fin, 
although we infer that eleven would have been 
present because of the spacing posterior to the 
dorsal fin rays. The dorsl fulcral scales are ovoid 
in shape becoming more triangular posteriorly, 
merging evenly with the elongate caudal fulcral 
ridge scales. The first, inferred, dorsal fulcral scale 
abuts two rows, as do the fifth, sixth and eight 
dorsal fulcral scales. The ninth dorsal fulcral scale 
at the position of the caudal inversion abuts two 
to three scale rows. There are disrupted ventral 
fulcral scales seen between the caudal fin and the 
tenth scale row (from posterior), indicating that 
the ventral midline of the caudal peduncle bore 
fulcral scales which were presumably slightly 
longer than the dorsal fulcral scales. The dorsal 
fulcral .scales have a faint ornament of posteriorly 
directed ridges whereas the fulcral scales on the 



vn 



194 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Fig. 1: Sketch — Palaeoniscoid gen. et sp. indet A. GSQ L1522. Abbreviations: ar — anal fin rays; df — dorsal 
fulcral scales; dh — dorsal hypochordal lobe; dr — dorsal fin rays; ff — fringing fulcral scale; vh — ventral 
hypochordal lobe. Scale bar — 10 mm. 



dorsal hypochordal lobe are smooth. The caudal 
fin is apparently deeply cleft and has a closely- 
packed series of fringing fulcra along the leading 
edge of the ventral hypochordal lobe. 
Lepidotrichiae are segmented and bifurcating. 

Discussion 

From the above description, with the lack of 
detailed scale ornament and because the head 
region is absent, it is clear that the original 
specimen cannot be accurately placed within the 
Palaeoniscoidei. The discovery of further 
specimens with good cranial material particularly 
would help to define the position of this 
palaeoniscoid more accurately if we could relate 
such specimens to the original. 

Palaeoniscoid Family and Genus indet. B. 

(PI. IB-C, Fig. 2) 

Description 

A second articulated specimen, CPC 25610, 
came from close to the first locality, 2 miles NNW 
of Mt McConnell Homestead. This specimen is a 
patch of squamation clearly exhibiting the scale 
ornament (figured as F22921 in White 1968). 
About 16 oblique scale rows are preserved. On 
average the rhombic body scales are 2.5 mm long 
by 2.0 mm wide. At least four large basal fulcral 
or ridge scales can be seen towards the corner of 
one side. The ornament on these body fulcral 
scales consists of a series of curved ridges following 



the curved rhombic outlines of the scale; the ridges 
anatomose anteriorly and some have small 
bulbous swellings along their length. In the 
rounded ridge scales there is a slightly raised 
anterior zone leading into the middle ridge; the six- 
seven main lateral ridges on either side curve 
around this central area and end posteriorly in a 
series of up to 14 digitations (Fig. 2). The rhombic 
body scales are ornamented with about 10 ridges 
which also have swellings along their length in 
some cases. 

Discussion 

This second specimen might belong to the same 
taxon as Palaeoniscoid Family and Genus indet. 
A because of the similar development of scale 
shape and body (i.e. dorsal and ventral as opposed 
to caudal) fulcral scale ornamentation and because 
it comes from a similar stratigraphic horizon. 
More material will be needed to assess further the 
status of these specimens. 

Remarks 

The genus Palaeoniscum s.s., which is known 
from the Upper Permian to Lower Trias, was 
reviewed extensively by Aldinger (1937, p. 95), 
who gave a new diagnosis (see also Gardiner 1963). 
The generalized features of the caudal region of 
the genus Palaeoniscum, such as a narrow caudal 
peduncle, deeply cleft tail and fringing fulchra, can 
be seen on GSQ LI 522, although many Permo- 
Carboniferous palaeoniscoids have dorsal and 



I OWER CARBONIFEROUS PALAEONISCOIDS 



195 




Fk:; 2: Palaeoniscoid gen. el sp. indet. B. CPC 25610, 
sketch to show squamaiion pattern and 
ornamentation in luleral region; scale barapprox. = 
1mm. Posterior to top. 



ventral fulcra! scales and fringing fulcra along the 
leading edges of the 11ns (Lehmann 1966). Scale 
morphology has been little studied to date, and is 
as yet unreliable for identification of 
palaeoniscoids because of the superficial 
similarities between the scales of the same region 
of the body exhibited by most genera (see lor 
example, figures in Traquair 1888-1914). 
However, comparison with recent studies, those 
on teleost scales by Grande (1982), for instance, 
provides hope rhat a future analysis of scale 
characters in palaeoniscoids could provide useful 
phylogeuetic and biostrarigraphie information. 
POT now. palaeoniscoids can only be reliably 
identified from cranial material. Kazantseva- 
Selezneva (1981) lists over 47 families of 
palaeoniscoids, all of which require details of the 
cranium for identification. 



OTHER AUSTRALIAN RECORDS 
OF PALAEONISCUM 

Long and Turner (1984) summarized the records 
of Palaeoniscum from Australia as follows: 

1. P. antipodeus Egerton 1864: L. Trias, NSW; 
Aldinger (1937), genus uncertain. 

2. P, feistmanteli Woodward 1891; L. Trias, 
NSW: Aldinger (1937), genus uncertain. 

3. P. crassus (Woodward 1908): L. Trias 
Aldinger (1937), genus uncertain. 

Long and Turner (1984) assigned all 
provisionally to the Family Palaeoniscidae. 

Conclusion' the occurrence of the genus 
Palaeoniscum in Australia is not proven. 

Thf. Mansfield Fauna 

The only other well-known Carboniferous fish 
fauna in Australia is that studied by Woodward in 
1906. He described the Lower Carboniferous Fish 
fauna from the Mansfield Basin, Victoria which 
included two new palaeoniscoid species, which he 
named Elonichlhys sweeti and Elonichlhys gtbbus. 
These represent the only other Carboniferous 
palaeoniscoids desciibed from articulated material 
in Australia. 

In a review of that material Long (1984) 
prepared the specimens and revealed that two new 
genera were present in the fauna. The genus 
Elonichlhys, as defined by Gardiner (1963), is not 
present in the material. The Mansfield 
palaeoniscoids are now known to comprise one 
new genus of gonatodid and a nevv genus of 
palaeoniscoid belonging to its own monotypic 
family. This latter form is somewhat similar to 
GSQ LI 522 but differs in having fewer scale rows 
from the dorsal fin to the caudal scale row 
inversion. 

SUMMARY OF RECORDS OF 

CARBONIFEROUS PALAEONISCOIDS IN 
QUEENSLAND 

Other palaeoniscoid remains have been found 
in Queensland throughout the Carboniferous; 
most are represented by scales alone and, as yet, 
none has been described in detail. J.T. Woods, 
then Senior Palaeontologist at the Geological 
Survey of Queensland, made preliminary attempts 
at identification of the Survey palaeoniscoid 
specimens (e.g. W r oods 1964). Most of those scales 
mentioned in the literature have been referred to 
the genera * Palaeoniscus' and 'Eionichthys' (see 
Turner 1982). We have stressed above the genus 
Pataeoniseus is not present in Australia. As the 
identification of the other genus is based on 
remains which are mostly patches of scales, and 



J 96 



MEMOIRS Or THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



because the Mansfield forms have been 
discounted, the presence of Blonichthys in 
Australia is also dubious. Many of the scales arc 
similar to those shown in Plates 1 and 2 and some 
probably belong to elonichthyids. 

Scales in the Sybil Group, Marshs Creek Beds 
of north Queensland, however, are not the typical 
peg and socket bearing rhomboid scales; These are 
cycloid scales which Woods thought comparable 
with those of Cryphiolepis, for the Survey 
specimens are so designated. These scales are 
similar to ones recently described from the Early 
Permian of Western Australia by Archbold 1 1981 ), 
which Turner (in press) has referred to the Family 
Cryphiolepidae. 

The following examples bearing palaeoniscoid 
scales have been found in the collections of the 
Queensland Museum (QM), the Geological Survey 
of Queensland (GSQ), the Bureau of Mineral 
Resources, Canberra (CPC, BMR) and the 
University o\' Queensland Geology Department 
(UQ), and during field work bv the senior author 
(RF). 

Lower Carboniferous 
Dkummond Basin 

For geology see Olgers 1972, and Day et al. 
1983. 

Telemon Formation (Tournaisian) 

1. QM L52, L56 and L71, bone bed and dark 
grey limestone from the centre of the Narrien 
Range, south of Anne Peak, west of Clermont 
(BartholomaiindeBretizel 1966, Turner 1982) 
— examples shown in Plate 2. 

2. GSQ 170. 173 and 174, limestones collected 
'west of Clermont ' by K. Gough 1961- 

Raymond Formation 

L QMRF 1-3, bone bed in algal limestone about 
100 m from base of formation, eastern Hank 
of" the Narrien Range, west of Clermont. 

2. QM M99, bone bed in blue limestone about 
233 m above base of formation . north of Anne 
Peak and Star of Hope Bore Road 
(Bartholomai in de Bretize! 1966, Turner 
1982). 

Pucabroqk Formation 

1. QM (archival letters from Mr Sexton, 1883); 
GSQ 1523, 1524, L292, L553 (Jack and 
Etheridge 1892); UQ FJ932-34, UQ F9948, 
UQF 17347-5 1, Bogantungan-Hannam's Gap 
railway cutting, including Medway Creek near 



Railway Bridge, or creeks within 2 km. 

2. UQF29778-93, limestone M56] , Withersfield 
Railway Station (Shell 1952). 

3. UQ F24403-4, UQ F58309, algal (M3I8) and 
oolitic (M349) limestones, Callistemon-Echo 
Hills section (Shell 1952). 

4. UQ F244O0, limestone M778, Anakie uplift 
section c-cl (Shell 1952). 

5. UQ F5831L sandy oolitic limestone M800a, 
Cattle Creek. 

6. UQ M238 silty limestone with Leaia, west 
flank Nogoa anticline. 

7. GSQ F8617 Ducabrook Homestead, SE ot 
Emerald (pi. C XIV, figs. 14-15, Hill and 
Woods 1964). 

North Queensland 
Star of Hope Formation 

1. GSQ L1522, Suitor River, WSW of Ml 
McConnell, Lornesleigh Station. 

2 CPC F2292I, NNW Ml McConnel Station. 

3. BMR localities 280 — limestone with 
palaeoniscoid scales, and 126/2 — siltstone 
with bone and scales. 

Upper Carboniferous 
North QUEENSLAND Burdekin-Star Basin 

Sybil Group, Marshs Creek Beds (see Dav et 
al. 1983, figure n). 

1 . GSQ L293, L398, limestones near New Moon 
Station. 

SOUTHEASI QUEENSLAt I 

1. GSQ Vince Palmieri coll. no.l 33, Lower 
Pennsylvania!! Harambah limestone. 'Wondai 
Series'?, SE of Murgon (Palmieri 1969). 

CONCLUSIONS 

Carboniferous palaeoniscoid material in 
Australia (except for the Mansfield fauna* Long, 
in press) is not well-defined below the familial 



PLATE 1: Articulated palaeoniscoid specimens horn the 
Lower Carboniferous of Queensland. A. GSQ 
LI522, Palaeoniscoid gen, e( sp. indel. A from 
Sutter River, near Mt McConnell, - I . B. CPC 
25610 Palaeoniscoid gen. 51 ip. indet. B. Cast of 
palaeoniscoid scales From Mi McConncil Station, X 
l.C Close up of cast of basal Fulcral scales of CPC 
25610 to show scale ornamcni, .« 4. 



LOWER CARBONIFEROUS PALAEONISCOIDS 



197 




A^F 




198 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEI M 



level, The specimen from north Queensland 
referred to 'Palaeoniscus' by Etheridge jnr is an 
indeterminate palaeoniscoid. 

Work has begun on fhe Carboniferous 
vertebrate micro fauna from several localities in 
Queensland. It is hoped that specific differences 
between scales, especially fulcra! scales, tooth 
plates, and teeth, for instance, will allow some 
biosiratigraphic use of the palaeoniscoids to be 
made in the future Plate 2 shows some examples 
of Lower Carboniferous palaeoniscoid 
microremains from the Telemon Formation of the 
Narrien Range. On the basis of scale and dermal 
bone ornamentation of this material at least three 
types of palaeoniscoid appear to be present in the 
Lower Carboniferous of Queensland. Brainca^e 
materia] preserved in the Narrien samples indicates 
thar the palaeoniscoids appear to be primitive. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Susan Turner acknowledges the help given to 
her by the Queensland Museum as part of an 
Honorary Research Fellowship; her work is 
supported by a grant from ARGS. John Long 
acknowledges receipT o\' a Rothmans Fellowship 
and a Queen Elizabeth II Award We would like 
to thank Mr Rod Allen, Director ol the Geological 
Survey of Queensland for permission to work on 
its collections and P.J.G. Fleming, Dr V. Palmieri 
and Simon Lang for help in obtaining material. 
Ms Sarah Do wling helped us to obtain samples 
from the Geology Department collections of the 
University of Queensland, and Dr Gavin Young 
allowed us to study the BMR material. Robert 
Ra\en, Bruce Cowell and Dora Aitken of the 
Queensland Museum, and Diane Phipps o\ the 
Geology Department, University of Queensland, 
assisted with photography. 



Gardiner, B.C., 1963. Certain palaeoniscoid fishes and 
the evoiuDon vf the snout in acrinopterygians. Bull, 
Br, Mus. not. Hist. Geology- London, 8: 255-525. 

Grandc, L., 1982. A revision of the fossil genus 
Diplomystu$\ with comments on the 
interrelationships of clupeomorph fishes. Amer, 
Mus. Nox'haies, no, 272H: [-34, 

HILL, D. and WOODS, J- (cds). 1964. Carbonic 
Fossils of Queensland. (Queensland 
Palaeontographical Society: Brisbane) 32 pp. 

J\( i, RX, and Ltheridge, R. jnr, 1892. 'The Geology 
and Palaeontology of Queensland and New 
Guinea'. Geol Sun>. Qd Publ 92: 1-768. 

Kaz.\ntsl\ \-Stu EZNEVA, A. A., 1981. Pozdnepale- 
ozoiskie paleoneski lostoehnogo Kazakh ji ^na 
(Sisxernatifca i Fflogeniya). Akad. Nauk CCCP 
Trudi Paleontologischeskogo Institute A. 180: 1-139. 

Lehman, .LP., #66, Auinopierysii. pp. 1-242, in P.P. 
Grasse 'TranedcPaleontolgoie' V. 3, pt. 4(Masson 
etCie: Pari.). 

Long. .LA., 1984. Phylogenetic and hiosnati^raphic 
impactions of some middle Palaeozoic fishes from 
Victoria, (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Earth 
Sciences, Monash Universiu). 
fin press). New palaeoniscoid fishes (Ostetchth\e-, : 
Aetinopterygii) from lhe t ate Devonian and Early 
Carboniferous of Victoria, Australia. Mems, 
Au.\rniki\. A$\. Puluixnxots., 5 (MS submitted Mav. 
1987). 

LONCj LA., and TURNER, S. ; [984. A checklist and 
bibliography of Australian fossil fish, pp. 235-254 
in VI. Archer and C F Clayton. "Vertebrate 
Zoogeography & Evolution in Aum rala&ia (Animals 
in Space & Time)' (Hesperian Press; Western 
Australia). 

ts, I . 1^72. Geology of the Drummond Basin, 
Queensland. Butt. Bur. Miner. Resnur. G 
Geopfm. 132: 1-72. 

PaimiLRI. V., 1969. Lipper Carboniferous coned 
from limestones near Murgon, southeast 
Queensland. Geot, Sun\ Qd Pub. 341. Palconr. 
Papa no. 17: 1 -13. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Aldi\gc-r, LL, 1 937. Permische Ganoidti--. fn flrji 

Ostgr6nland.iVfe<Mv Gronlund 102: pp. vliv + 392. 
Archhokd, N.W., 1981, Lisa seal- le Permian 

of Western Australia. J Roy. V- ( W AUStf 64: 

23-26. 
DAY, R.W., Whit \KtK, W.G., MURJUY^CGm VVn i 

LH. and Gr!\h;>, K.G . I98& 

Geology. A companion volume to the 1*2,500,000 
. tieological map(l9'5)\ Geol. Surv. Qd Pub!. 

383: i-194. 
or BRFTiZEL, P.fr., 1966. 'LcBassinde Drummond dans 

le geosyndinal de l'asman (Australe onentalel*. 

[DrxtoraJ thesis; University ol I yunsL 

P., 1464. On some [cbtbyoCKS from New 
■ Jlh Watee forwarded b) the Rev. W.B. Clarke. 

Quart, J. geol. Sol. Land. 20: 1-3. 



f'l Art I: Palaeoniscoid microremains from locality 
L52, Telemon Formation, Narrien kange, central 
Queensland, A. QM LI 3402. Labial view of 
toothplate ol palaeo,,. . . i I en. ct sp mdet. C, 
.ipprox. * 6(1. B. QMPI.U 1 gual v'm* Of 

toothplate of palaeoniscoid gen. el sp. indet. "L 
appro.x. * 35. C. QM 113404. Dorsal new of 
tr«l (?) fulcra! pjafc of palaeoniscoid gen. er sp. 
indet.. appro. X 3S. n. QM Ft 3405. Labial vie* 
of toothplate of palaeooisoid ^en. et sp. indet. E, 
appro?., x 60. E. QM FJ34M. Close up of teeth in 
labial view to >hou t'tnfi structure and tooth 
attachment, approx. X 100. 



LOWER CARBONIFEROUS PALAEONISCOIDS 



199 





B 



*v 



C 






.1 






: 4 '■:■■;:- ■ 



200 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Shell (Qld) Development Pty Ltd, 1952. General 
report on investigations and operations carried out 
by the company in the search for oil in Queensland 
1940-1961. Unpubl. Rep.: Geol. Surv. Qd (available 
at Univ. Qd Geol. Library). 

Traquair, R.H., 1877-1914. The ganoid fishes of the 
British Carboniferous formations. Part I. 
Palaeoniscidae. Palaeontogr. Soc. (Monogr.)., 
London. 

Turner, S., 1982. A catalogue of fossil fish in 
Queensland. Mem. Qd Mus. 20: 499-511. 
1987 (in press). Permian Fishes of Western Australia 
— A Review, pp. in S.K. Skwarto (ed.) 'The 
Permian Fossils of Western Australia'. Geo!. Surv. 
West. Austr. 



White, M.E., 1968. Report on 1967 and 1963 Collections 

of Plant Fossils from the Charters Towers Region 

of Queensland. Unpublished Bur. Miner Resour. 

Rec. No. 1968/61 (available from BMR, Canberra). 
Woods, J.T., 1964. Fossil fish remains from two 

localities in the Emerald sheet area. Appendix 2. 

Bur. Miner. Resour. Rep. 68: 65. 
Woodward, A.S.W., 1891. 'Catalogue of Fossil Fishes 

in the British Museum (Natural History), London, 

2: xliv + 597 (BM(NH): London). 
1906. On a Carboniferous fish fauna from the 

Mansfield District, Victoria. Mem. Nat. Mus. Vic. 

1: 1-32. 
1908. The fossil fishes of the Hawkesbury Series at St 

Peters. Mem. Geol. Surv. N.S. W. (Pal.) 10: 1-32. 



Mem. QdMus. 25(1): 201-206. [1987] 



FIRST JURASSIC ACT1NOPTERYGIAN FISH FROM QUEENSLAND 



Si:s\n Turner \no Andrew Rozefei ds 
Queensland Museum 



ABSTRACT 

Se\en fragmentary specimens or ray-fmned, possibly neopterygian, fish, which represent the 
first fishof this period in the State, are described fronmvo localities in the Middle Jura^ic Walloon 
Coal Measures of Balgowan Colliery, southeast Queensland. Six of the fish specimens from 
Balgowan Tunnel are preserved mainly as carbonaceous impressions in brie grained grey hthie 
sandstone. Remnants of the original scales, scale tissue and a presumed dorsal fin are present in 
the other specimen which comes from the Rosalie Workings, Balgowan. The significance of the 
record is assessed by comparison with other Australian Jurassic fish from New South Wales. 



INTRODUCTION 

The .Jurassic coal measures of the Ipswich 
coalfield have been investigated thoroughly since 
around the turn of the century (Gould 1968). In 
1951 Jack TuJistall Woods, then geological 
assistant at the Queensland Museum, collected six 
specimens from the coal measures of Balgowan 
Tunnel, Balgowan Colliery, 19km {12 miles) north 
of Oakey, which he thought might be fish remains; 
these were the first possible fish remains of this 
age to be found in the State. When reviewing the 
Queensland fossil fishes, Turner (1982) did not 
include these specimens because they were thought 
at that time to be plant material. During a 
subsequent search in the collections of the 
Geological Survey of Queensland the junior 
author came across a fish specimen from the 
W'alloon Coal Measures which closely resembles 
the material in the Queensland Museum. This 
specimen was collected by Mr Godfrey, the 
Colliery Manager, in March 1952. The seven 
specimens are described here for the first time and 
figured in Plate 1. 

AGE OF FISH-BEARING BEDS 

Mengel (1963) reviewed the geology and coal 
resources of Balgowan Colliery. However, little 
has been published on the flora and fauna of the 
coal measures exposed in these particular mines. 
With the exception of numerous, mainly theropod, 
dinosaur tracks found in roof shales (for review 
of literature see Gould 1974 and Molnar 1982). 
there are no other records of fossil vertebrates 
from Balgowan Colliery; to our knowledge no 
other macro- or microfossils, plant or invertebrate, 
are recorded from this site. 



The coal measure succession at Balgowan 
Colliery is part of the Walloon Coal Measures 
(Day et ai. 1983) which has a widespread surface 
and subsurface distribution in Queensland (Gould 
1968, Cranfield et a/. 1976). Based on 
palynologicai evidence, the age of this formation 
is now considered to be Middle Jurassic (U. 
Bajociati - L. Callovian) (de Jersey and Paten 
1964). The Walloon Coal Measures rnegaflora of 
Queensland was reviewed by Gould (1974, 1981). 
It contains bryophytes, arthrophytes, 
ptcridophytes and gymnosperms, of which 
conifers are dominant; more detailed research on 
most taxais needed. 

DESCRIPTION OF MATERIAL 

The specimens (Plate 1) are all partial body 
sections covered with scales and described below. 
Specimens QM F13632-6 were all found in 
association but it seems unlikely that they all 
originally belonged to one fish. 

Specimen GSQ F12975 (Plate lAj is the only 
specimen with a natural outline preserved; the 
head region and caudal fin are missing. 
Imbrication of the scales on the right side of GSQ 
F 1 2975 indicates the anterior end of the fish which 
is broken off behind the operculum. This specimen 
has a distinct convex dorsal margin and two- thirds 
of the way along this surface from the front there 
is a small dorsal tin making an angle of about 20° 
with the Rank. This fin originates at about the level 
of oblique scale row 27 of the 39-40 preserved 
oblique scale rows. The scales are rhombic, the 
largest in the mid-flank region having a maximum 
(oblique dorso-ventral) length of 5 mm and a width 
of about 2.5-3mm; smaller scales occur to front 



20) 



202 



MliMOIRS 01< THL QUl^NSLAND MUSEUM 








PTI RYO \N FISH 



M3 



and rear. Behind the anierioi edge of the dorsal 
fin there is a distinct caudal inversion of scales. 
The squamation presents a simple pavement oi 
these rhombic scales, which appear to have only a 
covering of shiny semi-opaque tissue; this 
tissue is preserved over the surface of the scales of 
much of this specimen unIikciho.se from Balgowan 
Tunnel. There is no scale ornament. The scales in 
I he oblique rows are offset about midway along 
their length. The posterior border of the 
imbricated scales is straight and no sign of peg and 
socket articulation can be seen. Only the lower 
portions of six rays are exposed in the den sal fin 
and no segmentation is visible. There appears ta 
be at least one large fulcra] scale preceding the 
dorsal fin. Further modified scales are nm otu u>n , 
but at least two are present in the base of the fin. 
Eight fringing fulcra are preserved. About six 
horizontal scale rows down from the dorsal surface 
there is an intermittent raised ridge in rhe 
squamation which may be the lateral line, or 
possibly an artefact of fossilization; no lateral iine 
scales can be distinguished. 

Specimen QM F13632 (Plate \C) also has large 

rhombic scales arranged in about 38 oblique rows. 
The scales, however, are not so offset in this 
specimen. No original tissue is preserved and the 
scales appear as dark brown carbonized stain 
sandstone rhombs wilh carbonized outlines. Pieces 
of ptam stem and comminuted plant debris 
surround the squamation. 

Specimen QM F 1 3633 ( Plate 1 F) is a small patch 
Ol squamation made up to about ten incomplete 
scale rows. Specimens QM Fl3634a and b (Plate 
IE and G), QM FI3635 and QM FI3636 (Plate IB 
and D) are also fragmentary) made up of about 
19-20, 15, 5 and 33 oblique scale rows respect) ■ 
Specimen QM F 13636 exhibits the maximum depth 
of squamation (Table l». 

The fish specimens are all thought to be 
actinopterygians because of the presence of 
rhombic scales and the raved fin. The fishes, which 
bfifl] relatively thin scales which may or may not 
be formed of a surface layer of dentine or 



enameloid, probably belong to one of the lower 
actinopterygian groups. The general form of the 
Queensland specimens is similar to the 
neopterygian halecostome, Htilettia, from the 
Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of the western USA. 
recently described by Schaeffer and Patterson 
(1984) However the preservation of the 
Queensland specimens is relatively poor, and the 
general resemblance of the squamation and dorsal 
fin to that of Huletiia is almost certainly no more 
than a superficial convergence or similarity of 
primitive characteristics. 

COMPARISON WITH THE TALBRAGAR 
FAUNA 

The onK other verified Jurassic fish fauna in 
Australia is that from the Talbragar Fish Beds of 
New South Wales, where a small fauna was 
discovered in the last century in association with a 
suae of plant remains (e.g. White 1981a, b). David 
and Pittman (1895) regarded the Talbragar Beds 
as equivalent to what they called the Ipswich Coal 
Measure Series of Queensland (which now 
excludes the Walloon Coal Measures). Woodward 
(1895) in his initial assessment of the fish fauna 
estimated thai the fish were of Jurassic age in 
affinity, 'not earlier than lias'. The current- 
assessment of the age of these beds is rather broad, 
being either Middle (Woodward 1895; White 
1981a; Schaeff'er and Patterson 1984) or Upper 
Jurassic (White 19S1 b; Long and Turner 1984). 

The fauna is accepted 85 non-marine because 
only fish, plants and one insect have been found 
m the series of fine-grained silicified shales. White 
(1981b) described the environment at Talbragar as 
a lush kauri pine {A gat his) forest in montane dry 
rain-forest country surrounding a reasonablc-stzcd 
lake. 

The fish fauna includes a coelacaiuh, 
palaeonisciforms, semionotiforms, pholido- 
phoridi forms and possible leptolepidids, although 
the assignment of some of these species is tenuous 
or doubtful (e.g. Nybelin 1974, p. 170). The faunal 
list is as follows (from Hills I95S and Schacffcr 
and Patterson 1984); 



PLATE lr Jurassic actinopierygian fish. A. GSQ F12975 

[Halation of flank scales and part oi dorsal fin, 
B- QM FJ3635 Small patch of flank scales- C. QM 
F13632 Lai I mh scales- D QM F13636 

Small patch of flank scales. E. QM 1 13634a Small 
patch of Hank scales. F QM F 13633 Small patch Ol 
flank scales. G. QM F 1 3634b Small patch of flank 

i ale bar* - to mm. 



TAB! F 1 : Measurements of specimens in rmn 



Registration Ni>. 


Maxtmu m M a \ i m u m 
Lenglii depth 


GSQFi:rs 

QM F 
QM i 1 3636 


i 
115 

173 « 
109 



204 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 





B ci 



PLATE 2: Jurassic actinopterygian fish. Deiail of GSQ F12975. A. Close up of flank scales and presumed dorsal 
fin, photomicrograph x 4. B. Diagram of the same area to illustrate the dorsal fin (df) and the caudal inversion 
(ci), approximately x 3.3. Anterior to right in both cases. 



JURASSIC ACTINOP PHRYGIAN FISH 



205 



cnelacanth indei. 

Coccolepis australis Wbodti aid i B?5 

Uabryichthys lot US Wade 1942 
Aeihealepb nutvbtlis Woodward 1895 
Aphenelepis australis Woodward I S9S 
Anhaeomaene tenuis Woodward 1895 
Afadarixcus robust us (Woodward 1895) 
'Leptolepts' talbraguretnis Woodward 1895 

Of these Conns only one shows a resemblance ro 
the new Queensland material in the form oi its 
scales. This is the sennonotid Aphenelepis which 
has rhombic scales. Tbey are not identical 
however, to those ot the new fish, as ihcy bear 
slightly radiating 'coarse crimping' (Woodward 
J 895). All the other forms at Talbragar have 
cycloidal scales. The general form of Apbenelepis 
also differs in that it is relatively short bodied with 
only about 17 oblique scale rows to the origin of 
the dorsal fin. However, Woodward did note the 
abrupt change in scale size posterior to the dorsal 
fin origin, a feature also seen In the GSQ specimen. 

THEEN\'IRONMENT 

The flora of the Walloon Coal Measures is 
simitar to That in the Talbragar Fish Beds. It 
includes tycopods, horsetails, ferns, 
plcndosperms, beneuitaleans, numerous conifers, 
cyettds, and pentoxylales (Gould 1974, ]$8]; 
White 1981). The Queensland fish, like the 
Talbragar fauna, were probably also living in a 
lake, but one possibly more low-lying than that if 
Talbragar being associated with nearb> peat- 
forming swamps. Gould (1981) thought that the 
peat, which eventually became coaiif'ied, was 
autochthonous. The presence of podocurp and 
araucarian conifers forming the dominant plant 
group In the Walloon Coal Measures flora 
indicates a distinctive southern hemisphere 
(Gondwanan) plant assemblage suggesting a moist 
temperate climate (Gould 19S1). Gould (1968) also 
mentioned that the clay component of the shales 
in the Walloon Formation was koa!initc\ 
nuuitmorillonire and bentonite; the latter would 
incidate possible nearby volcanic activity (e.g. 
Howell 1962). The ejection of large volumes of 
volcanic ash into the water bodies would certainly 
have detrimentally affected the fish population. 

CONCLUDING REMARKS 
Schacffer and Patterson (19H4) in their recent 
review of Juiavsic fishes summarized all the 
available information on Jurassic marine and non- 
mat me fish assemblages (sec their tables ? and 4 
and Fig. 39). Thev also stressed ilitn h would be 



desirable to search outside Europe, where the 
faunas are comparatively well-known, for new 
insights into the phyiogeny and 
palaeobiogeography of Jurassic fishes. Although 
the new occurrence of Jurassic fish in Australia 
does not afford much fresh information tov. 
our understanding of the relationships of 
Australian Jurassic fish to those elsewhete it does 
pinpoint another example of a non-marine 
assemblage. It will be well worthwhile investigating 
further the Jurassic coal measure sequences in 
Queensland for better material which might fulfill 
i i .1 Patterson's criteria. 

ACK NOWLEDGEMENTS 

We would like to thank Mr R. Allen and Mr 
p 1 G. Fleming of the Geological Survey of 
Queensland for allowing us to borrow the 
specimen Itom their collection, Thanks also to Drs 
Lance Grande and John Long lor their helpful 
comments on the manuscript Bruce Cowell and 
Mrs Dora Aitken helped us with photography. 

LITERATURE CITED 

I LD, Lid, ScfWARBOCR, rJ 91)4 D * v > RiW- M 
1976. Geology of the Ipswich and Brisban 
I ; 250,000 sheet areas. Rep. Geot. Surv. Qd, 95: 1- 
176. 

David, T W E. and Pittmw 1 , L.( '., 1895. Note on the 

Stratigraphy of the Kfch-beai iiil Red- ot the 

Talbragar River, pp. ix-xiii in Woodward, A.S. 

(1895). 
Day, R.W., Whitakc-k, Vv.G., Mukk.v.. I G ' ON 

I.H. and GRIMES, KG., 1983, Queensland Geology. 

A companion volume to the 1:7.500.000 SCftlC 

geological map (1973). Gcol. Surv. QcJ Pub!. 383: 

[-194. 
Dt Jersey, N.J. and Pati-.n. R.J., J 964. Jurassic ftp< 

and pollen grains from the *>urat Basin. Geot. Surv. 

QdPubi 322: 1-18. 
Gould. R,E., I96N. Walloon Coal Measures: a 

compilation. QdGovi Min, 7, 69! 509-515, 
1974. I he I'ossil Flora of ihe Walloon Coal Measures: 

a Sui\cy, Proc. Ro} Soc fitf*5: 33-41, 
198). The coal-forming flora of the Walloon Coal 

Measures CocfOtotoi i i- 83 IB5, 

Hui.s, E.S., 1958. A Brief Review QJ Australian Fossil 
Vertebrates, pp. Sh 107 in Wcstoll, T.S. (eo\), 
"SiQdieson 1-ossil Vertebrates'. (The Athlonc Press: 
University oJ i oaduflji 

Howi i.t , J.V. (Chairman), 19&2. Dictionary ot 
t feoio^lcaJ Terms. Prepared under the direction of 
the American Geological Institute- 545 pp, (Dolphin 
Books; New York). 

Lost., .), and TURNER, S.. 1984. A dlCCfclUt and 
bibliography of \iutoUfext fossil fUh, pp. 235-54 in 
Archer. M. and CUsion, G (Tiisi 'Vertebrate 



206 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Zoogeography & Evolution in Australasia'. 

(Hesperian Press: Western Australia). 
Mengel, D.C., 1963. Coal Resources, Darling Downs 

(Oakey) Coalfield. Geol. Surv. QdPubl. 314: 1-25. 
Molnar, R.E., 1982. A catalogue of fossil amphibians 

and reptiles in Queensland. Mem. QdMus. 20: 613— 

33. 
Nybelin, O., 1974. A revision of the leptolepid fishes. 

ActaR. Soc. Sci. Litt. Gothoburg Zool., no. 9: 1- 

202. 
Schaeffer, B. and Patterson, C, 1984. Jurassic Fishes 

from the Western United States, With Comments 

on Jurassic Fish Distribution. Amer. Mus. Novitates 



no. 2796: 1-86. 
Turner, S., 1982. A catalogue of fossil fish in 

Queensland. Mem. QdMus. 20: 599-611. 
Wade, R.T., 1942. The Jurassic fishes of New South 

Wales. J. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 75: 71-84. 
White, M.E., 1981a. Revision of the Talbragar Fish Bed 

Flora (Jurassic) of New South Wales. Recs Aust. 

Mus., 1981, 33:695-721. 
1981b. Fish Beds Reveal Lush Fossil ForestM«5/. Nat. 

Hist. 20: 227-30. 
Woodward, A.S., 1895. The Fossil Fishes of the 

Talbragar Beds (Jurassic?). Mem. Geol. Surv. 

N.S.W. , Palaeontology, 9: 1-31. 



Mem. OdMus. 25(1): 207— 225. [1987] 



THE PLIOCENE AND QUATERNARY FLAMINGOES OF AUSTRALIA 



PAT V. RlCWft, G.F. van TETS* 

TTLV. Rich} and A. R. McBvEyJ 

(Departments of Earth Sciences and Zoology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168. 

tMuseum of Victoria, 285-321 Russell Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000. 
♦Division of Wildlife and Rangelands Research. CSIRO, PO Box 84, Lyneham, ACT 2602. 



ABSTRACT 

From the Quaternary deposits of northeastern South Australia, material of what appears to be 
lour species of flamingo ha 1 ? been recovered. These in order ol size are referred to: Xenor hyn chops is 
tibialis de Vis, 1905, larger than extant species of flamingo; Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758, 
similar in size to modern P. ruber; Xenorhynchopsis minor de Vis, 1905, similar in size to 
Phoenkonaias minor (Linnaeus, 1758); and Ocvplanus praeses de Vis, 1905 including Ibis (?) 
CQtldiWS de Vis, 1905 and Phoeniconaius gracilis Miller, 1963, smaller than extant species of 
flamingo. 

De Vis was unaware that some of the bones he named were those of flamingoes and assigned 
them as follows: Xenorhynchopsis tibialis and A', minor to the Ciconiidae, storks; Ocvplanus 
proeses to the Charadrii, waders; and Ibis (?) condiius to the Thrcskiornithidac, ibises. Miller was 
unaware that de Vis had named, i ico rectly assigned some flamingo material. Ocv planus proeses 
was reassigned by Lambrechi to the Laridae. gulls, and by Condon to the Rallidae, rails, both 
Identifications which are also incorrect 

The material consists of bone fragments, most of which are not diagnostic at the generic level. 
Furthermore, the si/e of our samples ol modern flamingoes is limited, and even though wc have 
examined each species, a realistic grasp oF variability within some species has not been reached in 
this study. We have, therefore, provisionally retained the generic and specific names that have 
priority as 3 convenience until more complete material allows a better evaluation of the systematic 
posilions Of the Pliocene and Quaternary flamingoes of Australia. 



INTRODUCTION 

Flamingoes are not part of the modern avifauna 
of Australia, and it was not until Miller (1963) 
described a series of bones from the late Cenozoic 
deposits of northeastern South Australia that their 
long history on this continent was recognised. 
Extinction of flamingoes in Australia has been a 
relatively recent event, probably occurring during 
the Late Pleistocene or even Holocene and appears 
tied to the disappearance of the relatively 
permanent shallow lakes, which characterized 
central Australia during much of the Cenozoic. 
According to Bowler (1982) loss of these lakes 
occurred in the last 400,000 years. 

Since Miller (1963) demonstrated the presence 
Of fossil flamingoes in Australia, further material 
has been found both in the field and in museum 
drawers, including some fossil Phoenicopteridae, 
that were collected by Gregory (1906) and 
described by de Vis (1905) as fossil species of stork, 
Ciconiidae, of ibis, Threskiornithidae, and of 
wader, Charadrii Miller (1963) did not mention 
the fossil material of flamingoes that de Vis 



referred to other taxa, and was presumably 
unaware of de Vis' error. In fairness to de Vis and 
Milter, it should be realized that de Vis' reference 
collection did not contain any bones of 
flamingoes, so he assigned the unknown bones to 
the bird groups with the morphologies closest to 
what he had. Miller probably never examined the 
fossil flamingo material in the Queensland 




FiG, l- Map of area where late Pliocene and Quaternary 
tossils oi' flamingoes were found in northeastern 
South Australia 



207 



208 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



TABLE 1. Elements and distributions of Quaternary flamingoes in northeastern South Australia, 



Location 


X. tibialis 


P. ruber 


X. minor 


O. proeses 


Phoenicopteridae 


Kalakoopah Creek 
(Quaternary) 
Manku 










stnUCMP 128455 


Lake Kanunka 
(Pliocene) 
Site 1, V-5772 




tib UCMP 60562 
tmt UCMP 60583 


hum UCMP 56882 


tib UCMP 56887 

tmt SAM PI 3650 
UCMP 60561 




Lower Cooper 

Creek 
(Quaternary) 
Site 4, V-5380 
Site 8, V-5860 
Site 14, V-5866 
(age uncertain) 
Lower Cooper 
Unduwampa 
Wurdulumankula 


hum UCMP 56324 
tibQMF5515/6 


tmtQMF5518 


tib UCMP 94688 
hum UCMP 56360 

tibQMF5517 


femQMF5519 




Unknown sites 
(age uncertain) 




femQMF7013 




tmtQMF5512 


stn UCMP 69588 



TABLE 2. Names, old and new, of specimens of Australian Quaternary flamingoes we have examined. 



Specimen 
number 


Element 




New name this paper 


QMF5512 

F5515 
F5516 
F5517 
F5518 

F5519 
F7013 


tmt 
tib 
tib 
tib 
tmt 
fern 
fern 


Old name from De Vis (1905) 


same 

same It 

same rf 

same 

Phoenicopterus ruber rf 

Ocyplanus proeses rf 

Phoenicopterus ruber rf 


Ocyplanus proeses ht 
Xenorhynchopsis tibialis st 
Xenorhynchopsis tibialis st 
Xenorhynchopsis minor ht 
Xenorhynchopsis minor rf 
Ibis conditus ht 


SAM PI 3650 
UCMP 56324 
56360 
56882 
56887 
60561 
60562 
60583 
69588 
94688 
128455 


tmt 

hum 

hum 

hum 

tib 

tmt 

tib 

tmt 

stn 

tib 

stn 


Old name from Miller (1963) 


Ocyplanus proeses rf 
Xenorhynchopsis tibialis rf 
Xenorhynchopsis minor rf 
Xenorhynchopsis minor rf 
Ocyplanus proeses rf 
Ocyplanus proeses rf 
Phoenicopterus ruber rf 
same 

Phoenicopteridae, indeterminate 
Xenorhynchopsis minor rf 
Phoenicopteridae, indeterminate 


Phoeniconaias gracilis ht 

Phoenicopterus ruber rf 
Phoeniconaias gracilis rf 
Phoeniconaias gracilis rf 
Phoeniconaias gracilis rf 

Phoenicopterus ruber rf 



FOSSIL FLAMINGOES 



209 



Museum collections. Because of this unavoidable 
oversight, some changes in nomenclature are now 
necessary. 

This paper reviews the Quaternary and Pliocene 
material of flamingoes {Tables 1 and 2), including 
(hat described by de Vis (1905) and Miller (1963) 
from northeastern South Australia (see Fig. I). In 
other papers we will review the earlier Tertiary 
material of flamingoes, which has a somewhat 
wider distribution in inland Australia. 

Abbreviations 

The following abbreviations have been used in 
this paper: AM, Australian Museum, Sydney; 
ANWC, Australian National Wildlife Collection, 
Division of Wildlife and Rangelands Research. 
CSIRO, Canberra; NMV, Museum of Victoria, 
Melbourne; QM» Queensland Museum, Brisbane; 
SAM, South Australian Museum, Adelaide; 
SAfM, South African Museum, Cape Town, 
UCMP, University o\ California, Museum of 
Paleontology, Berkeley; UCMVZ, University of 
California, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 
Berkeley; @ = approximately; fern = femur; hum 
= humerus; tib = tibiotarsus, tmt - 
tarsometatarsus; stn = sternum; ht = holotype; 
It f lectotype; st = syntype; rf - referred. 



COMPARATIVE MATERIAL 

The main comparative material utilized in this 
study has been the extensive avian osteological 
collections in the Australian Museum, the 
Australian National Wildlife Collection, and the 
Museum of Victoria, which include representatives 
of almost all extant non-passeriform families and 
of the extinct Australian, American, and 
European Palaclodidae Also available for 
comparison were all of the Tertiary flamingoes 
from Australia that were reported on by Miller 
(1963) and what has been found since, as well as 
casts of Blprnis anglicus and Leakeyornis 
aethiopicus, The remaining comparisons were 
made with descriptions of all known fossil 
flamingoes. 

The following modern flamingo material was 
available: 

Phoenicopierus ruber. AM S424, $592, S594. 
S599, S600, S603, and 0. 56875; NMV B737, B73S 

and B748. SAM B5097 .', B11462. Bl 1548 and 
B 11552. The tarsometatarsi of these specimens, 
except for NMV B738, are all longer than 30 cm 
and, therefore, of males according to the tarsal 
measurements given in Brown ei al. (1982), Blake 
(1977) and Cramp (1977). 



LEC 



DIC 




V*, 



20 mm 




f 9 






■T- 



DEC 



A DAM 



Fig 



: Palmar and distal views of distal end of rifibl humeri of: Black-necked Stork, Xenorhynchus asiufkus, AM 
B4I39 (a); rl" Xenorhynchopsis ri&fefr, UCMP 56324 (&); Greater Flamingo, Phoemcopterus ruber, AM S599 
(c); Straw-necked Ibis, Thres/tiornte splnieoliis, ANWC BS29N6 (d); Lesser Flamingo, Phoerticonma& minor. 
ANWC BS2985 (e); Bush Stone-Curlew, Burhinur, ntugnirostris. ANWC BS1855 OK Banded Stilt, 
Cladorhynchus ieucacephalus, SAM B31542 (g). Measurements for Tables 3, 4 and 1 1 are indicated as follows; 
WD - width of distal end, 1 EC = length of external condyle, DEC depth o\ externa] condyle, DIC = 
dentil of internal condyle and DAM - depth Of aiiachment of \f pronator brexis. 



210 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 






50 mm 




3. Proximal, anterior, and posterior views ofleft femora of: Black-necked 
Stork, Xenorhynchus asiaticus, ANWC BSI878 (a); Greater Flamingo, 
Phoenicopterus ruber, AM S599 (b); Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaias 
minor, ANWC BS2985 (c); Straw-necked Ibis, Threskiornis spinicollis, 
ANWC BS2986 (d); rf. Ocyptanus proeses (ht. Ibis (?) conditus, QM 
F5519 (e); Bush Stone-Curlew, Burhinus magnirostris, ANWC BS1855 
(f); Banded Stilt, Cladorhynchus leucocephalus, SAM B31542 (g). 
Measurements for Tables 5, 6 and 1! are indicated as follows: WP = 
width of proximal end, WD = width of distal end, DT = depth of 
trochanter and DH = depth of head. 



FOSSIL FLAMINGOES 



211 



Phoenkopterus ruber chilensis: AM S549; NMV 
B12740; SAM B25448 S\ UCMVZ 125157 $, 
12158 *, and 140923 6. 

Phoeniconaias minor. ANWC BS2985 S ; SAfM 
Zo57025 &; UCMVZ 133408 S, 133409 5, 133410 
2 and 133411 £. 

Phoenicoparrus andinus: UCMVZ 126566 S, 
126567 £ and 129326 4. 

Phoenicoparrus jamesi: UCMVZ 154304 S. 

DIAGNOSIS OF ELEMENTS OF 
PHOENICOPTERIDAE REPRESENTED BY 
AUSTRALIAN PLEISTOCENE MATERIAL 

The skeletal elements of Australian Pleistocene 
flamingoes that are available can be diagnosed 
from those of other avian families as follows: 

Sternum. Anterior end. In anterior view, 
ventral manubrial spine robust and triangular in 
shape with apex pointing ventrally; line dividing 
left from right coracoidal sulcus not 
perpendicular, but courses diagonally between 
sulci terminating on right side of base of ventral 
manubrial spine; coracoidal sulci with robust, but 
low and rounded dorsal lips; in ventral view, 
carina does not originate from base of manubrial 
spine. 



Humerus. Distal end (Fig. 2). In palmar view, 
entepicondylar prominence low and gently 
rounded, not protruding far internally; where 
preserved, ectepicondylar prominence low, not 
protruding as a process; brachial depression 
elongate and deep; attachment for anterior 
articular ligament narrow and elongate, with long 
axis parallel to long axis of shaft; ectepicondyle 
subdued, not extending laterally beyond external 
condyle; in medial view, distal end of bone 
shallow, not inflated. 

Femur. (Fig. 3) Proximal end. In proximal 
view, head large, with depth being somewhat 
greater than one-half that of trochanter; anterior 
border of proximal end deeply concave, and highly 
curved, not straight; posterior border does not 
protrude far posteriorly; head does not protrude 
far internally beyond shaft, thus having very short 
neck; trochanter arises abruptly from nearby flat 
proximal articular surface, and forms tall crest 
that is concave internally. 

Distal end. In posterior view, popliteal area 
broad, shallow, almost flat and marked with 
prominent ligamental scar in the middle; medial 
margin of popliteal area very straight, elongate 
ridge that merges with posterior intermuscular line 




DEC DIC 



Fig. 4. Anterior and distal views of distal end of right tibiotarsi of: Black-necked Stork, Xenorhynchus asiaticus, 
ANWC BS1878 (a); It. Xenorhynchopsis tibialis QM F5515 (b); Greater Flamingo, Phoenkopterus ruber, AM 
S599 (c); ht. Xenorhynchopsis minor, QM F5517 (d); Straw-necked Ibis, Threskiornis spinicollis, ANWC BS2986 
(e); Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaias minor, ANWC BS2985 (f); rf. Ocy planus proeses, UCMP 56887 (g); Bush 
Stone-Curlew, Burhinus magnirosths, ANWC BS1855 (h); Banded Stilt, Cladorhynchus leucocephalus, SAM 
B31542 (i). Measurements for Tables 7, 8, 11 and 12 and Figure 6 are indicated as follows: WD = width of 
distal end, DIC = depth of internal condyle, DEC = depth of external condyle, AIC = anterior length of 
internal condyle and AEC = anterior length of external condyle. 



212 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSI AND MUSEUM 



proximally and which lacks any protuberances 
along it; internal condyle anteroposterior!? 

compressed, with internal surface of shaft 
flattened and smooth. 

TiBioTAksus. Distal end (Fig. 4). In anterior 
view, distal end mediolaterally compressed, and 
condyles not elongate proximodiMally; tendinal 
groove offset toward medial side of bone, not 
centred on shaft; tendinal bridge not 'broad' 
proximodistally; marked lieamental protuberance 
present on laterodistal end of supratendinul bridge 
that merges with short ridge, which itself lies well 
internal to lateral border o\ shall; condylar fossa 
deeply excavated, even undercutting bases of 
condyles; internal condyle in mosi cases extends 
only slightly distal to external condyle; in distal 
view, condyles deep and width across them 
decidedly greater anteriorly than posteriorly; 
posterior articular surface distinct from anterior; 
condyles nor oi' subequal depth. 

TarsometataRSUS. Distal end (Fig. 5). 
Trochlea IV extends decidedly farther distally than 
II, and III extends farthest; in medial view, distal 
end of trochlea II Hattened or only slightly curved, 



not highly convex; in distal view, trochleae highly 
arched, resulting from trochlea II being twisted 
posteriorly and externally from the front of the 
tarsometatarsus; trochlea III narrow and deep, not 
shallow and broad; anterior border of trochlea II 
broader than posterior border. 

SYSTEMATIC POSITIONS OF AUSTRALIAN 

PLIOCENE AND QUATERNARY 

MATERIAL 

The fossil material o\' Phoenicopteridae from 
the Pliocene and Quaternary of Australia which 
we have examined includes that reported on by de 
Vis (1905) and Miller (196?) and is summarised in 
Tables 1 and 2. As suggested in Rich and van Tets 
(1982), this material appears to include four size 
categories (Tables 3-10, Figs 6 & 7): larger than 
the Greater Flamingo, Phoenicnptents ruber; 
similar in size in P. ruber-, similar in size to the 
Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaias minor; and 
smaller than P. minor. 

The fossil material is still too rare and 
fragmentary for us to decide whether these forms 




20 mm 



PWII pwiV 



AWIII EDIII II 





s ya ^ 



EDII 
EDIII IDIH 

Fit,. 5. Posterior and distal views of distal cad of left larsometatarsi of; Black-necked Stork. Xenvrhynchus asiatlcus 
ANWC BS187S (a); Greater Flamingo, I'hoemcopterus ruber AM S599 (b): Straw-necked Ibis, Thrrskiurms 
spinkolits, ANWC BS29S6(c); Lesser Flamingo, Phoetuconaius minor ANWC BS2W5 (d); lit. Ocyptanus proeses 

QM F3512 (e)jrl. Ocyplanus proeses (hi. Phoeniconaks gracilis) SAM PI3650(t); Rush Slone-Curlevr, Burhtnus 

magnirostris, ANWC BS1S55 (gj; Banded Still, Cladorhynchus leucavephafus, SAM $3 1542 (h). Measurements 
S 9, 10, l l and i - and FlgUW 7 ore indicated as follows: \VS = width of shaft at proximal end of distal 
foramen, WD c= width of distal end, IDJI = internal depth of trochlea U, FDU = external depth of trochlea 
II, AWI! anterior width of trochlea II, PWII posterior width of trochlea. II. 1 Oil I = internal depth o^ 
trochlea HI, EDItl = external depth of trochlea III* AWH = amerior width ot trochlea 111, PL1II = posterior 
length of trochlea III, IDIV - internal depth <?\ trochlea IV, PW IV posterior width oE trochlea IV. 



FOSSIL FLAMINGOES 



213 



are congeneric or not with extant genera, and 
indeed where species boundaries should be drawn. 
Differences can be observed, but how much this 
is related to variability within a taxon and how 
much a reflection of real taxonomic difference is 
not yet clear. We, therefore, for convenience, have 
retained the following names for four size 
categories: Xenorhynchopsis tibialis de Vis, 1905; 
Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758; 
Xenorhynchopsis minor de Vis, 1905; and 
Ocy planus proeses de Vis, 1905. Only when larger 
samples are known will an assessment approaching 
that of modern species be possible. 

Xenorhynchopsis tibialis 

Cilation: de Vis, 1905. Ann. Qd Mus. 6: 9-10, pi. I., 
fig. 6. 

Syntypes: QM F5515 and F5516, distal ends of a right 
and a left tibiotarsus. Lower Cooper Creek, South 
Australia, Quaternary. 

De Vis described QM F5515 and F5516 as 
syntypes of a new genus and species of stork, 
Ciconiidae. They are similar in size to the tibiotarsi 



of the Black-necked Stork or Australian Jabiru, 
Ephippiorhynchus (Xenorhynchus) asiaticus, with 
which he compared it. QM F5515 and F5516 
resemble the tibiotarsi of Phoenicopteridae and 
differ from those of Ciconiidae, in distal view, by 
being decidely broader anteriorly than they are 
posteriorly, by having a very prominant ligamentai 
attachment at the base of the supratendina! bridge, 
and a very deeply excavated anterior surface 
between the two condyles. QM F5515 and F5516 
differ from the tibiotarsi of other 
Phoenicopteridae by being larger than those of the 
largest extant species Phoenicopterus ruber (Table 
5); and in that the internal condyle projects 
decidedlv farther distally than the external (Fig. 
4). 

Qualitative characters that may distinguish 
Xenorhynchopsis from other genera are rather 
questionable: in X. tibialis the distal end appears 
deeper relative to width; the shaft flares less at the 
distal end; the ligamentai groove on the lateral side 
of the shaft is located relatively nearer the anterior 
border. It appears to differ from Leakeyornis in 
that the ligamentai prominence on the distal end 





24 


- 




















X 

( 

X. tibialis 




22 




















P. copei 


X 


1 — 1 

E 
E 

> 

D 


20 


- 


















■ 

e 
I 


•- 

• 

" P. ruber d* 


c 
O 



18 




















. P. ruber § 




c 
(D 

X 

o 


16 






P 


P. stocki ^ @ 
minutus 


X 


minor 

j 


H 
v 


\ 

P. 


B 

V 

♦—P. jamesi 
chilensis 




c 

Q 

Q 

Q 


14 




L 


aethiopicus 

A A' 


o ~ m 


o 
'. minor 




B-_. 

P. andinus 






12 


- 





N 
proeses 

1 




1 1 




1 




1 


1 1 


1 1 1 



10 



1 1 



12 



i:^ 



1 8 



14 15 16 17 

Width of distal end Cmm] 
I n . 6. Comparison of distal tibiotarsal measurements of extant and extinct species of flamingo, 



1 9 



20 



214 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



of the supratendinal bridge is not subdued, and 
the supratendinal canal is broader. Direct 
comparison with Phoeniconotius is not possible, 
as that genus is known only from a 
tarsometatarsus and phalanges. 

We hereby designate QM F55 1 5 as the lectotype 
of Xenorhynchopsis tibialis and refer QM F5516 
to X. tibialis. 



extend further distally relative to the external 
condyle than in modern genera; the condyles 
appear to be relatively more inflated, and the distal 
end is deeper relative to its width (Tables 3, 4 & 
11). 

Phoenicopterus ruber 

Citation: Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1: 139. 



Additional Referred Material 

Humerus: UCMP 56324, left distal fragment, 
Cooper Creek, site 8, UCMP V-5860, South 
Australia, Malkuni Fauna, Katipiri Sands; 
collected as float from a river channel in the 
western fork of Cooper Creek about one-half mile 
south of Kittipirra, Quaternary. 

In shape, this humerus differs from that of the 
extant genera of flamingoes in having a relatively 
deeper brachial depression; a relatively shorter 
ventral supracondylar tubercle that is concave 
palmarly, not flat; and perhaps a more inflated 
distal end. More complete material is needed to 
accurately estimate the degree of inflation, 
however. The humerus differs from that of 
Leakeyornis in that the internal condyle does not 



Referred Material 

Tarsometatarsus: QM F5518, right distal 
fragment, Wurdulumankula, South Australia, age 
uncertain. 

De Vis (1905) referred this tarsometatarsus to 
Xenorhynchopsis minor, as a species of stork 
smaller than his X. tibialis. QM F5518 is similar 
in shape to the tarsometatarsi of Phoenicopteridae 
in the position of the trochlea for digit II being 
more ventral than in Ciconiidae. QM F5518 is 
decidedly more mediolaterally compressed than in 
Phoenicoparrus, and thus more like this element 
in Phoeniconais and Phoenicopterus. QM F5518 
is similar in size and shape to small tarsometatarsi 
of P. ruber; it does appear to differ slightly from 
our sample of P. ruber, however, in having' a 



12 



1 1 



10 



£ 7 



H. croizeti 



P. eyrensis 



P. ruber o^ - '+ 



P. novaehollandiae * * / 

^-© ^ P. ruber 9 p 



copei 



P. jarnesi + 



^-Fossil P. ruber 



P. minor o 



P. chilensis 



P. andinus 



^ L. aethiopicus 



O. proeses 



J I L 



J L 



11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 

Width of distal end (mm) 
Fig. 7. Comparison of distal tarsometatarsal measurements of extant and extinct species of flamingo. 



25 



FOSSIL FLAMINGOES 



215 



relatively shallower trochlea IV, although there is 
definitely some wear on the bone that might have 
overemphasized this. P. copei is similar in size to 
P. ruber (Tables 8, 10 and 12), but according to 
Shufeldt (1892) has longer wings, legs and toes, 
and a coracoid with a narrower dorsal end. These 
are characters that are not available for 
comparison in the Pliocene and Quaternary 
material of Australian flamingoes. For the present, 
because of its size we provisionally refer QM F55 1 8 
to P. ruber. 

Femur: QMF 7013 left, proximal fragment, 
probably from northeastern South Australia. 

This femur was found in the de Vis collection in 
the Queensland Museum with no information as 
to its origin. It is not one of the few missing 
specimens that were described by de Vis. Its 



preservation is compatible with that of fossil 
material from northeastern South Australia. 

In shape and size, QMF 7013 is similar to the 
femur of a large Phoenicopterus ruber, to which 
species we tentatively refer it. It differs from 
Leakeyornis in having a flat anterior shaft surface 
near the proximal end and a posterior expansion 
of the trochanter. 

Tibiotarsus: UCMP 60562, left distal fragment, 
Stirton Quarry, Lake Kanunka, Site 1, UCMP V- 
5772, South Australia, Tirari Formation, 
Pliocene. This tibiotarsus was found at the base 
of an escarpment on the northeast side of the 
northern part of the bluffs immediately to the west 
of Lake Kanunka. It differs slightly in shape from 
that of P. ruber in that the tendinal canal is 
decidedly deeper and broader, and the tendinal 



TABLE 3. Measurements in mm of the humeri of Australian Quaternary flamingoes. 





X. tibialis 


X. minor 


UCMP 56324 rf 


UCMP 56360 rf 


UCMP 56882 rf 


Width of distal end 

Length of external condyle 

Depth of external condyle 

Depth of internal condyle 

Depth at attachment of M. pronator brevis 


15.2 

15.8 

9.1 

12.7 


@22 
11.6 
11.8 

>8.6 


@19 
9.8 
10.5 
5.9 

7.8 



TABLE 4. Measurements in mm < 


3f the humeri c 


f modern flamingoes. 






P. ruber J 


P. ruber v 


P. chilensis 


P. an din us 


P. minor 


Width of distal end 


x 

range 
n 
sd 


25 

23-26 

13 

0.8 


23 
1 


23.5 

23-24 

3 

0.5 


22 
1 


19 

18-21 

3 

1.4 


Length of external condyle 


X 

range 
n 
sd 


14 

12-15 

13 

1.0 


12 
1 


14 

14-15 

3 

0.3 


11 
1 


10 

9-11 

3 

0.5 


Depth of external condyle 


X 

range 
n 
sd 


15 

13-16 

13 

0.7 


13 
1 


14 

12-15 
3 
1.0 


13 
1 


11 
10-12 

3 
0.8 


Depth of internal condyle 


X 

range 
n 
sd 


9 

8-10 

13 

0.7 


9 
1 


9 

9-10 

3 

0.3 


8 
1 


7 
6-8 

3 
0.7 


Depth at attachment of 
M. pronator brevis 


X 

range 
n 
sd 


10 
9-11 

11 
0.5 


10 
1 


9 
9-9 

3 
0.2 


— 


8 
1 



216 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



TABLE 5. Measurements in mm of the femora of 
Australian Quaternary flamingoes. 





P. ruber 


O. proeses 


QM F7013 rf 


QMF5519rf 


Width of proximal end 
Width of distal end 
Depth of trochanter 
Depth of head 


> 18.6 

@10.1 


@13.6 

@15.1 

>9.1 

@6.2 



groove on the lateral side of the external condyle 
is displaced farther anteriorly than in any of the 
modern genera. It differs from the tibiotarsus of 
Leakeyornis in having a very prominent ligamental 
attachment on the distal end of the tendinal bridge 
and in having a deeply incised tendinal canal. In 
size, UCMP 60562 agrees with Phoenicopterus 
ruber, to which we provisionally refer it. 

Tarsometatarsus: UCMP 60583, right distal 
fragment, Lake Kanunka, Site 1, UCMP V-5772, 
South Australia, Tirari Formation, Pliocene. 



TABLE 6. Measurements in mm of the femora 


of modern flarr 


lingoes. 






P. ruber 6 


P. ruber 9 


P. chilensis 


P. andinus 


P. minor 




X 


23 


21 


20 


20 


17 


Width of proximal end 


range 
n 


20-24 
13 


1 


18-22 
6 


19-20 
3 


15-18 

5 




sd 


1.0 


— 


1.2 


0.7 


1.0 




X 


26 


24 


23 


22 


18 


Width of distal end 


range 
n 


24-27 
13 


1 


23-24 

3 


1 


17-20 
3 




sd 


0.8 


— 


0.4 


— 


1.3 




X 


18 


17 


17 


15 


13 


Depth of trochanter 


range 
n 


17-20 
13 


1 


16-17 

3 


1 


12-14 

3 




sd 


0.9 


— 


0.5 


— 


0.5 




X 


10 


9 


10 


9 


7 


Depth of head 


range 
n 


9-11 
13 


1 


8-10 
6 


8-10 
3 


6-8 

5 




sd 


0.4 


— 


0.7 


0.6 


0.5 



TABLE 7. Measurements in mm of the tibiotarsi of Australian Quaternary flamingoes. 





X. tibialis 


P. ruber 


X. minor 


O. proeses 


QMF5515U 


QMF5516rf 


UCMP 60562 rf 


QMF5517ht 


UCMP 94688 rf 


UCMP 56887 rf 


Width of distal 
end 


@19.2 


18.6 




13.5 


> 14.9 


10.9 


Depth of 
internal condyle 




>22.3 


19.3 


15.9 






Depth of 

external 

condyle 


21.8 


>23.8 




16.3 




>11.8 


Anterior length 
of internal 
condyle 






8.8 


6.9 


@7.7 


5.8 


Anterior length 
of external 
condyle 


11.5 


@9.2 




9.0 




6.5 



FOSSIL FLAMINGOES 



217 



Miller (1 963) described and figured this 
tarsometatarsus, similar in size and shape to a large 
tarsometatarsus of Phoenicopterus ruber, to which 
species he referred it. We tentatively agree with 
this referral. 

Xenorhynchopsis minor 

Citation: de Vis, 1905. Ann. Qd Mus. 6: 10, pi. I, II, 

fig. 1. 

Holotype: QM F5517, distal end of a right 
tibiotarsus, Unduwampa, South Australia, Quaternary. 

De Vis described QM F5517 as the holotype of 
a small species of stork in his genus 
Xenorhynchopsis. In size and shape the holotype 
is similar to Phoeniconaias minor, except that the 
shaft is somewhat stouter in Xenorhynchopsis 
minor. In X. minor the external condyle is deeper 
relative to distal end width, the internal condyle is 
relatively shorter, and there is a greater difference 



in the lengths of the internal and external condyles 
when they are viewed anteriorly than in P. minor. 
The tibiotarsus of X. minor is larger than that in 
Leakeyornis aethiopicus (Tables 7 & 11), and it 
differs in having a very large distal opening of the 
tendinal canal, but it is very similar in all other 
characters. Like in Xenorhynchopsis tibialis, the 
condyles of X. minor are deeper relative to width, 
and thus Xenorhynchopsis differs from the living 
genera and Leakeyornis. Both X. tibialis and X. 
minor flare only slightly distally, apparently not 
as much as in the living genera, and both have very 
large distal openings of the tendinal canal; neither 
have a deeply notched distal border of the internal 
condyle, thus differing from the species in modern 
genera. Phoenicopterus stocki (Miller 1944) from 
the Pliocene of North America and P. minutus 
(Howard 1955) from the Pleistocene of North 
America are both about the same size as X. minor 



TABLE 8. 


Measurements in mm of the tibiotarsi of modern flamine 


oes. 






P. ruber J 


P. ruber V 


P. chilensis 


P. andinus 


P. jamesi 


P. minor 




X 


17 


16 


15 


15 


16 


13 


Width of distal end 


range 
n 


16-18 
13 


1 


14-17 
6 


14-16 

3 


1 


12-14 
6 




sd 


0.6 


— 


1.0 


0.7 


— 


0.8 




X 


20 


18 


16 


16 


16.5 


15 


Depth of internal 


range 


19-20 


— 


15-17 


15-18 


— 


14-15 


condyle 


n 


13 


1 


6 


3 


1 


6 




sd 


0.6 


— 


0.6 


l.l 


— 


0.5 




X 


19 


18 


16 


16 


16 


14 


Depth of external 


range 


19-20 


_ 


15-17 


15-17 


— 


13-15 


condyle 


n 


13 


1 


6 


3 


1 


6 




sd 


0.6 


— 


0.8 


1.2 


— 


0.6 




X 


10 


9 


8 


8 


7.5 


7 


Anterior length of 


range 
n 


9-11 
13 


1 


8-9 
3 


1 


1 


6-8 
4 


internal condyle 


n 


13 


1 


6 


3 


1 


6 




sd 


0.6 


— 


0.6 


1.1 


— 


0.5 




X 


19 


18 


16 


16 


16 


14 


Depth of external 


range 


19-20 


— 


15-17 


15-17 


— 


13-15 


condyle 


n 


13 


1 


6 


3 


1 


6 




sd 


0.6 


— 


0.8 


1.2 


— 


0.6 




X 


10 


9 


8 


8 


7.5 


7 


Anterior length of 


range 


9-11 


— 


8-9 


— 


— 


6-8 


internal condyle 


n 


13 


1 


3 


I 


1 


4 




sd 


0.5 


— 


0.6 


— 


— 


0.4 




X 


11 


10 


9 


9 


9 


8 


Anterior length of 


range 


10-12 


— 


8-9 


— 


— 


8-9 


external condyle 


n 


13 


1 


4 


1 


1 


4 




sd 


0.5 


- 


0.3 


— 


— 


0.4 



218 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



(Tables 7, 8 & 12), and both appear also to have 
deep condyles, with P. stocki being deepest 
(Howard 1955). P. minutus has a relatively shorter 
internal condyle, evidently a relatively higher 
intercondylar tubercle (Howard 1955), a notch on 
the distal border of the internal condyle that is well 
behind the centre of the condyle, not near its 
centre, and the shaft flares more broadly at the 
distal end. X. minor appears to differ from both 
P. stocki and P. minutus in having a relatively 



broad intercondylar notch, as in living flamingoes, 
rather than a narrow one. 

Referred Material 

Tibiotarsus: UCMP 94688, left distal fragment, 
Cooper Creek, Site 4, UCMP V-5380, South 
Australia, Malkuni Fauna, Katipiri Sands, 
Quaternary. Collected from a sandbar in the main 
channel of Cooper Creek. 

This tibiotarsus is similar in size to those of 



TABLE 9. 


Measurements in 


mm of the tarsometatarsi of Austra 


ian Quaternary flamingoes. 




P. ruber 


O. proeses 


QMF5518rf 


UCMP 60583 rf 


QMF5512hi 


SAM P13650rf 


UCMP 60561 rf 


Width of shaft at 
proximal end of 
distal foramen 


14.2 




8.6 


9.8 




Width of distal end 


@J9.2 


>21.0 


12.2 


13.0 




Internal depth of 
trochlea II 








6.1 




External depth of 
trochlea II 


7.4 


>8.1 


5.1 


6.0 


5.8 


Anterior width of 
trochlea II 


>6.4 


9.1 


@4.2 


4.7 


5.2 


Posterior width of 
trochlea II 


>4.S 






3.1 




Internal depth of 
trochlea II 


8.9 


10.6 


6.1 




6.9 


Anterior width of 
trochlea II 


>6.4 


9.1 


@4.2 


4.7 


5.2 


Posterior width of 
trochlea 11 


>4.8 






3.1 




Internal depth of 
trochlea III 


8.9 


10.6 


6.1 




6.9 


External depth of 
trochlea III 


9,2 


10.7 


6.3 


7.4 


>7.2 


Anterior width of 
trochlea III 


>7.4 


>7.9 


>4.8 


>5.1 


>5.4 


Posterior length of 
trochlea 111 


@10.6 


10.9 


9,0 


>8.1 




Internal depth of 
trochlea IV 


>7.7 






6.2 




Posterior width of 
trochlea IV 


5.8 






3.2 





FOSSIL FLAMINGOES 



219 



TABLE 10. Measurements in mm of the tarsometatarsi o 


f modern flam 


mgoes. 






P. ruber 1 


P. ruber \ 


P. chilensis 


P. andinus 


P. jamesi 


P. minor 


Width of shaft at 
proximal end of 


X 

range 
n 
sd 


15 

14-17 

12 

0.8 


13 
1 


15 

14-15 

3 

0.1 


11 
1 


14 

] 


12 
11-13 

3 


distal foramen 








0.7 




x 


21 


18 


18 


17 


18 


15 


Width of distal end 


range 
n 


19-22 

12 


1 


16-20 
6 


16-18 

3 


1 


14-16 
5 




sd 


0.6 


— 


1.1 


0.8 


— 


0.8 




x 


8 


7 


7 


— 


— 


7 


Internal depth of 


range 


7-10 


— 


7-8 


— 


— 


— 


trochlea II 


n 


12 


1 


5 


— 


— 


1 




sd 


0.5 


— 


0.4 


— 


— 


— 




x 


9 


7.5 


8 


7 


7 


6 


External depth of 


range 


8-10 


— 


7-9 


6-8 


— 


6-8 


trochlea II 


n 


12 


1 


5 


3 


1 


6 




sd 


0.8 


— 


0.6 


0.9 


— 


0.5 




X 


7 


7 


6 


7 


7 


5 


Anterior width of 


range 


6-8 


— 


4-7 


— 


— 


4-6 


trochlea II 


n 


12 


1 


6 


1 


1 


4 




sd 


0.4 


— 


0.9 


— 


— 


0.8 




X 


5 





5 


5 


5 


4 


Posterior width of 


range 


5-6 


— 


4-5 


4-5 


— 


3-5 


trochlea II 


n 


12 


— 


4 


3 


1 


5 




sd 


0.3 


— 


0.3 


0.3 


— 


0.4 




X 


11 


10 


9 


9 


9 


8 


Internal depth of 


range 


10-11 


— 


8-10 


8-11 


— 


8-9 


trochlea III 


n 


11 


1 


5 


3 


1 


5 




sd 


0.5 


— 


0.4 


1.3 


— 


0.4 




X 


11 


10 


9 


9 


9 


8 


External depth of 


range 


10-12 


— 


8-10 


8-10 


— 


8-10 


trochlea III 


n 


12 


1 


5 


3 


1 


5 




sd 


0.5 


__ 


0.5 


0.8 


— 


0.5 




X 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


6 


Anterior width of 


range 


8-9 


__ 


5-8 


— 


— 


6-7 


trochlea III 


n 


12 


1 


5 


1 


1 


3 




sd 


0.4 


— 


1.2 


— 


— 


0.5 




X 


12 


10 


10 


10 


11 


9 


Posterior length of 


range 


11-13 


— 


9-11 


— 


— 


9-10 


trochlea III 


n 


12 


1 


3 


1 


1 


3 




sd 


0.5 


— 


1.1 


— 


— 


0.9 




X 


10 


9.5 


8 


8 


8 


7 


Internal depth of 


range 


9-11 


— 


8-9 


7-8 


_ 


7-8 


trochlea IV 


n 


12 


1 


5 


3 


1 


5 




sd 


0.5 


— 


0.3 


0.6 


— 


0.3 




X 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


Posterior width of 


range 


5-7 


— 


5-6 


4-5 


— 


4-4 


trochlea IV 


n 


12 


1 


4 


3 


1 


6 




sd 


0.3 


— 


0.4 


0.3 


— 


0.1 



220 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Phoenicopterus minor. It is very heavily 
weathered, and we only tentatively refer it to 
Xenorhynchopsis minor on the basis of size. 

Humerus: UCMP 56360, left distal fragment, 
Cooper Creek, site 14, UCMP V-5866, South 
Australia, Malkuni Fauna, Katipiri Sands. 
Collected from the northern side of the channel at 
a prominent west bend, where bones were found 



in place or as float derived from a sand-filled 
channel cut into red-green mottled arenaceous 
clays and overlain disconformably by a grey- 
brown argillaceous sandstone and dune sands. 

On UCMP 56360 and the humeri of 
Phoenicopterus the dorsal supracondylar process 
is not as prominent as it is in Phoeniconaias and 
Phoenicoparrus. UCMP 56360 differs from the 



TABLE 11. Measurements in mm of the humeri, femora, tibiotarsi and tarsometatarsi of Tertiary flamingoes of 

the World from Rich and Walker (1983). 





L. aethiopicus 


H. croizeti 


P. eyrensis 


P. novaehollandiae 


P. fhridanus 




range n 


range n 


n = 1 


n - 1 


n - 1 


Humerus 












Width of distal end 


16-18 7 










Length of external 


9-10.5 8 










condyle 












Depth of external 


9-10.5 8 










condyle 












Femur 












Width of distal end 


15-18.5 3 










TlBIOTARSUS 












Width of distal end 


11-12 3 


15.9 1 






16.5 


Depth of internal 
condyle 


12-14 3 


11.5 1 








Depth of external 
condyle 


@14 3 


18.5 1 








Anterior length of 
internal condyle 


6-7 2 


8.5 1 








Anterior length of 
external condyle 


7-8 2 


10.1 1 








Tarsometatarsus 












Width of distal end 


11-15 7 


16-20 2 


@24.4 


17.6 




External depth of 
trochlea II 


5-7 6 




9.2 


8.4 




Anterior width of 
trochlea II 


4.5-5 4 


4.5 1 


8.7 


6.6 




Internal depth of 
trochlea III 


7-8 5 


10.5 1 


11.2 


9.8 




External depth of 
trochlea III 


7-9 9 


11.0 1 


11.6 


10.0 




Anterior width of 
trochlea III 


5-6 4 


7-9 2 


11.5 


7.8 




Posterior length of 
trochlea III 


7-9 7 




10.9 


@10 




Internal depth of 
trochlea IV 


6-7 9 






9.7 




Posterior width of 
trochlea IV 


3.5-5 7 


6.0 1 




5.6 





I'OSSU. FLAMINGOES 



221 



humerus of Leakeyornis in having: only a small 
area of the brachial depression that is deep; the 
internal condyle not extending much beyond the 
external condyle; and the condyles inflated as in 
living flamingoes. Miller (1963) referred UCMP 
56360 to Phoenicopterus ruber, because it is 
similar in size and shape to the humerus Of 
UCMVZ 140923, labelled as a male of 
PhoenlCopterus ruber ruber. The tarsometatarsal 
length of UCMVZ 140923 is 253 mm, which is 
within the range for males of Phoenicopierm ruber 
chilensis, and of females of P. r. ruber and P. r. 
roseus, but is too small for males of P. r. ruber 
and P. r. roseus as indicated in Blake (1977) and 
Cramp (1977). Our other measurements also 
suggest that UCMVZ 140923 has been mislabelled 
and misidenlil'ied and should be referred to P. 
chilensis rather than to P. ruber. We tentatively 
refer UCMP 56360 ro Xenorhyncopsis minor, in 
part because it is slightly smaller than our sample 
of P. chilensis (including UCMVZ 140923), 
substantially smaller than our sample of P. ruber, 
and slightly larger than our sample ol 
Phoeniconaias minor. 

Humerus; UCMP 56K82, left distal fragment, 
Lake Kanunka, Site I, UCMP V-5772, South 
Australia, Tirari Formation, Pliocene. 

Miller (1963) referred this humerus to 
Phoeniconaias gracilis, but noted thai in size it was 
similar to Phoeniconaias minor. Mainly because 
oi its size we tentatively refer it to 
Xenorhynchopsis m inor. 



Oevplanus proeses 

Citation: de Vis, 1905. Ann. Qd Mus. 6: 8-9, pi. I, fig. 

5b. 
New Synonymy: 
Ibis (?) conduits de V, % 1905. Ann. Od Mitf, 6: 10-11, 

pi. II, fig. 2. 
Phoeniconaias gracilis Millci , 1963. Com/or 65: 294-6. 

Rff, 4. 

Hoi O i H i J [- I ">h Oc vri ANi fS PJtt )£S£S 

Tarsometatarsus: QM F5512, left distal 
fragment, northeastern South An st alia, age 
uncertain. Although the distal end is solidly fused, 
the shaft has a surface texture that suggests a 
juvenile bird. 

De Vis did not specify where QM F5512 was 
found when he named it as a new genus and species 
of wader, Charadrii (= Limicolae). Without am 
explanations Ocyplanus proeses was included wiih 
the gulls, Laridae, by Lambrccht (193?), Brodkorb 
(1967) and Fisher (1983), and wiih the rails. 
Rallidae, by Condon (1975). When compared with 
QMF 5512 and the tarsometatarsi of waders and 
flamingoes, those of gulls and rails differ in that 
from a medial view the medial part ot the trochlea 
for digit II is more rounded. 

We agree with de Vis that QM F5512 is similar 
in size to the tarsomctatarsus of a stone-curlew, 
Burhinus mugnirostris, but QM F 55 1 2 and the 
tarsometatarsi of flamingoes differ from stone 
curlews in having a more gradual expansion of the 
distal end. and also in that the trochlea for digit 
II does not extend as far distally relative to that 



TABLE 12. Measurements in mm of the tibiotarsi and tarsometatarsi oi North American Quaternary flamingoes 
fromShufetdt (1884), Miller (1944). Howard (1955) and Rich and Walker < 1983). 





p, rntnutus 


P swcki 


p. copef 




n = 1 


n - 1 


r, - 2 


Tibiotarsus 








Width of distal end 


12.7 


©13 


17 


Depth of external condyle 


@ 15 


*16.2 


20 


Anterior length of interior condyle 




6.2 




Tarsometatarsus 








Width of distal end 






20-22 


Externa] depth of trochlea II 






8.6-9.4 


Anterior width of trochlea II 






7.6-8.6 


Internal depth of trochlea III 






10.1-10.6 


External depth ol" trochlea MI 






10.6-10.7 


Anterior width of trochlea 111 






7^-9.4 


Posterior length of trochlea 111 






11. 3-12. 8 


Internal depth of trochlea IV 






9.4-10.5 


Posterior width of trochlea IV 






5.2-6.2 



16.0 in Howard (1955 



222 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



for digit III. In these respects QM F5512 and the 
tarsometatarsi of flamingoes resemble those of 
some other waders with long, slender legs such as 
lapwings, Vanellus, Charadriidae; avocets and 
stilts, Recurvirostra, Himantopus and 
Cladorhynchus, Recurvirostridae; curlews and 
godwits, Numenius and Limosa, Scolopacidae; 
and pratincoles, Stiltia, Glareolidae; but their 
trochleae for digit II extend even less distally than 
those in QM F5512 and flamingoes (Fig. 5). 

QM F5512, the holotype of Ocy planus proeses, 
conforms to the diagnosis by Miller (1963) for 
Phoeniconaias gracilis (see below) and is similar 
in size and shape to the holotype. It differs from 
the tarsometatarsi of Phoenicoparrus and 
Phoenicopterus in being more mediolaterally 
compressed when viewed distally, thus resembling 
the tarsometatarsus of the living Phoeniconaias. 

Holotype of Ibis (?) conditus 

Femur: QM F5519, left, Wurdulumankula, 
South Australia, age uncertain. 

De Vis (1905) made this femur the holotype of 
a new species of ibis, Threskiornithidae ( = 
Ibididae). He compared the femur with that of the 
Straw-necked Ibis, Threskiornis (Carphibis) 
spinicollis, and noted that the shaft of QM F5519 
was relatively stout compared with the length of 
the femur. In this respect QM F5519 is similar to 
the femora of Phoenicopteridae, as it is also in 
other respects, including the sharply curved line in 
the popliteal area mentioned by de Vis. 

The femur differs from that of all living genera 
of flamingoes in that the anterior intermuscular 
line is straight over much of its length except near 
the proximal end where it is highly concave, 
curving medially to touch the trochanter; the 
anterior face of the shaft near the proximal end is 
deeply excavated and lacks a pneumatic foramen 
(Lambrecht 1933); the ligamental pit at the base 
of the fibular condyle, when viewed posteriorly, is 
relatively deeper, and a distinct ridge lies just 
proximal to that; proximal to the prominent ridge 
is a deep channel that runs onto the shaft (modern 
flamingoes lack the well defined channel, and the 
ridge is only hinted at). 

In size, QM F5519 is smaller than the femora of 
Phoeniconaias minor and is from a bird similar in 
size to QM F5512; we, therefore, refer QM F5519 
to Ocy planus proeses. 

Holotype of Phoeniconais gracilis 

Tarsometatarsus: SAM P13650, left distal 
fragment, Lake Kanunka, Site 1, UCMP V-5772 
South Australia, Tirari Formation, Pliocene. 



Miller (1963) described this tarsometatarsus as 
the holotype of a new species of flamingo with a 
tarsometatarsus smaller and more slender than 
that of Phoeniconaias minor, the smallest extant 
species of flamingo. He suggested that the fossil 
resembled most the African Phoeniconaias, 
because it had a trochlea 11 that was relatively 
shallow and less rounded than in other living 
genera. This seems variable within our samples of 
living genera. The tarsometatarsus of 
Phoeniconaias is however, like the Australian 
fossil, more mediolaterally compressed than those 
in the species of Phoenicoparrus and 
Phoenicopterus. P. gracilis differs from 
Leakeyornis in that trochlea IV is narrower 
posteriorly and deeply incised laterally, and in 
distal view, the tarsometatarsus is more 
compressed mediolaterally. Phoeniconotius has 
much shallower trochleae relative to their width 
and a less compressed distal end. We agree with 
Miller's diagnosis, which equally applies to the 
holotype of Ocyplanus proeses, a name that has 
priority and to which we refer SAM PI 3650, the 
holotype of Phoeniconaias gracilis. 

Additional Referred Material 

Tibiotarsus: UCMP 56887, right distal 
fragment, Lake Kanunka, Site 1, UCMP V-5772, 
South Australia, Tirari Formation, Pliocene. 

Miller (1963) referred this tibiotarsus to 
Phoeniconaias gracilis, because it is smaller than 
that of P. minor, which it resembles in shape. It 
further differs from all of the extant flamingoes 
we examined in that: the ligamental groove on the 
external shaft surface near the distal end lies close 
to the anterior border of the shaft and does not 
course diagonally across that surface; and the 
distal end is not flattened distally, but both internal 
and external condyles slope proximally and 
posteriorly, although this is certainly 
overemphasized by postdepositional wear. It 
differs from the tibiotarsus of Xenorhynchopsis 
tibialis in flaring more broady distally, in having 
less prominent ligamental protuberences on the 
anterior surface, and in having the ligamental 
groove on the lateral face of the external condyle 
located more anteriorly. It differs from the 
tibiotarsus UCMP 60562, that we tentatively refer 
to Phoenicopterus ruber, in having a decidedly 
deeper tendinal canal on the anterior surface and 
relatively higher ligamental prominences. It differs 
from the tibiotarsus of Xenorhynchopsis minor in 
that the condyles, viewed from the side, have a 
more pronounced slope proximoposteriorly. We 
refer UCMP 56887 to Ocyplanus proeses. 



FOSSIL FLAMINGOES 



223 



Tarsometatarsus: UCMP 60561, right distal 
fragment, Lake Kanunka, Stirton Quarry, Site 1, 
UCMP V-5772 South Australia. Found as float, 
Pliocene or Quaternary. 

Miller (1963) referred this tarsometatarsus to 
Phoeniconaias gracilis. It is slightly smaller than 
the smallest individual in our P. minor sample and 
poorly preserved. We tentatively refer UCMP 
60561 to Ocy planus proeses. 

Phoenicopteridae, indet. 

Sternum: UCMP 69588, anterior fragment, 
locality uncertain, South Australia. 

Sternum: UCMP 128455, anterior fragment of 
a juvenile, Manku, Kallakoopah Creek, UCMP V- 
76056, South Australia, Quaternary. 

Both UCMP 69588 and 128455 are fragments 
of the manubrial end of the sternum. The 
manubrial spine is preserved complete in 69588. 
UCMP 128455 appears to be a juvenile, based on 
the porous appearance of the bone surface and its 
small size. On the ventral side the angle of lateral 
spread posteriorly between the coracoidal sulci is 
greater than in Phoenicopterus ruber, P. chilensis 
and Phoeniconaias minor, but the vertical depth 
of the coracoidal sulci is in the adult UMCP 69588 
similar to P. ruber, and in the juvenile and worn 
UCMP 128455 less than in P. ruber. These 
characters might be diagnostic when more 
complete fossil sterna become available, but at this 
stage we can assign UCMP 69588 and UCMP 
128455 only to indeterminate Phoenicopteridae. 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 

Modern genera of flamingo differ in the shapes 
of the mandibles and in the presence 
(Phoenicopterus and Phoeniconaias) or absence 
(Phoenicoparrus) of a hind toe (Salvadori 1895). 
Unfortunately Phoenicopterus and Phoeniconaias 
lack a hallux scar on the tarsometatarsus to 
indicate that they have a hind toe. Phoeniconotius 
is the only genus of flamingo known to have a 
hallux scar (Miller 1963; Rich and Walker 1983). 
Lambrecht (1933) noted that Ocyplanus did not 
have a hallux scar. 

Brodkorb and Mourer-Chauvire (in press) 
believe that the post-cranial bones of flamingoes 
are of limited diagnostic value. As indicated above 
in the descriptions of the fossils, we, as did de Vis 
(1905) and Miller (1963), found some differences 
in shape, that may be generic, but more complete 
fossil material is needed to substantiate their 
significance. The only Pliocene and Quaternary 
material of Australian flamingoes available to de 



Vis included seven, to Miller six, and to us 18 
bones. 

The limited evidence available suggests that 
sometime during this time period there were at 
least four species of flamingo, in what may be 
three different genera, and that they were 
restricted to the Lake Eyre Basin of northeastern 
South Australia. 

The range in size and at certain stratigraphic 
levels the number of sympatric genera and species 
of the Pliocene and Quaternary flamingoes of 
Australia is greater than has been recorded 
elsewhere in time and space. Xenorhynchopsis 
tibialis appears to have been larger than any 
known flamingo except for Phoeniconotius 
eyrensis of the Australian Miocene, and Ocyplanus 
proeses appears to have been smaller than any 
known flamingo except for Leakeyornis 
aethiopicus of the African Miocene. 
Xenorhynchopsis minor appears to have been 
similar in size to Phoeniconaias minor, the Lesser 
Flamingo, and smallest of the five species of 
modern flamingoes; whereas Phoenicopterus 
ruber, the Greater Flamingo, is the largest of the 
modern flamingoes. 

Xenorhynchopsis differs from other genera of 
flamingoes mainly in having a tibiotarsus with a 
relatively deep distal end, which flares little, 
especially on the lateral side. 

Australian fossil flamingoes assigned to 
Phoenicopterus ruber are the size of this living 
species, but some elements demonstrate a few 
differences from this species and other known 
genera of flamingo. We, therefore, retain some of 
the Australian fossils in this genus for convenience 
only. It should be noted however, that we suspect 
that at least UCMP 60562 from Lake Kanunka 
may merit description as a new taxon when more 
diagnostic material is available. 

In Ocyplanus proeses, we include Ibis (?) 
conditus and Phoeniconaias gracilis. Although the 
tarsometatarsi of O. proeses are qualitatively 
indistinguishable from those of Phoeniconaias 
minor, the referred femur and tibiotarsus differ 
markedly. Thus, because O. proeses does not 
conveniently fit into any known genus of 
flamingoes we have retained the de Vis name, 
which has priority. 

It has not been feasible to date radiometrically 
the sites that have yielded flamingo bones, some 
of which were found as 'float' on erosion surfaces 
in creek beds. It appears that four species are 
known from the Cooper Creek localities (Table 1), 
three from Lake Kanunka, and one specimen from 
Kallakoopa Creek. The Cooper Creek localities 



224 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



may include sites of various ages within the 
Pleistocene. The six Kanunka fossils, however, 
probably represent contemporaneous Pliocene 
forms , suggesting that at least three speci es 
inhabited this area, which must have had 
permanent saline lakes in the Pliocene, and missing 
Xenorhynchopsis tibialis may represent a species 
restricted to the Pleistocene that frequently crops 
out along Lower Cooper Creek. The smallest 
flamingo, Ocyplanus proeses, occurs in both 
places but is restricted to only one Cooper Creek 
locale, Wurdulumankula, the age of which is 
uncertain. It has not been found anywhere 
together with Xenorhynchopsis tibialis, and could 
be restricted to the Pliocene. X, minor is long 
ranged, from Pliocene into the Quartenary. 

How the Australian flamingoes are related to 
those elsewhere in the world cannot be determined 
until more complete material of fossil forms is 
available. It does seem clear that there were several 
kinds of flamingoes in Australia during the 
Pliocene and Quaternary (Rich and van Tets 1982) 
and, as happened in North America, increased 
aridity accompanied by the disappearance of 
reasonably permanent shallow lakes, and of 
feeding and breeding grounds, resulted during the 
Quaternary in major extinctions. In North 
America flamingoes survived in the Caribbean 
Basin, whereas the antipodean flamingoes left no 
survivors, even though Australia had hosted 
during the last 3-4 million years one of the most, 
if not the most, diverse flamingo faunas. Better 
dating of the sites containing flamingoes in 
Australia could provide significant data for timing 
of extinctions and reconstruction of changing 
palaeoenvironments . 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are indebted to our families who were 
patient with us as we worked on this and related 
papers. We are grateful to the curators of the 
collections that provided the material that is 
compared in this study: Alan Bartholomai (QM), 
Walter Boles (AM), W.A. Clemens (UCMP), 
Pippa Haarhoff (SAfM), Brett Hendy (SAfM), 
Ned Johnson (UCMVZ), Wayne Longmore (AM 
& QM), Shane Parker (SAM), Neville Pledge 
(SAM) and Mary Wade (QM). Frank Knight drew 
the map and figures. Thanks are due to the 
Australian Museum, Australian Research Grants 
Committee, the Danks Trust, the Ingram Trust, 
the Monash University Special Research Fund, the 
National Geographic Society, the National Science 
Foundation (BMS 7200102), and Utah Mining for 
grants in support of various aspects of this and 



related studies. John Calaby and Richard Tedford 
provided many helpful comments on the 
manuscript and Neville Pledge helped in 
manuscript editing. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Blake, E.R., 1977. 'Manual of Neotropical Birds'. Vol. 

I. (Univ. of Chicago Press: Chicago). 674 pp. 
Bowler, J.M., 1982. Aridity in the late Tertiary and 

Quaternary of Australia. In: 'Evolution of the Flora 

and Fauna of Arid Australia'. (Eds Barker, W.R. 

and Greenslade, P.J.M.). pp. 35-45. (Peacock 

Publ., Frewville: South Australia). 
Brodkorb, P., 1967. Catalogue of fossil birds Part 3. 

Bull Florida State Mus. 11(3): 99-220. 
Brodkorb, P., and Mourer-Chauvire, C. (in press). 

The fossil flamingoes of Early Man sites of Olduvai 

Gorge (Tanzania). Ostrich. 
Brown, L.H., Urban, E.K. and Newman, K., 1982. 

'The Birds of Africa'. Vol. 1. (Academic Press: 

London) 521 pp. 
Condon, H.T., 1975. 'Checklist of the Birds of 

Australia. Pt. 1. Non-passerines'. (Roy. 

Australasian Ornith. Union: Melbourne) 31 1 pp. 
Cramp, S. (Ed.), 1977. 'Handbook of the Birds of 

Europe the Middle East and North Africa'. Vol. 1 . 

(Oxford Univ. Press: Oxford). 722 pp. 
De Vis, C.W., 1905. A contribution to the extinct 

avifauna of Australia. Ann. Qd Mus. 6: 3-25. 
Fischer, K., 1983. Mowenreste (Laridae, 

Charadriiformes, Aves) aus dem Mitteloligozanen 

phosphoritknollenhorizont des Weisselsterbeckens 

bei Leipzig (DDR). Mitt, zool. Mus. Berlin. Bd. 59 

SuppUAnn. Orn. 7:151-5. 
Gregory, J.W., 1906. The Dead Heart of Australia'. 

(John Murray: London) 384 pp. 
Howard, H., 1955. Fossil birds from Manix Lake, 

California. Geot. Surv. Prof. Pap. 264-J: 199-205. 
Lambrecht, K., 1933. 'Handbuch der 

Palaeornithologie'. (Gebrtider Borntraeger: Berlin) 

1024 pp. 
Miller, A.H., 1963. The fossil flamingoes of Australia. 

Condor. 65(4): 289-99, 
Miller, L.H., 1944. A Pliocene flamingo from Mexico. 

Wilson Bull. 56(2): 77-82. 
Rich, P.V., and Van Tets, G.F., 1982. Fossil birds of 

Australia and New Guinea: Their biogeographic, 

phylogenetic, and biostratigraphic input. In: 'The 

Fossil Vertebrate Record of Australasia'. (Eds Rich, 

P.V. and Thompson, E.M.). pp. 235-384. (Monash 

Univ. Offset Printing Unit: Clayton). 
Rich, P.V. and Walker, C.A., 1983. A new genus of 

Miocene flamingo from East Africa. Ostrich, 54: 

95-104. 
Rich, T.H., Archer, M., Plane, M., Flannery, T., 

Pledge, N., Hand, S., and Rich, P., 1982. 

Australian Tertiary mammal localities. In: 'The 

Fossil Vertebrate Record of Australasia'. (Eds Rich, 

P.V. and Thompson, E.M.). pp. 525-72. (Monash 

Univ. Offset Printing Unit: Clayton). 



FOSSIL FLAMINGOES 225 



Salvadori, T., 1895. Catalogue of birds in the British Stirton, R.A., Tedford, R.H., and Woodburne, 

Museum (Natural History) 27: 8. M.O., 1968. Australian Tertiary deposits containing 

Shufeldt, R.W., 1892. A study of the fossil avifauna terrestrial mammals. Univ. Calif. Pub. Geol. Sci. 

of the Equus beds of the Oregon Desert. Journ. 77: 1-30. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 9: 410-411. 



Memoirs 

OF THE 

Queensland Museum 



Brisbane 



© Queensland Museum 

PO Box 3300, SouthBrisbane 4101, Australia 

Phone 06 7 3840 7555 

Fax 06 7 3846 1226 

Email qmlib@qm.qld.gov.au 

Website www.qm.qld.gov.au 

National Library of Australia card number 
ISSN 0079-8835 

NOTE 

Papers published in this volume and in all previous volumes of the Memoirs of the 
Queensland Museum maybe reproduced for scientific research, individual study or other 
educational purposes. Properly acknowledged quotations may be made but queries regarding 
the republication of any papers should be addressed to the Editor in Chief. Copies of the 
journal can be purchased from the Queensland Museum Shop. 

A Guide to Authors is displayed at the Queensland Museum web site 

A Queensland Government Project 

Typeset at the Queensland Museum 



Mem, QdMus. 25(1): 227— 231. [1987] 

A NEW SPECIES AND NEW RECORDS OF PORTUNUS (DECAPODA ; 
PORTUNIDAE) FROM NORTHERN AUSTRALIA 



P.J.F. Davie 

Queensland Museum 



ABSTRACT 

Portunus rufiarcus is described as new. It differs from its closest relatives, P. pubescens and P. 
convexus, by its characteristic colouring, a continuous nasogastric ridge, and a distinctive first 
mate pleopod. P. putchrkristatus and P. tuberculosus are recorded from Australia for the first 
time. 



INTRODUCTION 

Extensive shallow water trawling by the 
Queensland Fisheries Service (Q.F S.) has been 
conducted in recent years. Amongst a variety of 
interesting material that has come to the Museum 
are three species of Portunus. Measurements given 
are of carapace widths including the last 
anterolateral spine. Synonomies cover the most 
important references but are not necessarily 
complete. 

Portunus pulchricristatus (Gordon, 1931) 
(Fig. 1) 

Neptunus (Helienus) spinipes Alcock, 1899: 31, 39. 
non Neplunus (Amphitrite) spinipes Miers, 1886 
Neptunus (Helienus) pulchricristatus Gordon, 1931: 534, 

figs 8, 10a. 
Portunus pulchricristatus: Stephenson and Rees, 1967: 

35. Stephenson, 1972a (record only). Stephenson 

J972b (check-listing). 

Maieriai- Examined 

QM W9913, 1 t (23.3 mm), trawled off N. 
Queensland, I5 rj 46.6 > S, 14542.PE, 10.9.1979,48.6 m, 
Q.F.S. QM W9916. 1 ' (25 5 mm), trawled off N. Qld, 
16 o 08'S, 145°37'E, U .9.1979. 43.2 m. Q.F.S, QM 
W99I9, 1 ' (29.3 mm), trawled off N. Qld, 17°09.8'S 5 
I46 C 23..VE, 10.10.1979, 50.4 m, Q.F.S, 

Remarks 

The specimens generally agree with the 
description of Gordon (1931), although length 
breadth ratios are slightly smaller (1.93 — 2.06 
compared with 2.3 — 2.6). Nevertheless the last 
anterolateral spines are prominent, a feature which 
helps distinguish this species from P. spinipes. The 
other anterolateral teeth are slightly more defined 
than was figured by Gordon (1931) but they are 
not acute as in P. spinipes. Both of the above 
discrepancies could be accounted for by the 



slightly smaller size of the present specimens. The 
first male pleopod agrees closely with the figures 
of both Gordon (1931) and Stephenson and Rees 
(1967, fig. 7). 

Distribution 

Muscat; Madras; Andamans; Gulf of Martaban 
and Arakan Coast, Burma; Malaysian area; 
Philippines and China (Stephenson 1972b). Now 
from north Queensland, Australia. 

Portunus tuberculosus (A. Milne Edwards, 1861) 

Neptunus tuberculosus A. Milne Edwards, 1861: 333-4, 

pi. 31 (fig. 5). 
Neptunus (Amphitrite) tuberculosus; Miers, 1886: 176. 
Neptunus (Helienus) tuberculosus: Aleock, 1899: 42-3. 
Portunus tuberculosus: Stephenson and Campbell. 1959, 

p.89(mkey).Crosnier 1 1962:69-71. figs 97-8, 124- 

7. Stephenson and Rees. 1967: 52, fig. 18, pi. 6B. 

Heath, 1971. Stephenson i972a (record only). 

Stephenson 1972b (checklist). 



Material Examined 

QM W12869. 1 i (24.3 mm), trawled 'Red Spot 
Bycatch' Stn 2, E. of Hinchinbrook Is., !8 n 26'S, 
]46°25,4'E. 17.7,1985, Q.F.S. QM W9917, 1 \ (23.1 
mm), trawled north Queensland, J7°08.7'S, 146°15.2'E. 
43.2 m, 17.10.1979, Q.F.S. QM W2098, 1 S (29.8 mm), 
Arnhem Bav, N.T., 10 Fnte, ^and and mud bottom, V. 
Wells. 

Remarks 

Agrees in all details with description given by 
Stephenson and Rees (1967). 

Distribution 

Tanzania; Madagascar. Persian Gulf; Ceylon; 
China; Philippines; Palau Is. and Hawaii 
(Stephenson 1972b). Now from northern 
Australia. 



227 



::* 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 




Fig. 1: Portunus pulchricristatus (Gordon, 1931). Scale = 5mm. 



Portunus rufiareus sp. nov. 
(Figs 2a-d, 3) 

Material Examined 

Holotypf: 1 r QM W J 2625 (27.1 mm). Bathurst Bay, 
FNQ. Beam-trawled, 1 m, over seagrass beds, C. Jones 
(Q.F.S.). 

Description 

Front: Four flat rounded lobes, equally 
protruberant and projecting well ahead of inner 
angles of orbit. Laterals only slightly broader at 
base than medians. 

Anterolateral teeth: First, large triangular and 
blunt, projecting straight forward; the second to 
eighth of similar shape although gradually 
diminishing in size; the ninth about the same 
length as the first but sharply pointed and 
projecting forward. 

Carapace: Moderately broad (breadth !.5S 
times length), the anterolateral teeth form a curve 
whose centre lies at about the level of the cardiac 
groove. Postero-lateral angles rounded. Surface 
distinctly finely granulated particularly anterior to 
the epibranchial and mesogastric grooves, 



becoming microscopic to almost smooth towards 
the posterior margin. Some sparse, small hairs 
across the anterior half, slightly longer on the 
borders of the anterolateral teeth. Paired branchial 
and metagastric ridges, but a continuous straight 
mesogastric ridge. 

Chelipeds: Robust, pubescent, microscopically 
granulated. Posterodistal border of arm smooth; 
anterior border with three spines, the proximal 
spine the smallest, the median and distal spines 
subequal in length. Carpus with two carinae on 
outer face, the inferior one ending in a spine, the 
superior one blunt; and a carina on upper surface 
which also ends bluntly. Inside upper distal edge 
near hand articulation, with usual long spine. 
Outer upper distal edge without spine but carina 
bluntly pointed. Hand with three conspicuous 
carinae dorsally, the inner two ending in spines. 
Strong forwardly directed spine at point of upper 
articulation with carpus. Outer and inner faces 
both with median carinae ending bluntly. Dactyl 
with three carinae; fingers serrated; proximal tooth 
of right dactyl 'molar-like' and directed 
backwards. 



PORTUNUS FROM NORTHERN AUSTRALIA 



229 




Fig. 2: Portunus rufiarcus sp. nov.: a — carapace; b — third maxilliped; c 
pleopod, whole view, and enlargement of sternal face of tip. 



male abdomen; d — left first male 



Fifth leg: Posterior surface with fine fringing 
hairs, no spines or spinules. Dactyl ends in small 
spine. 

Third Maxilliped: Anteroexternal angle of 
merus not produced laterally but is square cut (Fig. 
2b). 

Male Abdomen: Gradually tapering, ultimate 
segment 1.7 times as long as broad at base, and 
only slightly shorter than length of penultimate 
(Fig. 2c). 

First Male Pleopod: Long and thin, central 
section straight; recurved towards apex; gradually 
tapering to a slightly truncated tip. Abdominal 
surface of tip smooth, sternal face with sparse 
short bristles (Fig. 2d). 

Colour: After approximately 6 months in 
alcohol the crab is generally a creamy yellow with 



a uniform narrow arc of orange/red finishing at 
about the level of the penultimate anterolateral 
teeth. Two patches of the same colour but paler 
on either side of the mid-line, centred over the 
mesogastric ridge. 

Fresh specimens have a much deeper red arc 
than preserved specimens. Behind this the colour 
is a rich red-brown becoming more orange until 
the epibranchial ridges. Behind these the carapace 
is yellow except for where the anterior colour 
extends back centrally for a short distance. The 
ambulatory legs are yellow, matching the posterior 
carapace colour. The chelipeds are a similar red to 
that behind the dark anterior arc. 

Remarks 

Portunus rufiarcus is clearly most closely related 
to P. pubescens and P. convexus however both of 



230 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



these have the nasogastric ridge broken. 

It differs from P. convexus in other respects by: 
the shorter last anterolateral spines; the different 
shape of the frontal teeth (c.f. Fig. 60 in Crosnier, 
1 962); the merus of the third maxilliped having the 
anteroexternal angle more squarely cut (c.f. Fig. 
69 in Crosnier, 1962); and in missing the 
characteristic posterolateral brown spots of that 
species. It resembles P. convexus particularly in 
the sinuous form of the first male pleopod, and in 
this respect both species differ from P. pubescens 
which has a smoothly curved male pelopod. It also 
differs from P. pubescens in the shape of the 
frontal teeth. 

Etymology 

The species' name alludes to the distinctive 
colouring, and is from the latin words rufus 
meaning red, and arcus meaning an arc or bow. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I thank Messrs Clive Jones and Kurt Derbyshire 
of Queensland Fisheries Service (Northern Branch) 



for sending study material and a colour slide of 
the fresh specimen of P. rufiarcus. Mr John Short 
assisted in initial sorting and in reading the first 
draft. Gary Cranitch and John Short took the 
photographs. Mrs Woodgate typed the 
manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Alcock, A., 1899. Materials for a carcinological fauna 
of India, No. 4: The Brachyura Cyclometopa. Pt. 
2. A revision of the Cyclometopa with an account 
of the families Portunidae, Cancridae, and 
Corystidae. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal. 68(2): 1-104. 

Crosnier, A., 1962. Crustaces Decapodes Portunidae. 
Faune de Madagascar 16; 1-154, 13 pis. 

Gordon, I., 1931. Brachyura from the coasts of China. 
J. Linn. Soc. (Tool) 37: 525-58. 

Heath, J.R., 1971. Crabs of Dar es Salaam: Part 1, 
Family Portunidae. Tanzania Notes and Records 72: 
1-17. 

Miers, E.J., 1886. The Brachyura collected by H.M.S. 
Challenger. Report of the scientific results of the 
voyage of H.M.S. Challenger 17(2): i-1, 1-362, 29 
pis. 




Fig. 3. Portunus rufiarcus sp. nov. Scale = 5mm. 



PORTUNUS FROM NORTHERN AUSTRALIA 



231 



Milne-Edwards, A., 1861. Etudes zoologiques sur les 
crustaces recents de la famille de Portuniens. Arch. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 309-421, pis 28-38. 

Stephenson, W., 1972a. Portunid crabs from the Indo- 
West Pacific and Western America in the Zoological 
Museum, Copenhagen (Decapoda, Brachyura, 
Portunidae). Steenstrupia 2(9): 127-56, 8 figs. 
1972b. An annotated check list and key to the Indo- 
West Pacific swimming crabs (Crustacea : Decapoda 



: Portunidae). Bull. R. Soc. N.Z. 10: 1-64. 
Stephenson, W. and Campbell, B., 1959. The 

Australian portunids (Crustacea : Portunidae), 3: 

The genus Portunus. Aust. J. mar Freshwat. Res. 

11(1): 73-122, 5 pis. 
Stephenson, W. and Rees, May, 1967. Some portunid 

crabs from the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the 

collections of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. 

US. Nat. Mus. 120(3556): 1-114, 9 pis. 



Memoirs 

OF THE 

Queensland Museum 



Brisbane 



© Queensland Museum 

PO Box 3300, SouthBrisbane 4101, Australia 

Phone 06 7 3840 7555 

Fax 06 7 3846 1226 

Email qmlib@qm.qld.gov.au 

Website www.qm.qld.gov.au 

National Library of Australia card number 
ISSN 0079-8835 

NOTE 

Papers published in this volume and in all previous volumes of the Memoirs of the 
Queensland Museum maybe reproduced for scientific research, individual study or other 
educational purposes. Properly acknowledged quotations may be made but queries regarding 
the republication of any papers should be addressed to the Editor in Chief. Copies of the 
journal can be purchased from the Queensland Museum Shop. 

A Guide to Authors is displayed at the Queensland Museum web site 

A Queensland Government Project 

Typeset at the Queensland Museum 



Mem QdMus. 25(1): 233— 237. [1987] 



A NEW BARRED RIVER FROG (MYOBATRACHIDAE* M1XOPHYES) 



C.J. COHBEN 

Queensland Department of Forestry, 80 Meiers Road, IndooroopiUv, Q. 4068. 

and 

G.I. i NO RAM 

Queensland Museum, P.O. Box 300, South Brisbane, Q. 4101 



ABSTRACT 

Mivnphyes fleayi sp. nov. has been confused with both M. balbus and M. fasciolatus, but j| ft 
readily separable from these species and the other two members of the genus. The new species is a 
ground-dweller in montane rain forest from Conondale Range. SE Queensland, to Richmond Range, 
NE New South Wales. Discovery of M. fleayi triggered new examination Q\ die types 6¥ Mixophyes 
taxa about which there has been serious confusion T he status of fly/a fenestrate de Vis is confirmed 
as a junior s\nonvm ol W- fasdoluius, and probable tvpes of A/, balbus have been located in the 
Queensland Museum. Also, a lectoiype is selected for M fa\i-ioiat us Gwrthcr, 1864. 



INTRODUCTION 

Straughan 0968) recognised four species of 
Barred River Frogs, Mixophyes spp., from 
Australia: A/, balbus. A-/, fasciolatus, A/, ireratus 
and M. schevilli. In October 1972, we located a 
population of Mixophyes in Cunninghams Gap, 
SE Queensland. These specimens clearly differed 
from M fasciolatus and M. iteratus, the only 
species Of Mixophyes known from there. The frogs 
keyed to M. fasciolatus (following Straughan, lac. 
eft.) but we listed them as M. balbus (Ingram and 
Corben 1975), the species they most closely 
resembled. When we later collected live M. balbus 
(sensu stricto), we realized that our population 
belonged to a new species We have examined the 
holotypes of Mixophyes balbus Straughan and M. 
iteratus Straughan, a paratype of M. fasciolatus 
schevilli Loveridge, and a syntype of A/. 
fasciolatus Gtinther. The species we describe here 
is distinct from all of the known species of 
Mixophyes* 

The following abbreviations are used; SV, 
snout-vent length; TL, tibial length; HW, width 
of head at broadest part, IN, distance between the 
two external nostrils; EN, distance between the 
external nostril and anterior border of eye; ED, 
diameter of eye between anterior and posterior 
borders. Measurements are in millimetres and 
ratios are expressed as percentages. Specimens 
examined are housed in the Queensland Museum 
(QM), South Australian Museum (SAM), 
Australian Museum (AM), and the British 
Museum (Natural History) (BMNH). 



Mixophyes fleayi sp. nov, 
Material Examined 

Holoivi'H: Adult female, QM .1 26901 Hallanju. 
Cascades, Lamington National Park, (28*12*8. 
I53 d uTEJ, SF Queensland. Collected by W. Bishop, 5 
April 1976 

PARATYres: Cunninghams Gap, SEQ (.129930-1. 
34101-3, 35461-5); tambourine Mountain, SEQ 
(.132059); CaflungrsGi i rational Park, SEQ (J5198) 
near summit of Mt Superbu.s, neat Warwick, SEQ 
(.130545-8). Mr BattoW, SEQ (J26469-70); Taroom 
Range. NE NSW (J34243-4, AM R123424); Bundle 
Creek, Wiangaree, NE NSW (127859); No locality data 

(SAM R3I036). 

Diagnosis 

M. fleayi (Fig 1) can be distinguished from M. 
schevilli and M. iteratus by the amount of webbing 
on the toes (half-webbed vs fully webbed); from 
M. balbus by the colour pattern on the Hanks 
(prominent black spotting on yellow vs 
immaculate apricot). Further, M. fleayi lacks ■<_ 
distinct, continuous, pale stripe along the upper 
lip, which is so characteristic of adult M. 
fasciolatus (Pig. 2) 

Description of Hoi otym 

sv 89, tl 55, xi /sv 62.1, hw 36, hw/sv 

40.4, FfW/TL 65.1, ED 9,5, ED/HW 26.4, EN 
7.0. IN 7.8, EN/IN 89.7. Dorsal aspect of snout 
blunt, but tapering; in profile, straight, steep, and 
forward sloping. Short supratympanic fold 
extending downwards to just past tympanum. 
Camhus rostralis distinct, concave. Tympanum 
large and oval-shaped, sloping backwards. Fingers 



33 



134 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENS1 ANDMUSEt M 



unwebbed, slightly expanded distal ly. length of 
fingers from shortest to longest 12 4 3, large 
rounded tubercles proximallv; large oval*.shaped 
inner palmar tubercle about twice the size of the 
more elongated outer Tubercle. Toes webbed; 
distal phalanges of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th toes free 
oi' web but fringed; distal two phalanges of the 
third, and distal three pha I fourth also 

have this condition. Length o\ toes from shortest 
to longest 1-2-3-5-4; low rounded rubercle.s 
proximally, With additional, -mailer tubercles 
more distal on the 3rd, 4th and 5th toes; a large 
elongated inner metatarsal tubercle. Cloacal 
opening directed backwards at mid-level of the 
thighs. 

Dorsal ground colour light brown with indistinct 
marbling; there is ftl&O a l Y shaped dark brown 
patch edged black, with the 'base' between the 
eyes, and 'arms 1 terminating above the groin. 
Lateral ground colour grey-brown grading to 
cream towards the venter; sides overlaid with large 
black spots. A dark line extends From behind the 
nares through the eye to behind the tympanum; a 



large purplish-black marking below the eye, 
broadening down to the upper lip; a large similarly 
coloured marking peaks below and in front of the 
nares, Hares out and terminates on the upper lip. 
( reatny yellow below; palms and soles black; tips 
of the fingers and tubercles on the hands creamy 
yellow, Back of thighs grey-brown with 7-8 black 
OSS bands. 

Variation in the Paratypes 

There are 23 paratvpes SV 24-82 (mean 64.7), 
TL 1 5-52 (mean 42.4), TL/SV 61-69 (mean 65.4); 
HVV M-34 (mean 27.7), HW/SV 39-47 (mean 
43.0). HW TL 59-72 (mean 65.8). ED 4-10 (mean 
7.8), ED HW 25-33 (mean 28.3), EN 2-7 (mean 
5.9). IN 3-8 (mean 6.8), EN/IN 72-98 (mean 
83 9). 

Pupil vertically oriented. Vocal sacs present in 
males Dorsal ground-colouring can be dark 
brown; the dorsal 'Y' marking often is incomplete. 
Nuptial pads of males are dark brown; the thumb 
is thicker at base when compared to the female. 




■ 

Fig i : MixaphyBs fleayi ip 



.ningharm Gap, SE Queensland (Owen Kcll" I 



A NEW BARRED RIVER FROG 



235 



The throat and the underside of the thighs may be 
speckled with brown. 



Etymology 

The species is named 
naturalist, David Fleay. 



for the Australian 



Distribution 

M. fleay i is restricted to montane rainforests 
from the Conondaie Range, SE Queensland 
(Ingram 1983), to the Richmond Range, NE New 
South Wales. AL fleay i has been found in 
sympatry with both A/, fasciotatus and M. iteratus. 
It is aUopatric with M balbus — the dividing line 
is apparently the Clarence River, which separates 
the Richmond Range from the Gibralter Range. 
The Gibralter Range is the northernmost locality 
known for M. balbus (C. Corben pers. ob.). 

Field Notes 

M. fleay i has two distinct calls. One of these is 
a throaty 'ok-ok-ok-ok-ok-ok\ typically given by 
solitary males calling from under leaf-litter on the 



rainforest floor. The other is a long, rasping 
'arrrrrrrr', or growling call, given in chorus 
Choruses are produced by males calling from 
exposed rocks in stream beds or from the edges of 
pools beside the streams. Eggs have been found 
under a rock about 30 cm from water and attended 
by an adult frog. The egg mass resembled that of 
P$eudophr\!ie } but the capsules were much larger. 
Tadpoles resemble those of M. fasciotatus but are 
darker grey and more elongate, 

Breeding aggregations are rarely encountered 
bui seem to be associated with late spring 
thunderstorms on warm nights. More often, 
individuals are seen hiding under leaf-litter or 
sitting on paths through the rainforest. At 
O'Reillys. Lamington Plateau, they may be found 
with M. fasciotatus on the short grass of the picnic 
grounds but they do not range far from the 
rainforest. 

Identification 

The toes are only partly webbed like those of 
M balbus and M. fasciotatus; this distinguishes 










Fig. 2: Mixophyes fasciotatus from Mt Lamingion, SE Queensland (Owen Kelly) 






II . , nsi *ND Ml 



M fleayt Irtun M schvvilti and \t ftovfitf, bolh 
Of which have fully webbed toes. A/ /AwW is not 
known to be .sympalnc with A/. t>ulhus, but It is 

easily distinguished by the presence of black spots 
on vellow Hanks (vi unspotted on apricot in A/. 
balbus) and its brighter yellow ventral surface (Vs 
off-wfahe in M. ba/bus). In addition. M. fieayi is 
a more slendei, longer-legged species than M. 
balbus, and more closely resembles M fasciolatus 
in general body form. The most likely confusion 
is between M fieayi and M. fasciolatus, which are 
widely sympatric. The underparts of A/, fieayi are 
yellow (white in M. fasciolatus), the pale stripe 
-i x he upper lip is interrupted, or non-existent . 
below- the eye (continuous in adult M fasciolatus 
but may be interrupted in juveniles) and the upper 
hall' or the iris is silvery white or even pale blue 
(black with minute traces of cold in adult M 
fasciolatus but in juvenile upper hall oi \th js red). 
With practice the two are readily separated 1 
by posture and colour. When undisturbed. W 

fieayi itad old the body In a mod ei 

pUfttUre with the longer legs held further aw4> 
i ii the more slender body and head than \i. 

■ .. . ■ ,. 

The calls mosi closely resemble those of M. 
balbus and arc very different from the deep, 
throaty A gjos*p ol M. tienzrosand the short 'wark' 
ofAf/toci inrfAf sctieviHi Fhe 'ok-ok-ok- 

ok' call resembles In quality the equivalent call of 
A/, huihus, bui infers in its shorter duration and 
much slower note repetition rate Jcf. Barker and 
Grigg 1977). 

NOMENCL-Ml Kl' 

We have examined the holotypc^ of M. balbus 
Suaughan (1968) and A/ tieratw siruughan (196N) 
: AM R25922 and 25929 respectively. Neither is 
conspeeific with M. fieayi. Straughan {loc. t //.) did 
not examine any type material of M. fasciolatus 
schevtltl Lovendge (1933) or M. fasciolatus 
ithet (1864), We have examined a paratypc of 
the former (QM J5443), which agrees in details 
with the hoiotypc. It is a member of Straughan's 
taxon, M. sekevUti 

The British Ml ! CNWltil History) lent us 

one (BMNH 1947.2.19.89) of the two syntypes of 
\S. fa--iu-lutus Ciundici. I he specimen is typical 
of the raxon we call M, fastiofatus. The lips are 
pale and no dark markings intrude; the hindlimbs 
are short (TL.'SV = 53.5. HW/TL - 84.7). Wc 
select this specimen to be the lectotype of 
Mtxophyisfasdafatus GfMthei (1864). 

There is one other available name within the 
genus Mixvpkyes: Hy la fenestrate de Vis (1885ft), 



Boulen.eci (1B85) noted thai it was a MixopHfet 

and was scathingly critical of de Vis for bis 
inability to tell the difference between the genera 
The type material of ffyla fenestra ta is pi -esumabl y 
losl (Covaceviefa 1971). In the Queensland 
Museum, where de Vis worked, there are four old 
specimens <J 10418-22) of M, fasciolatus from 
TWeed Rivet — the type locality of H. fetwsi 
These apparently are not types because none Ins 
the measurements given in the type description. 
Further, de Vis (1 885a, b) did not indicate if lie had 
more than one example of the taxon For these 
reasons, and because no date of collection has been 
recorded \'ox the extant Tweed River specimens, 
there is no way of knowing whether 01 Dpi . 
were seen by de Vis 

Straughan (1968), in his revision of Mixophycw 
hilled to deal with the problem of the availability 
of the name. // fenestrata. Cogger n at. (1983) 
treated the name as a junior subjective synonym 
of W, fasciolatus. Their reasons for ihis action 
were not stated but we agree with the decision. De 
\ 1*5 description of the characteristics of H. 
ftneslrota matches the characteristics of A/, 
Jasciolaius. He said 'toes less than two thirds 
webbed', that 'lips pale minutely marbled with 
black', and that M'lanks white, spotted with black 
(in preservative, the yellow would have bleached). 
Also, these characteristics Together arc not present 
in A/ balhus, M. i/erarus, \f. schevelti, ot om new 
species (see the foregoing section on 

Identification). 

I'hcrc has been further confusion about some 
of the type material of Mixophyes. Covaeevich 
(1971) noted problems with the type material of 
M balbus and M. Uerafus supposedly lodged in 
the Queensland Museum by Dr Ian Straughan. 
-rding to Straughan (1968), there were two 
paiatypes of St ttctatus lodged in the Queensland 
Museum. Covaeevich found two specimens of M. 
iteratus in Stcaughan's collection, but one — QM 
I1.SS5I from * ynch's Creek, Kyogle — did not 
agree with the given locality of 'Tweed River. 
Mount Warning'. The other (now registered as 
QM J45796) had no accompanying data. 
Straughan (loc. cit.) also said there were thirteen 
paratypes of Si, balbus in the Australian and 
Queensland Museums. There are six in the 
Australian Museum (Cogger, 1979). Logically, 
there should be seven paratypes in the Queensland 
Museum. Covaeevich (loc. cit.) found ten 
unregistered specimens in a jar labelled *New 
England sp. nov. M. balbus . These specimens arc 
now registered as J45785-45794. We have 
examined them and found that three (J45785-7) 



A NEW BARRED RIVER FROG 



237 



are M. fasciolatus and the other seven (J45788- 
94) are M. batbus. These seven specimens may be 
the missing seven paratypes and have been labelled 
'probable types' in the collection. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We thank Dr H. Cogger for giving us access to 
types in the collection of the Australian Museum 
and Mr A.F. Stimson for a loan from the British 
Museum (Natural History). Ms Jeanette 
Covacevich, Queensland Museum, read the 
manuscript. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Barker, J. and Grigg, G. 1977. 'A field guide to 

Australian frogs'. (Rigby: Adelaide). 
Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Remarks on Mr. C.W. De Vis' 

recent contributions to the herpctology of Australia. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)16: 386-7. 
Cogger, H.G. 1979. Type specimens of reptiles and 

amphibians in ihe Australian Museum. Rec. Aust. 

Mus. 32: 164-210. 
Cogger, H.G., Cameron, E.E. and Cogger, H.M. 

1983. 'Zoological Catalogue of Australia'. V.l. 



Amphibia and Reptilia. (Australian Government 

Publishing Service: Canberra). 
Covacevich, J. 1971. Amphibian and reptile type 

specimens in the Queensland Museum. Mem. Qd 

Mus. 16: 49-68. 
De Vis, C.W. 1885a. On new species of Hyla. Proc. R. 

Soc. Qdl: 128-130. 
1885b. Report of the Curator to the Trustees of the 

Queensland Museum, pp 1-14. In Queensland 

Museum. (Report of Board of Trustees for the year 

1884). Queensland Parliament Paper. 14 pp. (Acting 

Government Printer: Brisbane). 
GiiNTHER, A. 1864. Third contribution to our knowledge 

of batrachians from Australia. Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond. 1864:46-49, pi. 7. 
Ingram, G.J. 1983. Natural History. In Tyler, M.J. 

(Ed.) 'The Gastric Brooding Frog'. (Croom Helm: 

Canberra). 
Ingram, G.J. and Corben, C.J. 1975. A new species of 

Kyarranus (Anura Leptodactylidae) from 

Queensland, Australia. Mem. Qd Mus. 17: 335-9, 

pi. 42. 
Loveridge, A. 1933. Four new crinine frogs from 

Austrlia. Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 55- 

60. 
Straughan, I.R. 1968. A taxonomic review of the genus 

Mixophves (Anura : Leptodactylidae). Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N.S. W. 93: 52-9, pis 1 and 2 



Memoirs 

OF THE 

Queensland Museum 



Brisbane 



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Typeset at the Queensland Museum 



Mem. QdMus. 25(1): 239— 254.[1987] 



AVIAN TYPE SPECIMENS IN THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



Glen J. Ingram 
Queensland Museum 



ABSTRACT 

From 1862 to 1985, type specimens of 122 taxa were lodged in the collection of birds of the 
Queensland Museum. Most of the types were a result of the works of Charles Walter de Vis. 
Between 1880 and 1905, he described as new 107 forms of living birds. The majority of these were 
collected either in Queensland by Kendall Broadbent, or in British New Guinea at the behest of 
Sir William MacGregor. 



INTRODUCTION 

Ingram (1986c) has chronicled the bird 
collections of the Queensland Museum for the 
period 1862 to 1985. The history of the types, or 
name-bearing specimens, is very much a history of 
the works of Charles Walter de Vis (ne Devis). He 
was the Curator, and later the Director, of the 
museum from 1882 to 1905 (Mack 1956). During 
that period he described 104 species and subspecies 
of extant birds, as well as 46 species of fossil birds. 
The latter are not included in this paper. Before 
his appointment as Curator, de Vis had described 
two species and one subspecies of birds under his 
nom-de-plume, 'Thickthorn' (Ingram 1986b). 
There is no evidence that he brought the types of 
these taxa with him to the museum. 

With very few exceptions, de Vis's new taxa of 
birds came from two sources: Kendall Broadbent, 
the zoological collector for the Queensland 
Museum from 1880 to 1893, and Sir William 
MacGregor, the Administrator, and later the 
Lieutenant Governor, of British New Guinea from 
1888 to 1 898. Most of the new taxa (85 in all) were 
described from the specimens collected at the 
behest of Sir William. MacGregor employed 
several collectors while he was in British New 
Guinea, but apparently from 1896 Signor A. 
Giulianetti was his sole collector (this can be 
discerned from Giulianetti's handwriting on the 
labels of the specimens). British New Guinea, later 
Papua, is now part of Papua New Guinea (PNG). 

De Vis's papers on New Guinean birds pose 
problems of priority. The results of his 
examination of MacGregor's specimens were 
published in the 'Annual Report on British New 
Guinea' for the particular year. There are, 
however, many reprints and versions of these. The 
colonies of Queensland, Victoria, and New South 



Wales, as well as Great Britain, all contributed to 
financing the colony of British New Guinea (Joyce 
1971). Perforce, the 'Annual Report' by 
MacGregor was presented to each of the 
Parliaments (and sometimes both Houses) of each 
government. They were thus printed at different 
times. For purposes of priority of nomenclature, 
all the reports and their dates of publication had 
to be established, and that has been a difficult task. 
And there is a further complexity. De Vis did not 
regard parliamentary papers as publication. 
Several times during 1889, in the minutes of the 
board of trustees of the Queensland Museum, as 
well as in correspondence, he stressed that the 
'Annual Reports' were not scientific publications 
and he emphasised the need to publish his results 
elsewhere. In this he was only occasionally 
successful. I am unsure whether I have found all 
the versions and reprints, but I am fairly certain I 
have located the earliest. In 'Literature Cited', 
these have been cross-referenced along with dates 
of publication. 

In the list that follows, the taxa are sequenced 
in alphabetical order of the specific or subspecific 
epithets. Those in bold lettering have all, or at least 
some, of the name-bearing specimens in the 
collection. If the name is in standard type-face, no 
name-bearing specimens have been located, either 
because they have been lost or were not lodged 
here. The data given is that on the labels of the 
specimens. If the data is in inverted commas, the 
information is taken from the paper where the type 
description occurs. If the data is in square 
brackets, the information has been added by me 
and is justified where necessary. Other data added 
is accompanied by the appropriate references. The 
original spelling of the names of the taxa has been 
kept. 



239 



240 



MEMOIRS ' H THF 01 EENSLAND MUSEUM 



in Literature Cited', all pubUcaiitijis that 

contain descriptions of new taxa are accompanied 
by the exact date of publication where possible. [ 
have followed Colliver (1960) for the dates of 
publication for the Transactions of the 
Queensland Philosophical Society and the 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland: 
Fletcher (1896) for the early volumes of the 
Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of\en Smdh 
Wales, Ingram (19S6a) tor the Annals of the 
Queensland Museum: Mathews (I9|7) Cor the 
parts of Diggles' Ornithology cy Australia', and 
WhiUell (1954) in a few dit "tViili cases BUI mostly 
the date of publication was available on the papei 
iUdf. 

Until 191 1, Ihe Queensland Museum bad several 
numbering systems for retrieval oi data. Numbers 

preceded by *D\ T\ T\ »C\ nnd *T stood for 
*donor\ '^purchase'. 'exchange 1 , 'collection', and 
transfer* respectively. These numbers could be 
found in the corresponding registers. There was 
also a general register with numbers prefixed by 
"R\ Sometime in the 1880s, de Vis began a card 
Index tor birds as a separate system In which each 
specimen of a particular taxon received a unique 
letter (i.e., a, b, l\... aa, bb, ee, etc). In 1911, all 
these systems were superceded by the modern bird 
register, where each specimen received a unique 
number preceded by 'O'. Contemporaneous with 
this system was the MaeGregor register, which was 
used to register all kinds of material including 
ethnological items. These had a unique number 
preceded by 'M' or 'MAC. Many of MacGregor's 
bird specimens had been registered there, and, 
unfortunately, not a few other birds of New 
Guinean or other origins. It was not until the end 
of 1985 that all ornithological material was finally 
registered under the TV numbering system. 

In the following, 132 ta\a arc listed. Of these. 
(here is esidence that the types for ten were never 
lodged in the museum. Of the remaining 122, no 
types could be located for IB i the taxa. 



LIST OF THE TYPE SPECIMENS 

albieuuria — Rhipidura ulhicauda de Vis. 

IS97 
this, [7)3: 375. Holotype: 0. 20717. De Vis had 
no exact locality data for this spirit specimen 
from Papua, PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MaeGregor, 

l be specimen has now been dried out from 
spini and placed in the skin collection. 



amabilis — Ptilonopus amabilis de Vis, INHO. 
Queenshuider, 7 August, p. 172. This was 
published under de Vis's nom -de-plume of 
Thlckthorfl' (see Ingram I98<5b). He had a male 
bird that was collected in the Roekhampton 
district, CEQ. There is no evidence that the 
specimen was donated to the Queensland 
Museum. 

animosa — Cttmactcns unimosa de Vis, 1895. 
Abs. Proe. Linn. Soe. V. 5. H ., Sept. 25, p.i. 
Syniypes: Male 0,1112X9. Female, O.I0290, 
Male. 0.13237. Male, 0.13238. female, 
0.13239, Male, 0. 14864. All from Charleville 
SCQ, Nov. 118851. Collected by K. Brbadbent. 
The paper that was to describe this species was 
withdrawn and appeared in title only (de Vis 
1896). Mathews (1934), however, considered the 
publication of the abstract (de Vis 1895c) to be 
an indication. There were original! v fl 
specimens in the type scries. Two males and two 
females (labelled 'a\ T, V and *k') are missing. 
North ( 1906), however, noted that a female was 
sent in exchange to the Australian Museum. 
This specimen is now registered a.s AM 0.782 
(N.W. Longmore pens. comm.). De Vis (1895c) 
did not give the year of collection b«1 Broadbcfll 
was in Charleville in 1885 (de Vis L885). 

armiti — Paecilodryos armiti de Vis. 1894. 

Qd Pari Pap., C.A. 91-1494 101. Muloiypc: 
0.19765 (formerly M.6S66, T.51), Mt Maneao. 
5650 ft, PNG, April 1894. Collected by 'W.R 
Armit and R.E. Guise' Presented by Sir 
William MaeGregor. 

atropvgiaiis — Poephila atropvgiaiis Diirales. 

1876. 
Brisbane Courier, 5 Aug., p. 3. Holotype* This 
specimen has not been located. It was collected 
at Normanton, NWQ, by T.A. Gulliver. In an 
1876 inventory of bird material held in the 
Queensland Museum, this specimen is listed. 
However, at that time, the birds [50 specimens) 
collected by Gulliver were not held in the 
museum but were at Charles C oxen's residence, 
along with various boxes of other skins (3 boxes 
in all). It seems that these specimens were 
incorporated into the museum's collection after 
Coxen's death (Gregory 1877). 

auncularis — Rhipidura auriculans de Vis, 1890. 
Viet, Part. Pap, } No. 2I-(2S) 3598; 59 
Holotype; Female, 0. 19746, Musgravc Kan _ 
7000-9000 ft, PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MaeGregor. 



■\V IANTYPESPHCIMLNS 






bullarae — Amvtornis textilh ballarae Condon, 
1969. 

Mem. Qd Mus, t 15: 205. Holotype: Female, 
0. 10692, si\ miles south of Mary Kathleen, neat 
Ballara Copper Mine, NWQ, 17 Jul. 1966. 
Collected by "R.K. Carruthers'. Paratype: 
female, 0.1 101 1 , Sybclla Creek, Mi Isa. NWQ, 
27 Oct. 1966. Collected by R.K. Carruthe. 

beifordf — Melirrhophetes beffordi de Vis. WO. 
Via. Purl. Pap., No. 21-(2S)-359S 60. 
i lolotype: Immature female, 0. 19801 (formerly 
M.6939), 'Mt- Knutaford', PNG. Collected by 
'Mr. Belford'. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

bella — Charmosynopsis betlu de Vis. 1903 
Ann. Qd Mux,, 5, pi. 8. Syntypes: [Immature], 
O 19531 (formerly M.6715, T 74). [Malej, 
0.19415 (formerly VI. 6711, T.74). [Male]. 
0.19471 (formerly M. 7168). [Female], 0. 19470 
(formerlv M.6713, T.74). [Female], 0. 19472 
(formerly M.6712, T.74). [Female], O.I9473 
(formerly M.67I4, T 74). Collected ai "Wharton 
Range? \ PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor, 

bfvfttflrta — Petroeca bivittata de Vis, 1897 ( 

tt>i$i (7)3: 376 Holotype: FemaJe, 0. 19800 
(formerlv M.7297), Ml Seratchley, 12200 ft, 
PNG, 5 Oct. 1896, Collected by 'A, Giulianeui'. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

hrevicauda — Drvmaedus brevicuuda de Vis, 

1894. 
Qd Pari Pap,. C.A. 93-1394: 103. Holotype: 
0.19840 (formerly M.M59,T.51), Mt Maneso, 
PNG, Collected by 'W.E. Armit and RE. 
Guise 1 . Presented by Sir William MacGregor 

breviceps — Melithreptus breviceps de Vis, 1884. 
Proc. R, Soc. Qd, 1:159. This appears to be a 
slip of the pen for M, brevirostris, and that de 
Vis had no intention of introducing a new name 
for birds from New South Wales. M. breviceps 
is therefore a nomen nudum 

brevirostris — Drvmaoedus brevirostris de 

1897. 
0fc (7)3: 386. Holotype- Female, 19753 
(formerly M.7074, T.58), [Btrfrave], PNG, 9 

Jul. 1896 Collected by 'A. Giulianeiti\ 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

De Vis gave no locality and none is on the 
original label. However, from de Vis's (1898b) 
report, and from the labels on the specimens, »i 



can be said that Ciulianetti was collecting at 
Boiiave at least I'roni 7 to 24 July, 1896, 

brisbanensis — Cuculus brisbanensis Diggles, 

1876. 
Brisbane Courier, 5 Aug., p. 3. Although the 
Queensland Museum purchased 'part' of 
Diggles' collection in 1876, Ihere is DO evidence 
that the holotype was amongst that collection. 
The specimen was collected at Norman's Creek . 
Brisbane, SEQ, in May 1876, by Diggles" son. 

brunnea — Gerygone brunnea de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 378 Holotype- Not located. De Vis 
described this taxon from a spirit specimen from 
Papua, PNG. Presented by Sir William 

MacGregor 

candidior — Arses candidior Le Sonet, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 397. I e Souef described the nesf and 
eggs of Arses candidior De Vis. White-breasted 
Flycatcher' De Vis, however, was no! the 
author ot this name. In a letter to North (1903), 
de Vis v i There is evidently some 

misconception about Arses candidior, arising 
doubtless from the presence of that name on the 
original cabinet label of .4. hrealis. AitiCS 
candidior seems to have been given by Mr. K. 
Broadbent to an enquirer asking him the name 
o\' the bird; hence the idea that 1 have named 
two species- of the genus' Mathews (1930) said 
.4. candidior was a nude name, but the name is 
valid. Le Souef must be regarded as the author 
of the name, and the eggs he described are the 
type specimens. These eggs are not in the 
Queensland Museum collection . 

ranescem — Merula canescens de Vis. 1894. 

Qd Purl. Pap., C.A. 93-1894: 105 Svntvpes 
0.19742 (formerly M.7301, T.52). 0. 19743 
(formerly M.650I, f.52). O 19744 (formerly 
M.7J14, T.52). All from Goodenough Island, 
PNG. Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

eanieeps — Poecilodrva\ cvmceps de Vis, IK97. 
IbisADl- 377 Holotype?: D. 20703. DeVishad 
no exact locality data for this specimen from 
Papua, PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor 

De Vis gave no culmen measurement for this 
specimen which was in spirit. 0,20703 Ills all his 
measurements and has a damaged bill. It, 
however, was tied with another specimen 
(0. 20704) in spirit. These have been dried out 
and are now in the skin collection. 



242 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



cantator — Pseudogerygone cantator Weatherill, 

1908. 
Qd Nat., 1:74. Holotype: Male, 0. 12396, 
'south-east Queensland'. Collected and 
presented by W.E. Weatherill. 

capensis — Sericornis magnirosths capensis 

Mathews, 1941. 
Emu, 40: 384. Holotype: Male, 0.4125, Rocky 
Scrub, Cape York, NEQ, 13 Jul. 1938. 
Collected by G. Neuhauser ('Dr. G. Scott'). 

cardwelli — Aegintha temporalis cardwelli 

Mathews, 1942. 
J. R. Soc. W.A., 27: 78. Holotype: 0. 15866 
(formerly C.28), Cardwell, NEQ, Oct. 1888. 
Collected by K. Broadbent. 

eervinus — Acrocephalus cervinus de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 386. Holotype: Female, 0. 19764 
(formerly M.7076, T.58), [Boirave], PNG, 24 
Jul. 1896. Collected by 'A. Giulianetti'. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

No locality was given but on 24 Jul. 1896, 
Giulianetti was at Boirave (see the entry for 
Drymaoedus brevirostris). 

chillagoensis — Aerodramus spodiopygius 

chillagoensis, Pecotich, 1982. 

Tower Karst Occasional Paper, 4: 56. Holotype: 
Female, 0. 18951. Paratypes: 0. 18948. Female, 
0. 18949. 0. 18950. All specimens collected at 
Gordale Scar Pot Cave, Spring Tower, 
Chillagoe, NEQ, 29 Dec. 1981, by L. 
Wedgwood. 



0. 19807 (formerly M.7016, T.51), Mt Maneao, 
5000 ft, PNG, 4 Apr. 1894. 0. 19810 (formerly 
M.7019, T.51), Mt Maneao, 5000 ft, PNG, 4 
Apr. 1894. Female, 0. 19811 (formerly M. 7020, 
T.51), Mt Maneao, 5000 ft, PNG, 4 Apr. 1894. 
All collected by 'W.E. Armit and R.E. Guise'. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

One specimen of unnoted sex from Mt 
Maneao, 5000 ft, is missing. 

concinna — Rhipidura concinna de Vis, 1892. 
Qd Pari Pap., C.A. 1-1892: 94. Holotype: 
Male, 0. 19778 (formerly M.7109), Mt Suckling, 
5651 ft. ('4350 ft'), PNG, 27 Jul. 1891. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

cuicui — Zosterops cuicui de Vis, 1897. 

Ibis, (7)3: 384. Syntypes: Male, 0. 19733 
(formerly M.6861, T.58), 14 Jul. 1896 ('9 Jul/). 
Female, 0.19926 (formerly M.6862, T.58), 9 
Jul. 1896 ('16 Jul.'). Both collected at Boirave, 
PNG, by 'A. Giulianetti'. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 

De Vis (1898b) used Zosterops kuikui for this 
taxon. This is also the name he wrote on the 
labels of the specimens. It is difficult to decide 
whether 'fcuiku? is a justified emendation of 
'cuicui'. There can be little doubt that the 
former was de Vis's preference. 'KUIKUI' was 
the native name of the bird as recorded by 
Giulianetti. In de Vis (1897b: 392), however, the 
editors of Ibis said that the author had given 
them full authority to amend his manuscript. 
Presumably, they objected to the neo-latin letter 
'k' and corrected it to 'c'. 



citrypura — Pachvcephala citrvpura dc Vis, 

1880. 
Queenslander, July 31, p. 140. This name was 
published under de Vis's nom-de-plume of 
'Thickthorn'. His description was taken from 
individuals of both sexes from the 
Rockhampton district, CEQ. There is no 
evidence that de Vis brought these specimens 
with him to the Queensland Museum. 



cuneata — Geocichla cuneata de Vis, 1889. 
Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 6: 242. Lectotype: Male, 
0.14839. Paralectotype: female, 0. 14840. Both 
collected at Herberton Scrubs ('Herberton, 4500 
ft') by 'K. Broadbent'. 

Lectotype selected by Ford (1983). 0. 14839 is 
a male, not a female as stated by Ford. The 
second female from the original type series has 
not been located. 



colesi — Trichoglossus colesi Le Souef, 1910. 
Emu, 10: 204. Holotype: Male, O.3604, 
Gladstone, MEQ, 8 Oct. ('Nov.') 1910. 
Collected by C. Coles. 

collaris — Melirrhophetes collaris, de Vis, 1894. 
Qd Pari. Pap., C.A. 93-1894: 103. Syntypes: 
Male, 0. 19806 (formerly M.7015, T.51), Mt 
Maneao, 2700 ft, PNG, 18 Mar. 1894. Male, 



devisi — Rhipidura devisi North, 1897. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 22:444. Holotype: 
Same as for Rhipidura albicauda de Vis. 

R. devisi is a replacement name for R. 
albicauda de Vis (1897b), which was 
preoccupied by the same name of North (1895). 

discolor — Colluricincla discolor de Vis, 1890. 
Vict. Pari. Pap., No. 21-(2S)-3598: 60. 



AVIAN TYPE SPECIMENS 



243 



Syntype: O.2808, Sudest Island, PNG, 8 Oct. 
1888. Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

Two syntypes have not been located. O.2808 
is erroneously registered as having been 
purchased from Kendall Broadbent. The 
handwriting and data on the label are the same 
as for the other specimens from Sudest Island 
from that batch of MacGregor's. The error has 
happened before. Two other specimens of 
MacGregor's (0. 255-6) were erroneously 
registered as Broadbent's. 

divaga — Monarcha divaga de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 374. Holotype: Female, 0. 19796 
(formerly M.6908, T.58), Boirave, PNG, 14 Jul. 
1896. Collected by 'A. Giulianetti'. Presented 
by Sir William MacGregor. 

ferocyanea — Myiagra ferocyanea Ramsay, 

1879. 
Nature, 20: 125. Syntype?: [Male], 0. 20855, no 
data on label. N.W. Longmore (pers. comm.) 
notes that Ramsay sent a syntype (Australian 
Museum A. 3834) to the Queensland Museum in 
1883 as part of an exchange. The specimen (a 
male) was collected on Guadalcanar, Solomon 
Islands by Captain Brodie and J .F. Cockerell in 
Dec. 1878 (also see Ramsay, 1879b). An old 
mounted specimen, 0. 20855, is most likely the 
syntype. W. Boles (pers. comm.) says the 
specimen is Myiagra ferrocyanea and is 
comparable to the other syntypes in the 
Australian Museum. Ramsay (1879b) emended 
the name to ferrocyanea. 

flavigaster — Acanthiza flavigaster Diggles, 

1876. 
Brisbane Courier, 5 Aug., p. 3. Syntypes: These 
specimens have not been located. Three were 
collected at Normanton, NWQ, by T.A. 
Gulliver — the inventory of 1876 listed two skins 
and one duplicate (see the entry for Poephila 
atropygialis). Diggles also had another specimen 
that was collected at Norman's Creek, Brisbane, 
SEQ, by his son. The fate of this specimen is 
also unknown. 

fretorum — Pachycephala fretorum de Vis, 
1889. 

Proc. R. Soc. Qd., 6: 237. Syntype: Female, 

0.14843, Kimberley, NWQ, Jul. 1884. 

Collected by K. Broadbent. 

Three syntypes were not located: a female 

collected at Cambridge Gulf, WA (the type 



status of this specimen has been questioned by 
Mees, 1964); and two males collected at 
Kimberley, NWQ. There is an old mount with 
no data in the collection (male, 0. 21567) that 
may be one of the missing types. 

fuliginosa — Oreospiza fuliginosa de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 388. Syntypes: Female, 0. 18963 
(formerly M.6432), 20 Sep. 1 896. Male, 0. 18965 
(formerly M.6434), 17 Sep. 1896. Female, 
0.18968 (formerly M.6437), 28 Sep. 1896. 
Female ?, 0. 19720 (formerly M.6429), 2 Oct. 
1896. All collected at Mt Scratchley, 12200 ft, 
PNG, by 'A. Giulianetti'. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 

fuliginosus — Circus fuliginosus Diggles, 1875. 
Brisbane Courier, 8 May, p. 7. There is no 
evidence that the type material was donated to 
the museum. Unlike the other Cockerell 
material that Diggles described, however, the 
holotype is not in the British Museum of Natural 
History (Warren, 1966; M. Walters, in lilt.). 
Diggles's description was taken from a specimen 
collected at the Nudgee Waterholes, SEQ, on 25 
Mar. 1871, by J. T. Cockerell. 

fusca — Acanthochoera fusca de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 383. Syntypes: Female, 0. 19754 
(formerly M. 6993), 2 Oct. 1896. Male, 0. 19755 
(formerly M.6989), 29 Sept. 1896. Female, 
0. 19756 (formerly M.6991), 3 Oct. 1896. Male, 
0. 19757 (formerly M.6990), 6 Oct. 1896. Male, 
0. 19759 (formerly M.6996), 28 Sep. 1896. 
Female, 0. 19760 (formerly M.6994), 2 Oct. 
1896. Male, 0.19761 (formerly M. 6992), 25 Sep. 
1896. All specimens were collected at Mt 
Scratchley, 12200 ft, PNG, by 'A. Giulianetti'. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

Three spirit specimens have not been located. 

goodenoviensis — Ninox goodenoviensis de Vis, 
1890. 

Vict. Pari. Pap., No. 21-(2S)-3598: 58. 

Syntypes: Male, 0. 17193. Female, 0. 19271. 

Both from Goodenough Island, PNG. 

Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

griseiceps — Sitfella griseiceps de Vis, 1894. 
Qd Pari. Pap., C.A. 93-1894: 102. Holotype: 
Male, 0. 19775 (formerly M.7081, T.51), Mt 
Maneao, 5650 ft, PNG, Apr. 1894. Collected by 
'W.E. Armit and R.E. Guise'. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 



244 



MfcMOlRSOr THE QUEENS! ANfJ MUSLL M 



griseoccps — Micrueca snseoceps dc Vis, 1894. 
Qd Pari. Pop., C \- 93 18^4: 101 Holotype: 
Mate, 0. 19772 (formerly M.6904. T.5I), Ml 
Maneao, 1400 ft, PNG, 17 Mar. IN94. Collected 
by 'W.E. Armit and R.E. Guise'. Presented by 
Sir William MacGregor 

guisei — Pt'dvtis zuhei dc Vis, 1894. 

Qd Pari. Pap., C.A. 93-1894: 103. Syntypes: 
0.19747 (formerly M7021. T 51), Apr. 1894. 
Male. 0. 19748 (formerly M.70O4 T.51j, 22 
Apr. 1894. Female, 0. 19749 (formerly M 7023, 
T.5I I, 23 Apr. 1894. Female, O.I9750 (formerly 
M.7022, r.Sl), 21 Apr. 1894 (*23 Apr.'). All 
collected at Mt Maneao. 5650 ft, by l W.E. 
Armit and R.E. Guise'. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 

gutturalis — Artthus gutturatis de Vis, 1894. 
Qd Pari Pap , C A. 93-1894: 103. Syntypes: 
Mule, 0. 19727 (formerly Ml), 6000ft. Female. 
0.19728 (formerly M.6487, T.51), 6000 ft. 
Male, 0. 19729 (formerly M.64K8, T.51), 6000 
ft. Male, 0. 19730 (formerly M.6489, T.51), 
6000 Ft. Female, 19731 ('formerly M.6486, 
T.Sl), 5650 It. All Collected at Ml Maneao, 
PNG, Apr, 1894, by 'W F. Arrnit and R.E. 
Guise'. Presented by Sir William MacGregor, 

gutturalis — Sericornis gutturalis de Vis, 1889. 
Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 6: 242. Syntypes: Female, 
O 12131. Herberton rHerberton" Scrubs, 4500 
If), NEQ, May 1889. Male, 0.12127 (formerly 
C.64J, North Peak, Bellenden Ker. 5760 ft, 
NEQ, Jun. 1889 Both collected by K. 
Broad bent. 



halli — Pomatostomus halii Cowles, 1964. 
Emu, 64: 1. Holotype. Maie, 0.9962. Tyrone 
Homestead, 3 miles E of Langlo Crossing, SCQ, 
15 May 1963. Collected by P.R. Colston. 
Presented by the British Museum (Natural 
History). 

helenae — Parol ia heienae de Vis, 1897 

fbiSi (7)3. 390. Symypes: Male. 0.19684 
(formerly M.6545), 3 Nov. 1896. Male, 0. 19685 
(formerly M.6546). 3 Nov 1896. Mule. 0. 19686 
(formerly M.6547), 4 Nov. 1896. All collected 
at Neneba, Ml Scratchley, by *A. Giulianettf. 
[Female], 0,20698. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 
One male and one female are missing. 



hindwoodi — Meliphaga hind wot hIi Longmore 

and Boles, 1983 
Emu* 83: 59. Holotype: Male, 0-17574, Massey 
Creek. Clarke Range, MEQ. 7 Dec 1894 
Collected by the Mid-eastern Queensland 
L.vpedition 1978. Paratypes: female. O.I 7530, 

1 Dec. 1978. Male, 0.17543, 2 Dec. 1978. 
Female. 0.17544. 2 Dec. 1978, Male, 0.17545. 

2 Dec. 1978. Male. 0.17548, 2 Dec. 1978. Male. 
0. 17550, 2 De,, 1978. Male, 0.17551, 2 Dec. 
1978. Female. 0. 17562. 3 Dec. 1978. Male. 
0.17547, 2 Dec. 1978. Female, O.17580. 8 Dec. 
1978. All collected at Massey Creek, IS km NE 
Dalrymple Heights, MEQ, by the Mid-eastern 
Queensland Expedition 1978. The people of this 
expedition were N.W. Longmore, W.E. Boles, 
T.R. Lindsey. J.M. Shields, A. Lindsey, and 

G.J. Ingram. 

Five paialypes (0,17494, 17511, 17552, 
17566-7) arc now in Ihe Australian Museum. 

humeralis — Ibis (Falcinel(us) iwmeralis de Vis, 

1898. 

Vict. Pari. Pap., No. 23-5027; 90. Holoivpc?: 
0.17863 (formerly M.7218), 'Laloki River, 
PNG'. Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

Although O.I 7863 has no data, it is the only 
specimen in the MacGregor collection of a 
Glossy Ibis and it fits de Vis'> description. 

riissimus — Apmsnuaus instxrussimu* 
Gould, 1874. 
Proc. Zooi. Soc-. Land., 1874 : 500. Holotype: 
0.3437, near Ca few miles north*) Dalby, SCQ, 
Presented by C. Co.xen. This specimen can not 
be located, in the register there is a note that the 
specimen was on display in 'Exhibition case' and 
Chishoim (1922) said the mount could be seen 
on display. Nothing else is known of the 
specimen. Gould (1875. pi. 9) had an illustration 
of the holotype. 

insperata — Gerygone insperata dc Vis, 1892. 
Qd Pari. Pap., C.A. 1-1892: 94. Holotype: 

0. 19777 (formerly M.71 18). Mt Suckling. 6000- 
7000 ft, PNG, 'Jul. IS9I\ Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 

intermedia — Climacteris leucophaea intermedia 
Boles and Longmore, 1983. 

Emu, 83. 272. Holotype- Male. O 18019 
(formerly Australian Museum 0.53758), 
Timber Reserve 679, Clarke Range, MEQ, 6 
May 1980. Collected by N.W. Longmore and 
W.E. Boles. Paratype: female, 0. 17559, Massey 



A.VIANTYPE SPECIMENS 



245 



Creek, 18 km NE Dalrymple Heights, MEQ, 3 
Dec. 1 978- Collected by Mid-casern 
Queensland Expedition 1978 (see Meliphaga 
hindwoodi). 

intermedin — Paradiwu intermedia de Vis, 1894. 
Od Pari. Pap,, C.A. 93-1894: 105. Symypes: 
Male, 0. 19460 (formerly M.6624, T.52). Male. 
0.19462 (formerly M.6629, T.52). Both 
specimens collected al Coommassic ('Kumusi') 
River, PNG, Apr. 1894 by 'W.E. Armit and 
R.E. Guise\ Presented by Sir William 
MaeGregor. 
One male syntype has not been located. 

joanae — Ailuroedus melanoiis joanae Mathews, 

1941. 
Emu. 40: 384. Holotvpe: Male, 0.4124, Rocky- 
Scrub, Cape York, NEQ, 23 Jun. 1938. 
Collected by G. Neuhauser ( 4 Dr. G. Scott 1 ). 

katherina — Acanthiza kathcrina de Vis, 1905. 

Ann. Od Mus. , 6: 43. Svntvpes: Female, 
0. 12100. Male, 0. 12101 (formerly C.64). 
Female, O.12102. Male, 0. 12103. All collected 
at Belienden Ker, 4000 ft, NEQ, Jul. 1889 by K. 
Broad bent. 

keasti — Rhipidura fuligwosa keasii Ford, 1981, 
Emu, 81: 129. Holorype: Male, 0. 17522, 
Massey Creek, 18km NE of Dalrymple Heights, 
MEQ, 1 Dec. 1978. Collected by the Mid-eastern 
Queensland Expedition 1978 (see Meliphaga 
hindwoodi). 

kowaldi — Todopsis kowaldi de Vis, 1890. 
ViCt. Pari. Pap., No. 2I-(2S)-359S: 59. 
Holotvpe: This male specimen from Papua, 
PNG, has not been located. Presented by Sir 
"William MaeGregor. De Vis (1894a) noted That 
the specimen was an adult and not a young bird 
as he had originally thought. 

laerimans — Piitoius tacrimans de Vis, 1897. 
tbis t (7)3: 382. Syntypes: Female, 0. 19797 
(formerly M.6834), 5 Oct 1896. Female, 
0.19798 (formerly M.6833), 16 Sep. 1896. Both 
collected at Mt Scratchley, 12200 ft, PNG, by 
'A. Giulianetti*. Presented by Sir William 
MaeGregor 

laeia — Alcyone laeta de Vis, 1894. 
Qd. Pari Pap., C.A. 93-1894: 100. Syntypes: 
0.19351 (formerly M.6362, T.51). 0.19352 
(formerly M.6359, T.51). Both collected at Mt 



Maneao, PNG, by 'W.E, Armii and R.E. 
Guise'. Presented by Sir William MaeGregor. 

laeta — Zosterops laeia de Vis i I S9 7 - 

Ibis, (7)3: 385- Syntypes: These two spirit 
specimens from Papua, PNG, have not been 
located. Presented by Sir William MaeGregor. 

laetiscapa — Rhipidura laetiscapa de Vis, 1898. 
ViCt, Pari Pap-, No. 23-5027: S3. Syntypes: 
Female, 0. 19779 (formerly M.6836, T.6S), 
Wharton Range, 11100 ft, Jul. 1897. Male, 
0. 19780 (formerly M.6837. T.68), Wharton 
Range, '11100 tt\ PNG, Jul. 1897. Both 
collected by 'A. Giulianetti'. Presented by Sir 
William MaeGregor. 

leucypura — Gerypont albogidaris leucypura de 

Vis.' 1880. 
Queenslander, May 22, p. 650. This name was 
published under de Vis's nom-de-plume of 
*Thickthorn\ The name is based on 
observations, or specimens from Rockhampton. 
CEQ. If there were specimens, there is no 
evidence they were donated to the Queensland 
Museum. 

longtcauda — Graucalus lonpicauda dc Vis, 

IS90. 

Vicl. Pari. Pap., No. 21-(2S)-3598: 59. 
Holotype?: [Male], 0.2043^. 'Musgrave Range 
7000-9000 IV. PNG. 

De Vis's description of the holotype fits this 
specimen, which is labelled ' Graucalus 
/ongicauda de Vis' in his hand, but with no othet 
data. Presented by Sir William MaeGregor. 

(oralis — Poecilodrvas loralis de Vis, 1897. 
ibis, (7)3: 377. Syntypes: O.20706, O.20707. Dc 

Vis had no exact locality data for these two spirit 
specimens from Papua, PNG. Presented by Sir 
William MaeGregor. 

The specimens have been dried out and are 
now in the skin collection. 

lorealis — Arses lorealis de Vis, 1895. 

Abs. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Apr. 24 r p.i. 
Syntypes: Male, 0.3697. Female, 0.3698. Both 
collected at Cape York, NEQ, k Mar. 1894' by 
K. Broadbent. 

Mathews (1934) noted that the prepublished 
abstract (de Vis, 1895a) predated the intended 
description (de Vis 1895b). 



246 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



lurida — Ninox boobook lurida de Vis, 1887. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. W., (2)1: 1 135. Syntypes: 
'Male' 0.14841, Maunga Creek, 8 miles from 
Cardwell.NEQ, 14 May 1886. 'Male', 0. 14842, 
Herbert Gorge, NEQ, 11 May 1886. Both 
collected by K. Broadbent. 

De Vis (18890 detailed W. lurida n.s.' This 
was not a new name, but an elevation of Ninox 
boobook var. lurida to the rank of species. 

macgregoria — Maria macgregoria Sclater and 
Saunders, 1897. 

Ibis, 7(3): 251. Syntypes: Same as for 

Macgregoria pulchra de Vis. 
This name was introduced into the literature 

by the editors of Ibis in an editorial comment to 

de Vis's (1897a) description of Macgregoria 

pulchra. 

macgregoriae — Amblyornis macgregoriae de 
Vis, 1890. 

Vict. Pari. Pap., No. 21-(2S)-3598: 60. 

Syntype: [Female], 0. 19432, Musgrave Range, 

'7000-9000 ft', PNG. Presented by Sir William 

MacGregor. 
Two females and two males from the original 

type series have not been located. 

macgregorii — Cnemophilus macgregorii de Vis, 
1890. 

Vict. Pari. Pap., No. 21-(2S)-3598: 61. 

Holotype: Male, 0. 19429, Mt Knutsford, 

'11000 ft', PNG. Presented by Sir William 

MacGregor. 

maculata — Melipotes maculata de Vis, 1892. 
Qd Pari Pap., C.A. 1-1892: 94. Holotype: 
Female, 0.19774 (formerly M.7151), Mt 
Suckling, '6000-7000 ft', PNG, 'Jul.' 1891. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

maculiceps — Sarganura maculiceps de Vis, 

1898. 
Vict. Pari Pap., No. 23-5027: 87. Holotype: 
Male, 0. 19841 (formerly M.6885, T.68), 
Wharton Range, PNG, Jul. 1897. Collected by 
[A. Giulianetii]. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

manayoensis — Rhipidura manayoensis de Vis, 

1894. 
Qd Pari Pap., C.A. 93-1894: 101. Holotype: 
0.19784 (formerly M.6846, T.51), Mt Maneao, 
PNG. Collected by 'W.E. Armit and R.E. 
Guise'. Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 



mariae — Cnemophilus mariae de Vis, 1894. 
Qd Pari. Pap., C.A. 93-1894: 104. Syntypes: 
Male, 0.19714 (formerly M.6662, T.51), 5650 
ft. [Female], 0. 19715 (formerly M.6661, T.51), 
'5000 ft'. [Female], 0. 19716 (formerly M.6654, 
T.51), '5000 ft'. Male, 0. 19717 (formerly 
M.6658, T.51), '5000 ft'. Female, 0.19718 
(formerly M.6660, T.51), '5000 ft'. Female, 
0. 19719 (formerly M.6655, T.51), 5000 ft. All 
collected at Mt Maneao, PNG, Apr. 1894 by 
'W.E. Armit and R.E. Guise'. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 
One female syntype has not been located. 

mcgilli — Acanthiza pusilla mcgilli Boles, 1983. 
Emu, 83: 55. Holotype: Male, 0. 18688, 
(formerly Australian Museum 0. 53765), 
Massey Creek, Clarke Range, MEQ, (21°04'S, 
148°35'E), 1 May 1980. Collected by Australian 
Museum party. Paratypes: male, 0.6222, 
Broken River, Eungella Range, MEQ, 7 Aug. 
1958. Collected by S. Breeden. Male, 0. 15956, 
Crediton, Clarke Range, MEQ, 18 Apr. 1975. 
Collected by D.P. Vernon. Female, 0. 17529, 
Massey Creek, 18 km NE Dalrymple Heights, 
MEQ, 1 Dec. 1978. Collected by the Mid-eastern 
Queensland Expedition 1978. Female, 0. 17561, 
Massey Creek, 18 km NE Dalrymple Heights, 
MEQ, 4 Dec. 1978. Collected by the Mid-eastern 
Queensland Expedition 1978. Female, 0. 17572, 
Timber Reserve 679, Dalrymple Heights, MEQ, 
7 Dec. 1978. Collected by the Mid-eastern 
Queensland Expedition 1978. Male, 0.17573, 
Timber Reserve 679, Dalrymple Heights, MEQ, 
7 Dec. 1978. Collected by the Mid-eastern 
Queensland Expedition 1978 (see Meliphaga 
hindwoodi). 

Five paratypes (0. 17569, 17571, 17570, and 
18688) are now in the Australian Museum. 
According to Appendix D iii 21(a) of the 1985 
edition of International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature, mcgilli should be amended to 
macgilli. 

mestoni — Corymbicola mestoni de Vis, 1889. 
Queenslander , March 30, p. 600. Holotype: 
'Male', 0.15313, Mt Bartle Frere ('south peak 
of Bellenden-Ker, 5000 ft'), NEQ. Collected and 
presented by A. Meston. 

Meston (1889) gave the altitude as 4800 ft. 
Barnard, who was with Meston, said the height 
was a little over 3000 ft and that the date of 
collection was at the end of January, 1889 
(Chaffer 1984). There is some doubt as to 
whether de Vis intended to publish this 



>U\N rVI'I. SPECIMENS 






description. Chisholm and Chaffer (1956). 
however, argued that this Was his intention. 

mestoni — Pachycephala mesioni de Vis, 1905 
Ann. Qd \!us. t 6: 44. Holotype; Female. 
0.14849, spurs of Mt Sophia, Bcllcnden Ker, 
NEQ, Juri. 1889. Collected and presented by \A. 
Meston*. 

The label says the collector was Kendall 
Broadbent. This is an error. 

minor — Pel tops minor de Vis. 1 894. 

Qd Pari. Pap., C.A. 93-1894; 100. Symypes: 
0.4355 and O- 19794 Both from New Guinea, 
20 May 1888. 

De Vis had one other specimen from sea level 
at Mt Maneao, PNG, collected on 3 March and 
presented by McGregor. No specimen with this 
data has been located. But amongst the 
specimens on which de Vis (1894a) based his 
paper is a specimen (0. 19793) from Mt Maneao 
at 700 ft collected on 7 March 1894. His 
Specimen' and 0.19793 (formerly M.6818, 
T.51) would have been received in the same lot 
(Transfer 51) from MacGregor. It is difficult to 
:ine that he would not have included it in 
the paper, for it is similar to O 19794 and 
0.4355 Certainly the three specimens have 
'minor' written on each label in his handwriting 
with 'blainviOei' crossed out. it is possible that 
0.19793 was the specimen he had and that the 
data given in the paper is wrong. 

miranda — Daphoenosina miranda de VLs, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 380. Syntypes: Female. 0. 19725 
(formerly M.6923). Female, 0. 19726 (formerly 
M.6924). Both collected at Mt Scratchley, 12200 
ft, PNG, 5 Oct. 1896. by *A. Giulianetti\ 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

De Vis had four specimens. One in spirit 
cannot be located. The other syntype is in the 
British Museum (Natural History) registered as 
BMNH 1898.10.10.3 (Warren and Harrison 
1971). 

modesta — Acanthiza modesta de Vis, 1905. 
Ann. QdMus.,6:41. Symypes: Male, O 12113. 
Female, 0. 12! 14. Both collected at Charleville, 
SWQ. Oct. 1885, by K. Broadbent. 

modesta — Lamprococcvx modesta Diggies, 

1876. 
Brisbane Courier, 5 Aug., p. 3. There is no 
evidence that the holotype was part of the 
collection purchased from Diggies in 1876 by the 



museum. The specimen was 'shot with a boy\> 
catapult' ai Norman's Creek, near Captain 
Heath's, Brisbane, SEQ. 

modesta — Paed/odryas modesta de Vis, 1894 
Qd Pari Pap., C.A 93-1894: 101. Holotype. 

Female, 0.19785 (formerly M.6868, T.51). Mr 
Maneao, 5000 ft, PNG, 5 Apr. 1894. Collected 
by *W.E. Armit and R.E. Guise'. Presented by 
Sir William MacGregor. 

montana — CraterosceUs montana de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 387. Holotype: This specimen from 
Papua, PNG, which was a fledgeling stored in 
spirit, has not been located. It was presented by 
Sir William MacGregor This name was 
suppressed under the plenary powers of the 
1. C.Z.N. (1963) for the purposes of priority but 
not for homonym) , after a submission by Mayr 
(1962). Mayr claimed the species was 
unidentifiable and that the type was lost. He 
gave no evidence to support either claim, 
Certainly his assertions were awry for two othei 
of de Vis's names also suppressed as a result of 
his submission (see Sericornis tyrannula and 
Mi'liornis sehistacea) . 

monticola — Munia monticola de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 387. Symypes: Male, 0.19788 

(formerly M 644K). 1 Oct. 1896 ('16-28 Sep 
18%'). female, 0.19789 (formerly M.6446), 28 
Sep. 1896. Female. 0. 19790 (formerly M. 6447). 
17 Sep. 1896 Female, OJ979I (formerlv 
M.6443K 16 Sep. 1896. [Male], 0. 19192 
(formerly M.6449. T.58). All collected at Ml 
Scratchley, 12200 ft, PNG, by 'A Giulianetti'. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

0. 19792 does not have a date of collection or 
an altitude bui it was part of the same batch 
(Transfer 58) from MacGregor. One syntype, 
said to be in spirit, cannot be located. 

montiurn — Paramyihia montium de Vis, 1892. 
Qd Pari Pap., C.A. 1-1892: 95. Holotype: 
Pemale, 0.19741 (formerly M.7298). 
'Disappointment Rock', Mt Suckling, 6900 ft, 
PNG, l 2S Jul. 1891\ Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor, 

moretoni — Malums moretoni de Vis, 1892. 
Qd Pari. Pap., C.A 1-1892; 97, Holotype: 
Male, 0.19963 (formerly M.7119), Bartle Bay, 
PNG, 25 Jun 1891 ('ISJuif). Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 



248 



MEMOIRSO* IMF 01 TT.NSl ANDMUSFl M 



murina — Gerygone marina de Vlft, 1897. 
/*/5, (7)3: 3-77. Syntype* Male, 0.19786 
(formerly M.6896), Ml Scratchlcv . 12200 ft, 
PNG,60ct, 1896. Collected by 'A Giulianeui*. 
Presented bj sir William MacGregor. 

The other syntypc, which Was registered as 
M.6895 (female) from Ml Seratchley, 12200 ft, 
has nor been located- 

nanus— CyclopSittacUs nanus de Vis, 1898. 
Vict. Pari. Pap., No. Z3-5Q27: 81. Holotype: 
0*19534 (formerly M 6743, TM) Wharton 
Range t?)\ PNG. Presented bv Sir William 
MacGregor. 

newloniana — Prionodura ncwioniana de Vis, 

1883. 
Proc, Linn, Soc. N.S. H\, (1)7. 562. Holotype: 
in 1888, the Queensland Museum was broken 
into and this specimen was stolen while on 
display (de Vis, lS89h). It was a young male. 
collected at Tully River Scrubs, NtQ. Sep 1882, 
bv K. Broadbent (Campbell, 1901: Broadbem, 
1902) 

nigrifrons — Rhipidura niarifrons de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3; 374. Holotype! Male, 0. 19781, 
(formerly M.6871), |Boirave|, PNG, 24 Jul. 
1896 ('7 Jul.'). Collected by 'A. GiuJianetti'. 
Presented by Sir William MacGre 

No locality was given but on 24 and 7 July, 
1896, Giulianetti was at Boirave (see the entry 
for Drymaoedus hrevirostrts). 

n'tgripectus — Svmmorphus nlgripectUS de Vis, 
1894. 

Qd Part. Pap., 93-1894: 102. F , -: Male. 

0.19842 (formerly M.7068, T.51), Mt Maneao, 

PNG. Collected by 'W.E. Armit and R.E. 

Guise*. Presented by Sir William MacGregor 

nigropectus — Eulucestoma nigropectus de Vis. 
1894 

Qd Purl Pap.. 93-1894. 102. Holotype: Male. 

0.19763 (formerly M.6426, T. c l), Mt Maneao. 

565<i ft. PNG. 22 Apr. 1894. Collected by *W E. 

Armit and R.E. Guise'. Presented by Sir 

William MacGregor. 

nilida — Poecilodrvas nitida de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis* (7)3: 376. Holotype: Female, 0. 19927 
(formerly M.6865), Boirave, PNG, 14 Jul. 1896. 
Collected by 'A. Giulianetti'. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 



obscura — Ptitotts obscura de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 383. Holotype: This specimen has not 
been located. It was collected at Ml Scratchley, 
PNG by A. Giulianetti and presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. De Vis noted that it was in 
bad condition. 

oreas — Rhipidura oreas Jo vis. 1897. 

/bis, (7)3: 375 Holotype: This spirit specimen 
from Papua, PNG, has not been located. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

orientals — Nasuema onentalis de Vis. 1898. 
Via. Pari Pap., No. 23-5027: 81 Syntype: 
0. 19566 (formerly M.7165), "Whanon Range 
(?)\ PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

The other syntype (spirit specimen from 
Vsroapa Valley, PNG, Mar. 1897) has not been 
located. 

orientalis — Rt it opus bellus orientalis de \ r-, 

1894. 
Qd Pari Pap., CA. 93-1894: 104. Syntypes. 
Male, O.I9202 (formerly T.51), Mt Maneao, 
3450 ft. PNG, 19 Mar. 1894. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. [Male], O.l 920 1 , inland of 
Port Moresby, PNG. Collected by Captain A. 
Musgrave. 

ornatus — Afelirrhophetes ornatus de Vis f 1894. 
Qd Pari. Pap.. CA. 93-1894: 103. Syntypes: 
Female, 0.19812 (formerly M.6982, T.5I), Mt 
Maneao, 3000 ft, PNG, 7 Apr. 1894. O.I98I3 
(formerly M.6984, T.51), Mi Maneao, '3000 IV, 
PNG, 19 Mar. 1894. 'Female', 0. 198 14 
(former Iv M.7003, T.51 ), Mt Maneao, '5000 IV 
PNG, v Apr. f 1894'. All collected by 'W.E, 
Armit and R.E. Guise'. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 

pallida — Xficraeca pallida de Vis, 1884. 

Proc. P. Soc, OrJ, I: 159. Syntypes: Male, 
0. 14844. Femaie. 0*14845 Female, O 14846. 
Female, 0. 14847. All collected at Kimberley, 
NWQ, Jul, 1884, by K Broadbent. 

pallidipes — Zosierops pallidipes de Vis, 1890. 
Vict. Pari. Pap., No. 21-(2S»-3598: 60. 
Holotype: Male, 0. 19737 (formerly M.7I12), 
Rossel Island. PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

papuensis — Acanthiza papuensis de Vis, 1894. 
Qd Pari. Pap,, CA. 93-1894; 102. Holotype; 



AVIAN TYPE SPECIMENS 



249 



Male, 0. 19736 (formerly M.6438), Mt Maneao, 
5650 ft, PNG, Apr. 1894. Collected by 'W.E. 
Armit and R.E. Guise'. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 

papuensis — Meru/a papuensis de Vis, 1890. 
Vict Pari. Pap., No. 21-(2S)-3598: 60. 
Syntype?: 0. 19762 (formerly M.7113), 'Mt 
Victoria', PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor 

This specimen is without data but it agrees 
with de Vis's description. On the label is written 
'Merula papuensis de Vis' in his hand. If it is a 
syntype, there is still one subadult specimen 
missing. Iredale (1956, p. 4, pi. 23) apparently 
examined both of these syntypes. 
Unfortunately, his usage of the word 'types' was 
ambiguous in this work. Sometimes he meant 
'type specimens' and sometimes he meant 
'kinds'. What he meant in his section on 
thrushes is uncertain. 

perstriata — Ptilotus persthata de Vis, 1898. 
Vict. Pari. Pap., No. 23-5027: 86. Holotype: 
Female ('male'), 0. 19948 (formerly M.6835, 
T.68), Wharton Range, PNG, Jul. 1897. 
Collected by [A. Giulianetti]. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 

phasiana — Rhipidura phasiana de Vis, 1884. 
Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 1: 158. Holotype: 0. 14848, 
Kimberley, NWQ, [Jul. 1884]. Collected by K. 
Broadbent. 

piperata — Ptilotus piperata de Vis, 1898. 

Vict. Pari Pap., No. 23-5027: 86. Holotype: 
0. 19787 (formerly M.7152), Suku, Vanapa, 
PNG, 1897. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

prasina — Neneba prasina de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 384. Holotype: Male, 0. 19799, 
(formerly M.6884), Neneba, Mt Scratchley, 
4000 ft, PNG, 9 Nov. 1896. Collected by 'A. 
Giulianetti'. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

pulchra — Macgregoria pulchra de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 251. Syntypes: Male, 0. 19724 
(formerly M.6638, T.58), Mt Scratchley, 11000 
ft, ('21000 ft'), PNG, 6 Sep. 1896 ('May 1 896'). 
[Male], 0.19723 (formerly M.6640, T.58), Mt 
Scratchley, 12200 ft ('21,000 ft'), ('May 1896') 
PNG. Both collected by 'A. Giulianetti'. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 



De Vis's data was wrong: Mt Scratchley is not 
higher than 13000 ft and MacGregor ascended 
the mountain in September 1896 (MacGregor, 
1898: 9). The third syntype is in the British 
Museum of Natural History (BMNH 
1897.8.16.1). This is the specimen illustrated in 
de Vis (1897a, pi. 7). Warren and Harrison 
(1971) said there was another syntype in the 
BMNH but M. Walters (in litt.) could not locate 
any specimen that was immediately recognizable 
as a second syntype. There was one old 
specimen, however, which had been a mount, 
but had no data. Sharpe (1906) listed only one 
specimen of M. pulchra as having been received 
from the Queensland Musuem. 

punctata — Micraeca punctata de Vis, 1894. 
Qd Pari. Pap., C.A. 93-1894: 101. Syntypes: 
Male, 0.19734 (formerly M.6903, T.51). Male, 
0.19735 (formerly M.6902, T.51). Both 
collected at Mt Maneao, 5000 ft, PNG, Apr. 
1894. Collected by 'W.E. Armit and R.E. 
Guise'. Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

punctatus — Megalurus punctatus de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 385. Holotype: Male, 0. 19773 
(formerly M.7075), Neneba, Mt Scratchley, 
4000 ft, PNG, 10 Nov. 1896. Collected by 'A. 
Giulianetti'. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

rawnsleyi — Ptilonorhynchus rawnsleyi Diggles, 

1867. 
Ornithology of Australia, Part XV, pi. 3. 
Chisholm (1965) stated that the holotype was in 
the Queensland Museum but had been lost. He 
implied that his information came from Iredale 
(1950), but Iredale did not mention the museum. 
In fact, there is no evidence the holotype was 
ever in that institution. The specimen was 
collected by H.C. Rawnsley at Witton, 
Brisbane, on 14 July, 1867. Rawnsley lent the 
specimen to John Gould who illustrated it 
(Gould, 1869, pi. 34). Marks (1965) cited a letter 
from Diggles to G. Masters in 1873 where 
Diggles said he thought the specimen was in the 
possession of Rawnsley's widow. Ramsay (1875) 
wrote of the specimen but he did not indicate 
who owned it or where he examined it. Except 
for this information, nothing is known of the 
specimen. 

richardsi — Ptilopus richardsi Ramsay, 1882. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., (1)6: 722. Syntypes: 
Female, 0. 20827 (formerly Australian Museum 



250 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



A. 11565). 0. 20828 (formerly Australian 
Museum A. 11568). Both collected on Ugi, 
Solomon Islands, by A. Morton, in 1881. 

N.W. Longmore (pers. comm.) notes that 
Ramsay sent these syntypes to the Queensland 
Museum in 1883 as part of an exchange. 

robusta — Gerygone robusta de Vis, 1898. 

Vict, Pari Pap., No. 23-5027: 84. Syntypes: 
Male, 0.19782 (formerly M.6826, T.68). 
Female, 0. 19932 (formerly A.6827, T.68). Both 
collected at Wharton Range, 11,100 ft, PNG, 
by [A. Giulianetti]. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

rosaalba — Strepera rosaalba de Vis, 1890. 
Vict. Pari Pap., No. 21-(2S)-3598: 59. 
Holotype: Female, 0.19732 (formerly M. 7 156), 
Sudest Island, PNG, 8 Oct. 1888. Presented by 
Sir William McGregor. 

rufescens — Cracticus rufescens de Vis, 1883. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., (1)7: 562. Syntypes: 
These specimens have not been located. The 
syntypes were collected at Tully and Murray 
Scrubs, NEQ, 1882, by K. Broadbent. De Vis 
did not say how many specimens he had, but 
there were at least one male and one female. 

schistacea — Meliornis schistacea de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 381. Holotype: 0.19745 (formerly 
M.7813). De Vis had no exact locality data for 
this specimen from Papua, PNG. Presented by 
Sir William MacGregor. 

The I. C.Z.N. (1963) suppressed Meliornis 
schistacea for the purposes of priority but not 
homonymy after a submission by Mayr (1962). 
Mayr's submission was based on the grounds 
that the type was of uncertain identity and was 
apparently lost. Schodde (1978) pointed out that 
the type was in existence and that the 
suppression of the name was pointless. 

sclateriana — Amalocichla sclateriana de Vis, 

1892. 
Qd Pari Pap., C.A. 1-1892: 95. Holotype: 
0.19795, Mt Owen Stanley, PNG, 1892. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

sibila — Colluricincla sibila de Vis, 1889. 
Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 5:161. Holotype: This 
specimen has not been located. It was collected 
at Herbert Vale, over the range behind 
Cardwell, NEQ, by K. Broadbent. Apparently 
two examples were seen but only one collected. 



sibisibina — Ptilotus sibisibina de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 381. Syntypes: Male, 0. 19802 
(formerly M.6974, T.58), 13 Jul. 1896. Female?, 
0. 19803 (formerly M. 6975, T. 58), 14 Jul. 1896. 
Female, 0. 19804 (formerly M.6976, T.58), 14 
Jul. 1896. Male, O.19805 (formerly M.6973, 
T.58), 24 Jul. 1896. All collected at Boirave, 
PNG, by 'A. Giulianetti'. Presented by Sir 
William MacGregor. 

sigillata — Paecilodryas sigillata de Vis, 1890. 
Vict. Pari. Pap., No. 21-(2S)-3598: 59. 
Syntype: Immature, 0. 19752, Mt Victoria, 
13000 ft, PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

De Vis had one other specimen, an adult. 
0. 1 975 1 matches his description but the 
specimen has no locality data. 

sigillifer — Lobospingus sigillifer de Vis, 1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 389. Holotype: This spirit specimen 
from Papua, PNG, has not been located. 
Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

sororcula — Pachycephala sororcula de Vis, 

1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 380. Holotype: 'Male', 0. 20705. De 
Vis had no exact locality data for this specimen 
from Papua, PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

This spirit specimen has been dried out and is 
now in the skin collection. 

squamata — Acanthiza squamata de Vis, 1889. 
Proc. R. Soc. Qd, 6: 248. Syntype: Male, 
0. 12075 (formerly C.63). Female, 0. 12076 
(formerly C.63). Both collected at Herberton, 
NEQ, May 1889 by K. Broadbent. 

The other male syntype was exchanged with 
G.M. Mathews and is now in the American 
Museum of Natural History. It is registered 
there as no. 600712 (M. Le Croy in litt.). 

strenua — Pachycephala strenua de Vis, 1898. 
Vict. Pari Pap., No. 23-5027: 85. Holotype: 
0. 19783 (formerly M.6958, T.68), 'Wharton 
Range (?)', PNG. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

subcaudalis — Aeluroedus subcaudalis de Vis, 

1897. 
Ibis, (7)3: 390. Holotype: This spirit specimen, 
which was collected at Mt Scratchley, PNG, has 
not been located. It was collected by A. 
Giulianetti and presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 



AVIAN TYPE SPECIMENS 



251 



suhcyanea — Poecilodrxas suhcvanea de Vis, 

1897. 
Ibis, (7)5: 377 Syntypes: O.20699-20702. De 
Vis had no exact locality data for these 
specimens from Papua, PNG. Presented by Sir 
William McGregor. 

These spirit specimens have been dried out 
and are now in the skin collection. 

sudesiensis — Eopsahria sudesiensis de Vis, 

1892. 
QdPart. Pap., C.A. I -1 892: 96. Holotype: This 
specimen, which was collected at Sudest, PNG, 
on 30 Jun. 1891, has not been located Presented 
by Sir William MacGregor. 

sudestiensis — Geoff ro\ us sudest iensis de Vis. 

1890. 

If-,'. Pari. Pap., No 2W2S1-3598: 58. 
Holotype: This male specimen, which was 
collected ai Sudest Island, PNG, has not been 
located. Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

susannae — Pamdisea susannae Ramsay , 1885. 
Proc. Linn. Soc, NJLW* 0W -1. Symype: 
N.W. Longmore (pers. eomm.) notes that 
Ramsay sent a syntype (Australian Museum 
A. 14475) to the Queensland Museum in 1883 as 
part of an exchange. It has not been located. 
The specimen (a male) was collected on the 
island of D'Entreeasteau*-* by j Mr Rolles'. 

tvraiinula — Sericorms tyrannula de Vis, 1905 
\nn. Od A/u.v. . 6: 42. Holotype 9 : 0. 17905, no 
data on label. 

The holotype was supposedly collected at 
Charleviiie, SWQ, by K. Broadbent. Parker 
(1984) concluded I hat Sericorms tyrannula was 
a junior synonym of Sericornts pyrrhopygius 
and that the lype locality should be corrected to 
Maryland, SEQ. Parker also suggested thai 
0. 17905 may be the holotype, but doubt must 
remain. The name was suppressed for the 
purposes of priority but not homonymy by 
l.C. Z.N. (1963) alter a submission by Masr 
(1962). Parker (loc. cil.) described the 
suppression as regrettable. Mayr (1986) said the 
subsequent identification of S. tyrannula was 
nomendaiurally irrelevant. 

vicaria — Paecilodrvas vicaria de Vis, 1892. 
Qd Pari Pap., C.A. 1-1892: 94. Holotype. 
Male. 0.19776 (formerly M. 7)08), Mt Suckling 
6000-7000 ft, PNG, Jul. 1891. Presented h\ Sir 
William MacGregor. 



vinitinctus — Afelithrepius vinilincius de Vis, 
1884. 

Proc, R. Soc. Qd 9 t: 159. Holotvpe: Male. 

0.16371, Kimberlev. NWQ, Jul. 1884. 

Collected by K. Broadbent. 

viridiceps — Neopsittacus viridiceps de Vis, 
1897. 

Ibis, (7)3: 371. Holoiype: Female, O.J955I 

(formerly M 6739). Mi Scratchley, 12200 ft. 

PNG, 5 Oct. 1896. Collected by 'A. Giulianetti*. 

Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

viridigasier — Oreop&ittactis vindigaster de Vis, 
L898. 

Vict. Pari. Pap., No. 23-5027: 81. Syntypes: 
Male, O 19656 (formerly M.6785), 5 Oct. 1896. 
Female, 0. 19657 (formerly M.6789), 28 Sep. 
1896. Female, 0.19659 (formerly M.6787), 17 
Sep. 1896. All collected at Mt Scratchley, 12200 
It, PNG, by *A. Giulumcrti*. Male, 0. 19651 
(formerly M.67S3, T.68). Male, 0. 19652 
(formerly M.6782, T.68). [Male], 0.19653 
(formerly M.6781, T.6S). Female, 0. 19654 
(iurmerlv M.6788, T.68). Male, 0. 19655 
(formerly M.6786, T.68). Male, 0. 19709 
(formerly M.6784, T.68). All collected ai 
Wharton Range, 11 100 ft, PNG, Jul. 1897. by 
[A. Giulianetti]. Presented by Sir William 
MacGregor. 

There arc five syntypes missing: three spirit 
specimens from Mt Scratchley and two males 
from Wharton Range (one of which is 
immature). 0. 19564 (formerly M.7212) is most 
likely the 'missing 1 immature male. De Vis's 
date for the Mt Scratchley specimens was wrong 
— these were collected in 1896, not 1897. 

viridis — Monachelta vlrtdis de Vis, (894. 

Od Pari Pap., C.A. 93-1894: 101. Ssnt> P eN; 
0. 19766 (formerly M.6823 T T.51). 0.19769 
(formerly M.7290, T.51). 0. 19770 (formerly 
M.6822, T.51). Female, O 19771 (formerly 
M.6824, T.51). All collected at Mt Maneao, 
PNG. Collected by '\Y.£. Armit and R.E. 
Guise*. Presented by Sir William MacGregor. 

wallcri — Strix walteri Diggles, 1866. 
Ornithology in Australia* Part VII, pi 1. A 
specimen (0. 11985). Which has no locality data, 
was originally labelled 'Strix novaehollandiae' 
On the reverse side of the label there is pencilled 
'wallcri*. In the original card index system, the 
specimen is designated 'a' and therefore could 
be the first Grass Owl accessed. The specimen. 



252 



MEMOIRS OF THE QUEENSLAND MUSEUM 



however, does not match either illustration in 
Gould (1869, pi. 1) or Diggles (1866). Diggles 
had examined a male and a female, both of 
which were in Eli Waller's possession. Waller 
had shot them in the immediate neighbourhood 
of Brisbane, SEQ. At some stage, a specimen 
was sent on loan to Gould (Diggles 1875b). 
Other than this, nothing is known of the fate of 
the syntypes. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This paper could only be written after much 
detailed, sometimes tedious, research into Charles 
de Vis, Sir William MacGregor, and the collections 
of the Queensland Museum. Some of the results 
of those projects have yet to be published but, 
without the dedication of Mark Graham, 
Macquarie University, Sydney, and Wayne 
Longmore, Queensland Museum, those projects 
and this paper could not have been completed. For 
assistance with historical research I thank Donna 
Case, Lucille Crevola-Gillespie, Wayne 
Longmore, and the Librarians of the Parliaments 
of Queensland, Victoria, and New South Wales. 
For assistance with identification, I am grateful to 
Walter Boles, Australian Museum. I thank 
Jeanette Covacevich and Wayne Longmore for 
their comments on the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Boles, W.E. 1983. A taxonomic revision of the Brown 

Thornbill Acanthiza pusilla (Shaw) 1790 with 

description of a new subspecies. Emu 83(2): 51-8, 

pi. l.(Sep. 1983). 
Boles, W.E. and Longmore, N.W. 1983. A new 

subspecies of Treecreeper in the Climacteris 

leucophaea superspecies. Emu 83(4): 272-4, pi. 3. 

(Dec. 1983). 
Broadbent, K. 1902. Field-notes on the birds of 

Bellenden-Ker, Queensland. Ibis (8)2(7): 377-86. 
Campbell, A.J. 1901. 'Nests and eggs of Australian 

birds including, the geographical distribution of the 

species and popular observations thereon'. (The 

Author: Sheffield). 1 102 pp, 28 pis. 
Chaffer, N. 1984. Tn quest of Bowerbirds'. (Rigby: 

Sydney). 108 pp. 
Chisholm, A.H. 1922. Bird seeking in Queensland. Part 

2. QdNat. 3(6): 115-24. 
1965. Some Queensland 'mystery birds'. QdNat. 17: 

87-90. 
Chisholm, A.H. and Chaffer, N. 1956. Observations 

on the Golden Bower-bird. Emu 56(1): 1-39, pis 1- 

5. 
Colliver, F.S. 1960. An author index for the 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 

1884-1959, and the Transactions of the Queensland 

Philosophical Society 1859-1882. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Qd 71: 65-101. 



Condon, H.T. 1969. A new subspecies of the Western 
Grass-wren, Amytornis textilis (Dumont) in north- 
western Queensland. Mem. Qd Mus. 15(3): 205-6. 
(28 May 1969). 

Cowles, G.S. 1964. A new Australian babbler. Emu 
64(1): 1-5, pi. 1. (Oct. 1964). 

De Vis, C.W. 1880a. The White-throated Gerygon. 
Queenstander, May 22, p. 650. (as 'Thickthorn'). 
1880b. Thickheads are very common in Queensland. 

Queenslander, July 31, p. 140. (as 'Thickthorn'). 
1880c. The Wonga-wonga. Queenslander, August 7, 
p. 172. (as Thickthorn'). 

1883. Description of two new birds of Queensland. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (1)7(4): 561-563. (Apr. 
1883). 

1884. Notes on the fauna of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 
Proc. R. Soc. Qd 1: 154-160. (1884). 

1885. Curator's monthly report. In Queensland 
Museum. Brisbane Courier, November 7, p. 9. 

1887. On new or rare vertebrates from the Herbert 

River, north Queensland. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. W. 

(2)1 (4): 1129-37. (22 Feb. 1887). 
1889a. Colluricincla sibila sp. nov. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 

5: 161-2.(1889). 
1889b. Descriptions of two new vertebrates in Mr. 

Saville-Kent's collection. Proc. R. Soc. Qd 6: 237- 

9, pi. 14. (1889). 
1889c. Descriptions of new birds from Herberton. 

Proc. R. Soc. Qd6: 242-4. (1889). 
1889d. Description of an Acanthiza from Herberton. 

Proc. R. Soc. Qd6: 248-9. (1889). 
1889e. A new bird, Queenslander, March 30, p. 600. 
1889f. Zoology of Bellenden-Ker, as ascertained by 

the late expedition under Mr. A. Meston. p. 20-35. 

In Meston, A., 'Bellenden-Ker Range 

(Wooroonooran) North Queensland.' Qd Pari. Pap. 

C.A. 95-1889. (Government Printer: Brisbane). 35 

pp. (16 Oct. 1889). Reprinted in de Vis (I889g). 
!889g. Zoology of Bellenden-Ker, as ascertained by 

the late expedition under Mr. A. Meston. p. 81-92. 

In Meston, A., 'Report of the government scientific 

expedition to Bellenden-Ker Range upon the flora 

and fauna of that part of the colony.' (Department 

of Agriculture: Brisbane). 127 pp. Reprinted from 

de Vis (1889Q- 
1889h. Annual report of the Curator to the Trustees 

of the Queensland Museum, p. 1-2. In 'Queensland 

Museum'. Qd Pari. Pap. C.A. 17-1889. 

(Government Printer: Brisbane). 11 pp. 
1890a. Appendix G. Report on birds from British New 

Guinea, p. 58-61 . In 'Annual Report on British New 

Guinea from 4 September, 1888, to 30 June, 1889; 

with map and appendieces.' Vict. Pari. Pap. No. 

21-(2S)-3598. (Government Printer: Melbourne). 

68 pp, 1 map. (17 Jun. 1890). Reprinted in de Vis 

(1890b,c, 1891, 1898a). 
1890b. Appendix G. Report on birds from British New 

Guinea, p. 57-62. In 'Annual Report on British New 

Guinea from 4 September, 1888, to 30 June, 1889; 

with map and appendices.' Qd Pari. Pap. C.A. 13- 

1890. (Government Printer: Brisbane). 69 pp, 1 



•WiANTYPF SPEC! Mi NS 



53 



map. {24 Jun. L890). Reprinted rromde Vi>{l89C i 

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!S95b. Pescti| Flycatcher, presumably i 

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1875a. Birds of Australia. -V Queens/under . May U, 

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1876. Some new and rare species o\ buds. Brisbane 
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CONTENTS 

Gill, J.C.H. 

The diary of William Frederic Barnett in search of Leichhardt 1 

Cannon, L.R.G., Goeden, G.B. and Campbell, P. 

Community patterns revealed by trawling in the inter-reef regions of the Great Barrier Reef 45 

Hooper, John N.A. 

New records of Acarnus Gray (Porifera : Demospongiae : Poecilosclerida) from Australia, 

with a synopsis of the genus 71 

Mauries, Jean-Paul 

Craspedosomid millipedes discovered in Australia: Reginaterreuma, Neocambrisoma and Peterjohnsia, 

new genera (Myriapoda : Diplopoda : Craspedosomida) 107 

Baehr, Martin 

Revision of the Australian Zuphiinae, 2. Colasidia monteithi sp. nov. from north Queensland, 

first record of the tribe Leleupidiini in Australia (Insecta : Coleoptera : Carabidae) 135 

Roth, Louis M. 

The genus Neolaxta Mackerras (Dictyoptera : Blattaria : Blaberidae) 141 

Roth, Louis M. 

The genus Tryonicus Shaw from Australia and New Caledonia 

(Dictyoptera : Blattaria : Blattidae : Tryonicinae) 151 

Kohout, Rudolf, J. 

Three new Polyrhachis sexspinosa — group species from the Philippines (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) 169 

Lees, T. and Bartholomai, A. 

Study of a Lower Cretaceous actinopterygian (Class Pisces) Cooyoo australis from 

Queensland, Australia 177 

Turner, Susan and Long, John Albert 

Lower carboniferous palaeoniscoids (Pisces : Actinopterygii) from Queensland 1 93 

Turner, Susan and Rozefelds, Andrew 

First Jurassic actinopterygian fish from Queensland 201 

Rich, Pat V., van Tets, G.F., Rich, T.H.V. and McEvey, A.R. 

The Pliocene and Quaternary flamingoes of Australia 207 

Davie, P.J.F. 

A new species and new records of Portunus (Decapoda : Portunidae) from northern Australia 227 

CORBEN, C.J. AND INGRAM, G.J. 

A new barred river frog (Myobatrachidae : Mixophyes) 233 

Ingram, Glen J. 

Avian type specimens in the Queensland Museum 239